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ANS 311 Final

Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamin A Carotenoids (carotenes & xanthophylls); essential for cats; vision, epithelium; night blindness, dry eye, xeropthalmia, decreased fertility
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol & ergocalciferol; cholesterol is precursor; 1,25 dihydroxyl vitamin __ maintains Ca
Vitamin E Composed of two rings and a hydroxyl side chain; d-alpha-tocopherol is natural form; antioxidant; deficiencies - nutritional muscular dystrophy (myopathy), encephalomalacia (poultry), red blood cell hemolysis (hemoglobin in urine)
Vitamin K Source - ruminants' microbial synthesis; blood clotting; deficiency - prolonged clotting & hemorrhagic disease in poultry (carcass quality); antagonism - moldy sweet clover (coumarin to dicoumarol) & warfarin
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) - coenzyme in decarboxylation; deficiency - change in appetite, "star gazing", growth retardation; competitors - antivitamins such as amprolium or thiaminase (in raw fish; causes Chastek paralysis)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Precursor to FAD and FMN (H carriers in redox rxns in mitochondria); deficiency - curled toe paralysis in chicks; impaired repro & dead at birth in swine
Niacin Precursor to NAD & NADPH; synthesized from Trp (cats require it; waterfowl limited conversion); black tongue (dogs), pellagra (rough skin in humans), 4 D's (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death)
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Transamination - converts Met to Cys; reduced growth and immune response; cofactor
Pantothenic Acid Precursor to coenzyme A; synthesized by intestinal bacteria; goose stepping, stunted growth, poor feathering
Biotin Converts pyruvate to OAA in TCA cycle; acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA; synthesized by intestinal bacteria; raw egg white feeding in pets; foot pad dermatitis in birds; hoof lesions & scaly dermatitis in large animals
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Source - ruminants' microbial synthesis; binds to intrinsic factor and travels to ileum; pernicious anemia in humans; emaciation in livestock; most complex structure (has Co ion)
Folic Acid Coenzyme in tetrahydrofolic acid; synthesis of purine, thymine; most common in humans (neural tube defects, spinal bifida); poultry (pale comb, depigmentation, brittle shafts)
Choline Phospholipid synthesis; forms acetylcholine
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Functions - collagen synthesis & antioxidant; scurvy; essential to humans and guinea pigs, not livestock
Calcium (Ca) Regulated by PTH (osteoclasts) and calcitonin (osteoblasts); rickets, osteomalacia , milk fever, lactational eclampsia (same as milk fever for dogs/cats), pica, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (zoo animals), hip dysplasia, cage layer fatigue
Phosphorus (P) P-phytate complex; phytase increases availability of P absorption; rickets, osteomalacia, pica; highly coupled with Ca
Magnesium (Mg) Skeletal development; enzymatic roles; grass tetany/wheat grass poisoning - rich in N & K which inhibits Mg absorption; staggering, convulsing, collapsing, recumbency (30% death)
Sodium (Na) Main extracellular cation; required for muscle contraction; active transport (pump)
Potassium (K) Major intracellular cation; regulates osmotic pressure
Chlorine (Cl) Major extracellular anion; regulates osmotic pressure
Sulfur (S) Integral part of Met & Cys (TSAA); structural component; cartilage; sheep - reduced wool growth and birds - poor feathering
Iron (Fe) Not efficiently absorbed, need acidic environment in duodenum; hypochromic microcytic anemia; piglets (give IM injection); transported as transferrin, stored as ferritin and hemosiderin; component of heme
Copper (Cu) Ceruloplasmin - transfer enzyme; collagen/elastin formation, hair/wool pigmentation; scouring or diarrhea; discoloration around eyes; loss of wool crimp; swayback; toxicosis in sheep from high Mo (RBC degeneration, chocolate blood, green kidneys)
Cobalt (Co) Required by ruminants; loss of appetite, emaciation; essential component of B12
Iodine (I) Constituent of thyroxin (regulates BMR); hypothyroidism (reduced BMR); hair loss, repro problems; goiters (thyroxin can't form, TSH releases, causes hypertrophy of thyroid gland; caused by deficient forages/goitrogens like Brassica)
Selenium (Se) Component of GPX (glutathione peroxidase); alkali disease (hair loss, sloughing/cracking of hoof); white muscle disease (degeneration of skeletal muscle); encephalomalacia; antioxidant; works with Vitamin E
Manganese (Mn) Bone formation, enzymes in carbs & lipid metabolism; perosis (slipped tendon in chickens); crippling/lameness in cows (eating lupine that blocks it)
Zinc (Zn) Component of metalloenzymes; generic dry dog food disease; parakeratosis; lethal acrodermatitis (inability to absorb __; seen in certain dog breeds like huskies; stunted growth)
Molybdenum (Mo) High levels cause toxicosis in sheep (link back to Cu); cofactor in enzyme systems
Created by: 100000033006215