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AP

Skeletal System, Cells and Tissues

QuestionAnswer
what are the three functions of the skeletal system 1)forms the framework that supports and protects the body 2)function to form blood cells 3)stores and releases mineral such as calcium
the skeletal system consists of bone, cartilage, joints, ligaments and tendons
what are the five connective tissues bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, muscle
joints aid in body movement
cartilage protects the ends of the bones where they contact each other
bone is one of the __________ tissues in the body hardest
oste/o, oss/e, and oss/i mean bone
the formation of bone from fibrous tissue is known as ossification
normal bones go through continuous processes of building up and breaking down throughout a lifetime. This process allows bone to heal and repair itself
bone is composed of cells embedded in a substance called matrix
what are osteoblasts cells that produce bone
what are osteocytes mature osteoblasts
what are osteoclasts breakdown and remove bone from where it is not needed
what are the three types of bone cells osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts
function of bone? support, protection, leverage, and storage
2 main types of bone within the body cancellous bone and compact bone
what is the periosteum? the membrane covering the outer surface of bones
what is the endosteum? lines the hollow interior surfaces of the bone
what is cancellous bone? spongy bone
where is cancellous bone found? found in the ends and inner portions of long bones
what is cortical bone? compact bone
where is cortical bone found? makes up the shafts of long bones and outside layer of all bones
what s the nutrient foramina? large channels that allow large blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves to enter long bones
large vessels primarily carry blood in and out of the bone marrow
bone marrow comes in two basic types red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow
what is the function of red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells and clotting cells
where is red bone marrow found? in the cancellous bone
yellow bone marrow is found in the medullary or inner space of bone
yellow bone marrow consists primarily of dipose connective tissue or fat
bone is formed in the body by one of what two functions? endochondrial bone formation and intramembranous bone formation
what is endochondrial bone formation? grows into and replaces a cartilage model
what is intramembranous bone formation? develops from fibrous tissue membranes
What are the six classifications of bone? 1) long bone 2) short bone 3) flat bone 4) irregular bone 5) sesamoid bone 6) pneumatic bone
what is an example of a long bone? femur (most bones of the limbs)
what is an example of a short bone? carpal or tarsal bones
what is an example of flat bone? scapula, skull, or pelvic bones
what is an example of irregular bone? vertebrae
what is an example of sesamoid bone? patella
what is an example of pneumatic bone? frontal bone
epiphysis wide end of long bone
diaphysis shaft of long bone
physis cartilage segment of long bone
metaphysis wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis
periosteum tough fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone
endosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the lining of the medullary cavity
what is another name for articular surfaces? joint surfaces
condyle large, round articular surface
head somewhat spherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone
facet flat articular surface
processes all the lumps, bumps and other projections of a bone
foramen a hole in a bone
fossa depressed or sunken area on the surface of a bone
cartilage a form of connective tissue that is more flexible and elastic then bone, does not contain nerves.
what are joints? connections between bones
synarthrosis immovable
ampharthroses slightly movable
diarthroses/synovial freely movable
synovial membrane produces synovial fluid which lubricate the joints
what is an example of a hinge joint? knee, elbow
what is an example of a gliding joint? carpus
what is an example of a pivot joint? connection between neck and head
what is an example of a ball and socket joint? shoulder, hip
Where is the saddle joint? Who has one? Thumb, only in primates
liaments connective tissue that join bones to bones
bursa fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement
tendons attach muscle to bone
function of the axial skeleton? protects major organs
what does the axial skeleton consist of? skull, hyoid bones, spine, ribs and sternum
what does the appendicular skeleton consist of? the extremities, shoulder and pelvis
what is the visceral skeleton? bones formed in soft organs, like the heart of cattle and sheep, penis of dogs, beavers, walruses and racoons and in the snout of pigs
the cranium is made up of ___ bones 11
the three bones in the ear are called _______ and consist of the ____________, ________________ and the _______________ ossicles, hammer, anvil and stirrup
tympanic membrane eardrum
what is the top part of the jaw called? maxilla
what is the lower portion of the jaw called? mandible
what are the 5 regions of the spinal column? cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
first vertebrae C1 atlas
second vertebrae C2 axis
how many cervical vertebrae do mammals have? 7
how many thoracic vertebrae do canine and felines have? 13
how many lumbar vertebrae do canines and felines have? Equines and bovines? 7 and 6
how many sacral vertebrae do canines and felines have? equine and bovine? 3 and 5
what are the coccygeal bones? tail bones
how many coccygeal bones do canines and felines have? equine? bovine? canine and feline 6-23 equine 15-21 bovine 18-20
what is the breastbone called? sternum
the front limbs consist of what bones? (from most proximal point to most distal point) scapula, humorous, radius, ulna, carpal bones, metacarpal bons, phalanges
what is the shoulder blade called? scapula
what is the collar bone called? clavical
phalanges make up the digits
the rear limbs consist of what bones? (from most proximal point to most distal point) femur,tibia,fibula,tarsals,metatarsals and phalanges
what three bones make up the pelvis? ilium,ischium, and pubis
aperture opening
canal tunnel
eminence surface projection
facet smooth area
lamina thin, flat plate
malleolus rounded projection
meatus passage or opening
process projection
ramu branch or smaller structure given off by larger structure
sinus space or cavity
sulcu groove
suture seam
trochanter broad flat projection on femur
trochlea pulley shaped structure in which other structures pass or articulate
tubercle small, rounded surface projection
Created by: em.boudreau