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Intro A&P: Assi 3

Penn Foster Intro to A&P Assignment 3 Test Yourself

What is another name for the interpleural space where the heart is located? Mediastinum
Describe the layer of the heart. Between which two layers is there a fluid-filled space? The fibrous pericardium protects the heart and loosely attaches to the diaphragm. The serous pericardium is composed of the visceral layer and the parietal layer with a fluid--filled cavity in between
Describe the chambers and valves through which a blood cell would pass in the correct order. Vena Cava- Right Atrium- Tricuspid Valve- Right Ventricle- Pulmonary Valve- Pulmonary Artery- Lungs- Pulmonary Veins- Left Atrium- Mitral Valve- Left Ventricle- Aortic Valve- Aorta- Systemic Circulation.
What are the most easily visible parts of the atria called? Auricles
How can you identify the ventricles when looking at the outside of the heart? The ventricles can be identified by the auricles they lie under
Which structures are found at the base of the heart? At the apex? The atria is at the base and the left ventricle is makes the apex
Describe the structure of a heart valve. The flaps originate from annulus of valve, opens when atrial muscles contract allowing blood to flow into RV; ventricle contracts, atrium relaxes & the chordae tendinae (CT) prevents backflow, connect free edges of valvular flaps to the papillary muscle
What are the chordae tendinae? Where do they attach? What is their function? A band of tissue that originates at the interventricular septum but does not attach to the flaps of the tricuspid valve. Connects to the outside wall of the right ventricle.
What’s another name for mitral valve? Tricuspid valve? Semilunar valve? "Left atrioventricular valve, Right atrioventricular valve, Aortic valve"
Describe how a cell depolarizes and repolarizes. "When gates in the cell wall are opened, cations flow into the cell to equalize the charge on either side of the cell membrane (depolarization). The SA node automatically repolarizes."
What is the pacemaker for the heart? "The SA node, sinoatrial node"
How does an electrical impulse travel from the atria to the ventricles? After the electrical impulse is generated in the SA node in the RA, it spreads across both atria. Then travels down the specialized muscle fibers to the AV node. A slight delay occurs, this is the only route of conduction from the atria to the ventricles.
What is the benefit of the atria going through systole before the ventricles? "Because the atrial systolic contractions push the blood into the ventricles. If they were to happen at the same time, then the pressure in the contracting ventricles would be so much higher that the atria could not push the blood into the ventricles."
How does a fetus get oxygen? Through the umbilical vein
Which blood vessels carry blood to and from the fetus? The placenta
"Name, where, and what the passes are." Ductus venosus-bypasses the liver-between umbilical cord and the caudal vena cava; Oval foramen-first bypass to the lungs-between the left and right atrium; Ductus arteriosus-second bypass to the lungs-in the pulmonary artery
What are the normal heart sounds in small animals called? What is happening when we hear them? S1-simultaneous closure of mitral and tricuspid valve; S2-closure of semilunar valves
What are S3 and S4? In what species may they be heard? S3 is due to rapid ventricular filling. S4 is due to atrial contraction in large animals.
What two factors control cardiac output? Stroke Volume and heart rate
Write an equation relating stroke volume and heart rate to cardiac output. CO=SV*HR
How does cardiac output increase during exercise? "Increased contractility increases stroke volume and the heart contracts more often, increasing heart rate."
Why can we feel peripheral shock? Why are pulses weak and rapid in animals suffering from shock? "Pulses are felt because of the pressure differences in blood vessels during systole and diastole.Pulses are weak and rapid during shock because the stroke volume is decreased, while heart rate increases."
How does the autonomic nervous system influence cardiac output? The autonomic nervous system controls the flow of hormones that can affect the cardiac output
How does an ECG work? An ECG measures the electrical activity of the heart and transfers it to paper in the form of waves.
Describe the ECG waves. "The first wave is the P wave, measure the depolarization of the atria. The next are Q,R,S which measure ventricular depolarization. The T wave represents repolarization."
"Name the major arteries and veins that travel from the heart to the trunk, head, and limbs." The aorta; right and left subclavian arteries; right and left carotid; left and right iliac; coccygeal; capillaries; right and left iliac veins; left and right jugular.
Describe the types of vessels through which blood passes. "Arteries carry blood from the heart. They become arterioles, which become capillaries,exchange O2 & nutrients. Enter venules, which as they merge become veins (may have valves). Veins return to the caudal vena cava, then to the RA of the heart.
How are the muscles in blood vessels used? For constriction and relaxation.
What are the names and locations of veins commonly used for venipuncture in small animals and rodents? Not everything fit in the answer Jugular- sides of the neck; Cephalic vein- between elbow&carpus; Femoral- medial aspectbetween groin&tarsal joint- ; Saphenous- cranial aspect of the leg just above the hock and below the knee; Coccygeal= ventral midline of the tail
What are the names and location of veins commonly used for venipuncture in horses and ruminants? Jugular-either side of the neck- any; Coccygeal- ventral midline of the tail- ruminant
What precaution must be made when giving an injection into the jugular vein of a horse? That it is the jugular and not the carotid.
Which blood vessel used for venipuncture in the veterinary species is unpaired? Coccygeal vein
What are the main functions of blood? Transport system; Regulatory system; Defense system
"What is one of the most common causes of hemoconcentration, and how can it affect blood cell counts in peripheral blood?" "If an animal is low on tissue fluid, some of the plasma will leave the bloodstream and enter the body tissues. This leaves the cells more concentrated and the peripheral blood will be more concentrated as well."
What is the most abundant component of plasma? Water
What are the three main categories of cellular blood components? "Red Blood Cells, Platelets, White Blood Cells"
What is the difference between red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow? "Red bone marrow is actively making new blood cells, whereas yellow bone marrow is inactive red bone marrow. Converts back and forth depending on the demand of blood cells."
What is the difference between plasma and serum? Plasma is whole blood minus the cells; serum is whole blood minus the cells and clotting elements.
"How does one cell population, the pluripotent stem cells, give rise to all the different blood cells?" "With the assistance of stimuli, a PPSC can become any kind of blood cell needed. They are the primitive cells."
What is the total blood volume of a 675 lb (lean body weight) animal? How about a 3 lb animal? 675 lb= 306 kg; kg*ml of blood/kg (usually 75); 306*75=22950 total body volume; 3lb=1 kg; 1*75=75 total body volume
What is the physiological state of blood that acts as the stimulus for erythropoiesis? Hypoxia
What causes polychromasia in developing RBC cytoplasm? "When hemoglobin is added to cytoplasm, a lavender-colored stain. Signals that the cell is not fully matured,"
How does having a deformable but not elastic membrane affect a RBC when fluid enters the cell? "The RBC can take in water and swells, but if it takes in too much it can burst."
How does RBC carry oxygen to tissues? "Through the production of hemoglobin, a protein that binds with oxygen."
Where does bilirubin come from? How is it eliminated from the body? Bilirubin is converted from the heme in hemoglobin. To eliminate it from the body, it must attach to albumin(to liver); joins with glucuronic acid (bile) & is excreted into the intestine; then converted to urobilinogen (urine) or stercobilinogen (fecal)
What is the difference between anemia and polycythemia? Anemia is a decrease in oxygen-carrying capacity. Polycythemia is an increase above normal in the number of RBCs.
Why are platelets not considered complete cells? Because they are pieces of cytoplasm that have been isolated and released from megakaryocytes.
What are three main functions of platelets? Maintenance of vascular integrity. Platelet plug formation. Stabilization of the hemostatic plug by contributing to the process of fibrin formation.
How can you use hematocrit to evaluate a patient for anemia? A patient with more plasma than RBC during a hematocrit testing can help determine anemia.
What is the buffy coat? The buffy coat contains the WBCs and platelets.
List the five WBCs and indicate if each one is a granulocyte or an agranulocyte. "Granulocyte: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils; Agranulocyte: Lymphocytes,Monocytes"
What is the common function of all WBCs? They defend the body
Which cell is the only WBC not capable of phagocytosis? Lymphocytes
Which WBC is known as PMN? Neutrophils
What is a lysosome and what is its function? The granules in neutrophils containing the digestive enzyme that is capable of destroying bacteria and viruses that have been engulfed.
Which WBC is known as the “first line of defense” after a microorganism has entered the body? Neutrophils
Which WBC would you likely see increased in peripheral blood during an allergic response? Eosinophils
Which WBC is least commonly seen in the peripheral blood? Basophils
Which WBC is the largest normally seen in the peripheral blood? Monocytes
What is chemotaxis? The process by which WBC are attracted to a site of infection by inflammatory chemicals produced by the interaction between microorganisms and the tissues they are invading.
What are the three types of lymphocytes? T Cells; B Cells; Natural Killer Lymphcytes
What is the mononuclear phagocyte system? Why can’t a neutrophil belong to this system? The MPS is a the collective of monocytes and tissue macrophages. SInce they are larger than neutrophils, they can engulf larger substances"
How does lymph differ from plasma? "Lymph is made up of more water, sugar, and electrolytes and less of the larger proteins found in plasma."
Where is lymph formed? Starts out as excess fluid that is picked up by small lymph capillaries that start blindly in the interstitial spaces of the soft tissue.
What is the function of a lymph node? Adds lymphocytes into the lymph. The tissue macrophages act as a filter to remove microorganisms or other foreign matter as lymph passes through.
Which lymphatic structure is composed of white and red pulp? Spleen
Which lymphatic structure is large at birth and gradually gets smaller as the animal matures? Thymus
Where is the GALT located? In the lining of the intestine.
What is the primary function of the respiratory system? Swapping oxygen for carbon dioxide.
What are the secondary functions of the respiratory system? "Voice production, body temperature regulation, acid-base balance regulation, sense of smell"
What is the difference between internal and external respiration? Which one occurs in the lungs? External occurs in the lungs where it exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air Internal occurs all over the body where it exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood in the capillaries and all of the cells and tissues of the body.
"By what mechanisms is inhaled air warmed, humidified, and filtered as it passes through the nasal passages? How do the turbinates aid these processes?" Air is warmed by blood flowing through the complex of blood vessels just beneath the nasal epithelium & humidified by the mucus & other fluids that lie on the epithelial surface. Filtering is done by cilia clearing out the particles.
Describe how the respiratory and digestive passageways “switch” places. The respiratory passageway starts out dorsal to the digestive passageway but further caudally the respiratory passageway is ventral to the digestive passageway.
How do the pharynx and larynx work together to keep swallowed material from entering the trachea? What role does the epiglottis play? Body stops the process of breathing, epiglottis covers the larynx, moves the material, to the rear of the pharynx, opens esophagus, & move the material into it. Once swallowing is complete, the epiglottis moves to reopen the larynx and breathing resumes.
How is the larynx involved in the straining process that aids functions such as defecation? Straining begins with the animal holding the glottis closed while applying pressure to the thorax with the breathing muscles. This stabilizes the thorax and allows the abdominal muscles to effectively compress the abdominal when they contract
Why are the hyaline cartilage rings important to the formation of the trachea? To help prevent the collapse that would occur during inhalation
Describe the basic structure of the bronchial tree in the lung. After the main bronchus enter each lung they divide into smaller and smaller bronchi and then into tiny bronchioles. THey continue to divide into alveolar ducts which end with alveolar sacs.
How do the physical characteristics of the alveoli and the capillaries that surround them facilitate the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries? The thin layers of simple squamous epithelia allow for the gases to diffuse easily across the membranes.
What is the hilus of the lung and why is it important? "It is the small, well-defined area on the medial side of the lung. THis is where the blood, lymph, and nerves enter and leave the lung and where the lung is “fastened in place.”"
What is the mediastinum and what organs and structures are located there? "It is the portion of the thorax in between the lungs. It contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic structures."
"Which main pulmonary blood vessel contains bright red, high-oxygen blood: the pulmonary artery or the pulmonary vein?" The pulmonary vein
"When a piece of lung from a dead newborn animal is dropped into water, it sinks. What conclusion can be drawn about whether the newborn animal was born dead and never breathed or took some breaths before dying?" It never breathed before dying.
Why are the smooth pleural surfaces important to the process of breathing? "The SMooth Surfaces of the pleural membranes lubricated with the pleural fluids ensure that the surfaces of the organs, particularly the lungs, slide along the thorax smoothly during breathing."
Why is negative intrathoracic pressure important to breathing? What happens if it is lost? The negative intrathoracic pressure helps draw blood from the midsize veins into large veins, which then dumps the blood into the atria. W/o it the blood would struggle or wouldn’t reach the atria to be “cleaned and recycled back through circulation."
What are the main muscles of inspiration? How do they cause air to be drawn into the lungs? "The main muscles are the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles. Enlargement of the volume of the thoracic cavity by the inspiratory muscles. The lungs follow the enlargement passively, and air is drawn into them through the respiratory passageways."
What are the main muscles of expiration? How do they push air out of the lungs? The main muscles are the internal intercostal muscles and the abdominal muscles. The basic mechanism for expiration is that the thoracic cavity is decreased. This compresses the lungs and pushes air out through the air passageways.
Describe the basic processes by which oxygen moves from the air in the alveoli into the blood of the alveolar capillaries and how carbon dioxide moves in the other direction. "Oxygen diffuses from the alveolar air into the blood of the alveolar capillary. At the same time, carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveolus."
"Describe how the mechanical respiratory system maintains a normal, rhythmic, resting breathing pattern." Muscle contr. increase the thoracic cavity=the lungs inflate to a preset point, nerve impulses sent to the respiratory center signaling lungs are full &stopping the contractions; send some to start the contractions causing expiration, to a preset point
What is the basic difference between the functions of the mechanical and chemical respiratory control system? "Mechanical sets the routine inspiration and expiration limits. Chemical monitors the levels of CO2, pH, and O2 in the blood and makes adjustments to maintain homeostasis."
When does the chemical respiratory control system kick in and override the mechanical control system? "When the CO2, pH, or O2 is out of balance."
"Why do animals cough, sneeze, yawn, sigh, and hiccup?" "Can be responses to an irritant (coughs and sneezes), attempts to correct an imbalance (yawns and sighs), or may occur for unknown reasons (hiccups)."
Created by: armyhorses



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