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Bovines

QuestionAnswer
proper name for "cows" cattle
proper terminology for cattle bovine
cattle produce by-products such as leather, gelatin, fertilizers and manure
all cattle are __________ having a specialized stomach with multiple compartments where plant matter is fermented ruminants
what is a herbivore consuming only vegetation and no meat
fermentation can only be done by ___________ not by the bovine itself microorganisms
four compartments of the stomach 1) reticulum 2) rumen 3) omasum 4) abomasum
digestion begins in the mouth
cattle do not have upper incisors but only lower incisors and a hard dental pad
what is mastication when grass is chewed by the premolars and molars and mixed with saliva in the mouth
what is a bolus ground grass mixed with saliva
the reticulum and the rumen have a small partition between them and together are often called the reticulorumen
when a bovine regurgitates its food back up through the esophagus and into the mouth to break it down further that is called "chewing the cud"
the first of the four compartments of the stomach where indigestible reside when a bovine ingests them reticulum
the second and largest compartment of the stomach that serves as a huge fermentation vat rumen
the third compartment or the stomach where water and other minerals are absorbed. It has many layers and may act as a buffer before particle enter the abomasum omasum
the fourth and last compartment of the stomach called the "true stomach". secretes acidic digestive enzymes which allow further digestion to occur abomasum
what must cows do before they start to lactate give birth
milk production peaks around 50 days
the time between the birth of one calf to the birth of another calf is called the calving interval
cows pregnancy is 9 months
colostrum is the first milk-like substance produced by the cow after calving. its rich in antibodies.
most cows are bred using artificial insemination
Herd group of cattle
freshening giving birth (dairy animals)
calving giving birth
calf young bovine
heifer young female bovine who hasn't given birth
springing heifer young female bovine with her first calf
cow intact female bovine that has given birth
freemartin female calf who is usually sterile as a result of being twin to male
steer male bovine castrated when young
stag male bovine castrated after maturity
bull intact male bovine
jumper bull intact male bovine who has just reached maturity
gomer bull bull used to detect females in heat and used for breeding
poll top of head
dewlap loose flap of skin under the throat and neck
brisket mass of connective tissue, muscle and fat
crest dorsal margin of the neck
heart girth circumference of the chest just caudal to the shoulder
loin lumbar region of back between thora and pelvis
hooks protrusion of the wing of the ilium
pins protrusion of the ischism bones lateral to base of tail
flank side of body between the ribs and the ilium
dewclaw accsessory claw of the foot that project caudally from the fetlock
heel caudal region of the hoof
switch tuft of hair at the end of the tail
udder mammary gland
quarter one of the four glands in the udder
teat nipple
brand method of permenantly identifying animals
ear tagging placement of identification devices in the ear
tattoo permenent identification using ink
casting using ropes to place animals in lateral recumbency
tailing tail head is grasped and raised vertically
chute mechanical device used to restrain
stanchion secures the cattle around the neck and allows access for milking, feeding and examining
free stall area that cattle are free to lay, feed and move
hutch housing pens for calves
stall small compartment to house an animal
teat ipping dipping each teat into antibacterial solutions
teat cannula metal or plastic tube past into the teat canal to relieve obstruction
dental pad more rostral portion of the maxilla
ration amount of food consumed within 24 hours
silage roughage produced by fermenting corn, grass or plants
roughage type of feed that is high in fibre and low in digestible nutrients
halters head harness used for restraint
lead rope peice of rope that attaches to the halter
wind break shelter that an animal can stand in to protect them from the wind
carcass body of a slaughtered animal
feedlot confined area where an animal is fed until slaughter
offal inedible visceral organs removed from carcass
veal meat from young dairy cattle that was only fed milk to produce soft, tender meat
cull removing an animal from a herd because they don't meet standars
fly stike infestation of maggots
milk fever low blood calcium levels interfere with muscle function throughout the body. seen in late pregnancy or early lactation
traumatic reticuloperitonitis commonly seen in adult cattle and caused by ingestion of sharp foreign objects with puncture in reticulum
mastitis infection of the mammary glands
Most common cause of mastitis bacteria entering into the udder through teat canal opening
clinical signs of mastitis swelling, redness or hardness of udder udder hot to touch painful upon thouch or difficulty lying upon udder changed appearence of milk:watery,flakes,blood clots, pus reduction in milk yeild anorexia depression fever
how do you treat mastitis antibiotics-systemically or via intramammary infusion, clearly mark infected cows, thoroughly disinfect all equipment used
what can you do to prevent mastitis keep udders clean, keep housing areas clean, keep equipment clean and sanitized, use proper milking protocol
What is infectious bovine rhinotracheititis caused by bovine herpesvirus
how is infectious bovine rhinotracheititis spread respiratory, occular, and genital secretions
clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheititis fever, nasal discharge, coughing and sneezing, respiratory difficulty, conjunctivitis, anorexia, ulcers in nose and mouth and spontanious abortion
how is infectious bovine rhinotracheititis diagnosed labwork testing blood or milk
milk fever is a ______________ NOT an infectious disease metabolic
how does milk fever occur when the diet is high in calcium
what are the clinical signs of milk fever difficulty standing, muscle tremors, collapsing, neck spasm, laying in lateral recumbency, decreased body temperatures and slow heart beat
how do you treat milk fever admiinister calium IM, SQ or IV, place in sternal recumbency to prevent inhalation pneumonia
how do you prevent milk fever diet low in calcium when pregnant and after being dried off and housing pregnant cows in area easily monitored when close to calving
Created by: em.boudreau