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Essentials of Mammalian Bio-From Repro onwards

Ovaries -Gonads -Produce Gametes -Produce Sex Hormone (Oestrogens)
Oestrus (Heat) -Caused By the Hormone oestrogen
Oestrogen -Produced by Ovary immediately Before Ovulation
Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes) -Connect Ovaries to Uterine Horns -Transport Sperm -Site for Capacitation -Transport Ova -Transfer and Development of embryo -Nutrition of Sperm, Ova and Embryo -Site of Fertilization -Funnel-shaped infundibulum with finger-like Fimbria
Uterus -Two horns and a Body -2 Tissues-Endometrium & Myometrium
Endometrium -Internal Lining of Uterine Lumen -Richly Supplied with blood -Secretes Nutrients to nourish sperm & Embryo -Site of Placenta Formation
Myometrium -Strong Bands of Muscle Lying under Endom -M. Provide Contractions to Move sperm up uterine tubes and expel the fetus at birth -Have ability to stretch in Growth -And Must shrink
Cervix -Protect Uterus from Infection -Remains Tightly Closed through Pregna. -Secreted Mucus (Lubricates Vagina)
Vagina -Site of Copulation -Semen is deposited -Bladder passes urine through Urethra to outside
Placenta -N.B role in nourishing the Embryo -Removing its waste product -Maintaining it in a constant environment
Types Of Placenta -Diffuse, Epitheliochorial -Cotyledonary, Epitheliochorial -Zonary, Endotheliochorial -Discoid, Haemochorial
Diffuse, Epitheliochorial Horse and Pigs -tiny connections over the whole of the endometrial surface
Cotyledonary, Epitheliochorial Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Deer)
Zonary, Endotheliochorial Carnivores (Dog, Cat, Ferret) -only at the part of the uterus immediate surrounding the fetus
Discoid, Haemochorial Humans, apes, monkeys and Rodents
3 Membranes surrounding Fetus -innermost-Amnion (Amniotic Fluid) -next Allantois (Allantoic Fluid) -Outer Membrane (Chorion)
Male Hormone Testes secrete Androgenic Hormone which is Testosterone
Androgens Responsible for development of the secondary sexual characteristics -Process of Sperm Formation and Maturation -Growth of Horns and antlers -Sexual Drive
High Temperature-Testes -Impedes sperm production
Erection -Blood Fills up into the capillaries and causes enlargement
Oestrous Cycle -Ovarian Follicles develop (Follicular Phase) -Develop. of egg in ovary is controlled by hormone secreted by pituitary gland (FSH)
FSH in Oestrous Cycle FSH-Follicle-Stimulating Hormone)Stimulates the development of ovarian Follicles -Developing ovarian follicles secrete Oestrogens (Ovulation)
Oestrogens -Responsible for development of Female characteristics -Controlling Events during Oestrus
High Concentrations of Oestrogen -Prevents the continued growth of small ovarian follicles -Causes the secretion of LH (Luteinising Hormone) Secreted by pituitary Gland
Effects of LH -Causes the largest follicle (Graafian Follicle) to burst and release the ovum that has grown in each follicle (Called Ovulation) -Cause Follicle to become a Corpus Luteum (Endocrine G)which is stimulated to secrete Progesterone which supports pregnancy
Ovulation Release of the ovum from the ovary
Oestrus Cycle Length -Cow and Sheep 17 days for sheep 21 days for cow
Pattern of Behaviour associated with Oestrus (Heat)is caused by what hormone? oestrogen- which is produced by the ovary immediately before ovulation
Zygote Fertilized Egg
Blastocyst (What is it?) Structure formed in early stages of development
What does the Blastocyst Do? Sends a biochemical signal to uterus
If the uterus does not receive a chemical signal from the Blastocyst? The uterus will produce a hormone called Prostaglandin F2Alpha (PGF2Alpha)
What does PGF2Alpha do? It exits the uterus in the uterine artery, crosses into the ovarian vein and travels to the ovary where it causes luteolysis (Destruction of Corpus Luteum)
Luteolysis -Destruction of the corpus Luteum
Corpus Luteum -Develops with each Menstral cycle -Temporary Endocrine Structure that produces PROGESTERONE -Coloured due to Carotenoids -Secretes Eostrogen to inhibit release of GnRH, LH and FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) 1) Secreted by 2) Act on 3) Effects 1) Anterior Pituitary 2) Ovarian Follicles 3) Development of follicles and ova to the stage where they can be ovulated -Secretion of OESTROGEN
Oestrogen (or Oestradiol-17B (E2)) 1) Secreted by 2) Act on 3) Effects 1) Ovarian follicles (Graafian Follicles produce the peak conc) (And Placenta) 2) Brain, Ovarian Follicles, Uterus, Cervix, Vagina, Vulva, Pituitary 3) Behavioral symptoms (oestrus), follicle atresia, Retrograde uterine contractions, sec of LH
Luteinising Hormone (LH) 1) Secreted by 2) Act on 3) Effects 1) Pituitary Gland 2) Ovarian Follicles & Corpus Luteum 3) Ovulation and Luteinisation Secretion of PROGESTERONE
Luteinisation the process by which a mature ovarian follicle transforms into a corpus luteum
Progesterone (P4) 1) Secreted by 2) Act on 3) Effects 1) Corpus Luteum (and Placenta) 2) Brain, Ovarian Follicles, Uterus, Cervix, Mammary Gland 3) Prevents heat, up-regulates oestrogen receptors, inhibits follicle growth, prevents uterine contractions, forms Cervical Plug, Stim development
Prostaglandin (PGF2Alpha) 1) Secreted by 2) Act on 3) Effects 1) Uterus 2) Corpus Luteum 3) Luteolysis (stops production of progesterone allowing female to return to heat of not pregnant)
During Pregnancy PROGESTERONE (P4) Conc are high (Prevents Uterine contractions*) OESTROGEN (E2) Conc are Low (PUC*)
When Fetus has developed sufficiently -Brain produces a hormone called Corticotrophinreleasing hormone (CRH)
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) -CRH causes the Pituitary gland to release Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) -Travels to the adrenal gland where it stimulates the secretion of Cortisol
Cortisol -Travels in the blood to the placenta where it causes the placenta to stop producing P4 (Progesterone) and to convert P4 to E2 (Oestrogen) -Stimulates Prod of PGF2Alpha (Causes Luteolysis (removing the last source of P4)
Oestrogen (or Oestradiol-17B (E2)) During Pregnancy -stimulate uterine contractions and causes the production of OXYTOCIN receptors on the uterus
Labour Begins -When Cervix Dilates (Stage 1)
Prostaglandin (PGF2Alpha) -Stimulates OXYTOCIN release -Hormones stimulate massive contractions of the myometrium-leading to Parturition (Stage 2)(The placenta will be delivered which is stage 3)
Mammogenesis -Growth & Development of Mammary Gland Tissue -5 Stages 1) Conception to birth 2) Birth to Pregnancy 3) Pregnancy 4) Lactation 5) Involution
Lactogenesis -is the Initiation of copious milk secretion -Together with Mammogenesis it determines the potential milk yield
Parturition the action of giving birth to young; childbirth
Control Of Mammogenesis and Lactogenesis During Pregnancy -Conc of Progesterone and High and Oestrogen are low -Stimulates growth of mammary ducts
Control Of Mammogenesis and Lactogenesis -Placental Lactogen (PL)-produced by the placenta stimulates mammogenesis -GH (Growth Hormone) also stimulates mammogensis
Control Of Mammogenesis and Lactogenesis Towards End of Pregnancy -E2 (Oestrogen) levels inc and P4 (progesterone) declines-Promoting development of Lobulo-alveolar tissue and differentiation of the mammary epithelial cells (at end of Ducts of Mammary Gland)
First Stage of lactogenesis (Stage 1) -Production of Colostrum, which occurs during the last few days of pregnancy -Secretion contains no Lactin, little water but high protein, especially immunoglobins (Provides passive immunity to Neonate)
During Pregnancy in relation to Lactogenesis P4 (Progesterone) Inhibits Synthesis of Key enzymes responsible for Lactose Synthesis (during Pregnancy) -After Pregnancy- P4 is removed therefore so is the inhibition
Rising E2 Oestrogen after pregnancy -Stimulates prolactin secretion from the pituitary gland & PROLACTIN is now able to stimulate the synthesis of compo of Lactose Synthetase so that Lactose can be made
Lactose -Rapid production of true milk (lactogenesis stage 2)
High Cortisol Conc contribute to? Lactogenesis by stimulating production of Golgi apparatus (Site of Lactose Synthesis and of Milk Protein Packaging)and the mitochondria (The powerhouses of the cell)
Testes -Sperm Production and storage -Produce Androgen
Spermatogenesis -In seminiferous tubules -Meiosis to haploid spermatozoa
Sperm structure -Acrosomal membrane contains enzmes to break down ovum membrane and allow sperm entry -Midpiece has many mitochondria
Male Hormone Production -Male Hormones=Androgens -Produced in testis (And Adrenal and Ovary) -Testosterone -Released into bloodstream
Temperature in relation to Testis -To high the sperm will be faulty -Testes external to body cavity -Scrotal skin has sweat glands -Scrotum has Subcutaneous fat (Insulation) -Cremaster Muscle In Scrotum -Contracts in cold -Relaxes in warm
Flehmen Response -Facilitates the transfer of Phermones and other scents in the vomeronasal organ
Ejaculation -Muscles around Bladder opening contract to prevent urine leakage -Semen moved by muscular contractions of Urethra
Bulb of Dog's Glans can get what? -Enlarged 'Dog Knotted' -If pulled away os-penis can break
Sow Oestrous Cycle 20 days
Mare Oestrus Cycle 22 days
Doe Oeatrus Cycle 20 Days
Cow Oestrus Cycle 21 Days
Ewe Oestrus Cycle 17 Days
Oocytes - are undeveloped ova -Limited number at birth -Grow in FOLLICLES in the ovary
Follicles -Dormant follicle begin to grow by FSH -Some die off (Atresia) and some become enlarged (Dominant Follicles) -GO From Primary To Secondary follicles
Teat Anatomy -Lined with keratinised stratified squamous epithelium – Keratin plug forms to block entry of bugs
Conditioned Reflex -Sam for calf and human
3 Feeding Categories -Herbivore -Omnivore -Carnivore
Herbivore -Adapted to eating Plant material
Carnivore -Meat Eating
Omnivore -Both Meat and Plants
4 Feeding Mechanisms -Suspension feeder -Substrate Feeder -Fluid Feeder -Bulk Feeder
Suspension (Filter) Feeder -Sift Small Food particles from the water -e.g clams
Substrate feeders -Live in or on the food source -E.g Maggots, earthworms
Fluid Feeders -Suck Nutrient rich fluids from a living host -E.g Mosquitoes, Leeches
Bulk Feeders -Eat relatively large pieces of food -Most Mammals
Nutritional Needs -Fuel for ATP -Biosynthesis -Essential Nutrients -Vits & Min
Nearly All animals energy/ATP generation is based on? -Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats (And Alcohol)
Animals store excess energy as what and where? -As Glycogen in the liver and muscles as fat
Macronutrients (4 Types) 1-Carbohydrate 2-Protein 3-Lipids 4-Alcohol
only Glycogen in what can convert into Glucose In the Liver but not muscles
Break down of 1) Carbohydrate 2) Protein 3) Lipids into what? 1) Monosaccharide's (Simple sugars) 2)Amino Acids 3)Fatty Acids
Role of Insulin Is to inc uptake of nutrients into insulin-sensitive tissues (Skeletal Musc, adipose)& Drive Anabolic Metabolism
Glucose is transported into cells by expression of? Glucose Receptors (GLUT's) -For insulin it is GLUT 4
Energy Imbalance Undernourishment-Intake overnourished-Obesity
Appetite Regulating Hormones (ARH) -Hormones reach brain via blood, act on the 'Satiety Centre'-Region of brain that generates Nervous Impulses which stimulate or suppress appetite.
Appetite Regulating Hormone (ARH) Insulin * Suppress Appetite -Secreted from the pancreas -Triggered by rise in blood glucose -Stimulates transport of Glucose via GLUT4
Appetite Regulating Hormone (ARH) Leptin * Suppress Appetite -Produced By Adipose Tissue in response to fat being stored in the tissue -SUPPRESSES APPETITE -Leptin levels are low so appetite and food intake are increased -Helps to stabilize body weight
Appetite Regulating Hormone (ARH) Ghrelin * Only Hunger Stimulating hormone -Synthesized by the Stomach -Levels increase before meal -Signals pre-meal hunger & meal initiation
Appetite Regulating Hormone (ARH) PYY (Peptide YY) Suppress Appetite -Hormone Secreted from enteroendocrine cells of Small intestine and colon after meals -APPETITE SUPPRESSANT and inhibits food intake -Regulate food intake
Appetite Regulating Hormone (ARH) Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) -Suppress Appetite -co-secreted from the small intestine and colon with PYY in response to nutrients in the gut. -Inhibits food intake and may contribute to feeling of Satiety assoc. with slower rates of gastric emptying -enh insulin sec and sup glucagon sec after meal
Appetite Regulating Hormone (ARH) Cholecystokinin (CCK)* Suppress Appetite -Inhibits feeding -Stim Pancreatic Enzyme Secretion and gall-bladder contraction -Assists in Meal Termination Produced from Duodenum and Jejunum
Appetite Regulating Hormone (ARH) Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) Suppress Appetite -Secreted From the PP Cells of The Pancreatic Islets (Some By Colon and Rectum) -Lev of PP inc when Energy Intake increases
Hunger -Craving for food
Appetite -Desire for a specific food
Satiety Opposite to hunger
Hyperphagia Overeating
Aphagia -Not Eating
Anorexic -Appetite suppressed (Not Hungry)
What is the major Part of the CNS involved in Appetite Regulation -Hypothalamus
2 Hypothalamic Nuclei 1)Lateral Region (LR) of the Hypothalamus 2)Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN) 1)Feeding Centre 2)Satiety Centre
"Feeding Centre" (Lateral Region of the Hypothalamus 1) Effect of Electrical Stimulation 2) Effect of lesion or other Damage 1) Increase Feeding (Hyperphagia) 2) Decrease feeding (Weight Loss)
"Satiety Centre" Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN) 1) Effect of Electrical Stimulation 2) Effect of lesion or other Damage 1) Decrease Feeding (Aphagia) 2) Increase Feeding (Obesity)
Nutrients are categorized as ? -Macronutrients -Micronutrients
Macronutrients (3) -Protein -Lipids -Carbohydrate
Micronutrients (2) -Minerals -Vitamins
Protein 1)include 2) Break down into 3) Protein Deficient Child has? 1)Enzymes, muscle proteins, Structural Prot, Transporters, receptor 2) Amino Acids 3) Kwashiokor
Lipids 1) Function 2) break into ? 1)Structural, storage, hormones 2)Fatty Acids
Lipids Are synthesized from carbon Chains from dietary carbohydrates and proteins as well as dietary lipids, lipids consumed in excess are stored for later use
Fatty Acids are unsaturated because... They have double bonds
Carbohydrate 3 Main Functional Roles 1) Structural Support-Shape provided by Polysaccharides 2) Storage Component-Glycogen 3) Transport Compounds-Glucose is the Principle transport Carbohydrate (Blood Sugar)
Gastrointestinal Epithelium of S.I. (4)# 1) Enterocytes 2) Goblet Cells 3) Enterocytes 4) Paneth Cells
#1) Enterocytes Function -Absorb water, solutes and nutrients
#2) Goblet Cells Function -Produce Mucus For Lubrication
#3) Enterocytes Function -secrete peptide hormones
#4) Paneth Cells Function -Secrete digestive enzymes, growth factors and antimicrobial substances such as defensins -Provide a Niche for the Stem Cells
What process involves the Villus Most cells migrate up towards the tip of the Villus where they undergo Apoptosis and sloughed off into the gut lumen -These cells differentiate as they migrate up the crypt-villus axis
Headgut DIgestive tract in head and neck (Lips, buccal Cavity, tongue and pharynx -Role Capture and engulf food and prepare it for digestion
Foregut Parts of G.I tract including the oesophagus (Move food down)and stomach (Secretes acid (HCL) and Pepsin (Protein-digesting enzyme), Store ingested food and initiate protein digestion)
Midgut -Segment of the intestine (small intestine) -Principle site of digestion and absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
Hindgut -second segment of the intestine (large Intestines) -Function is to complete absorption of needed water and minerals prior to elimination and to store wastes between defaecations
Epithelium of the Mucosa -Secretory & Absorptive Functions -Secrete Digestive enzymes of hormones
Connective Tissue -Immune Cells N.B in relation to producing Antibodies to potential Pathogens
Submucosa -Contains Blood and Lymph Vessels that carry absorbed Nutrients to the body
Muscularis Layer -2 Layers of Smooth Muscles -Inner Circular Layer -Outer Longitudinal Layer -Contraction of Musc. layer mix and circulate content in lumen and propel along G.I Tract
**Peristalsis** -Mediated by the gut's Local Intrinsic Nervous System (i.e not by the systemic Hormones or nerves) -Caused by Contraction above and relaxation below a segment being stimulated -Circular Musc Contracts -Longitudinal Musc. contracts shorting pas. ahead
Carbohydrate Digestion (S.I) Polysaccharides are hydrolysed to smaller Polysaccharides and Maltose by the action of SALIVARY AMYLASE -Polysaccharides are broken down into Monosaccharides which are absorbed
Protein Digestion (S.I) -GASTRIC PEPSIN hydrolyses protein into Polypeptides -further digested by Pancreatic TRYPSIN and CHYMOTRYPSIN to form smaller polypeptides which are hydrolysed by pancreatic carboxypeptidaset to AMINO ACIDS
Fat Digestion (S.I) -Insoluble fat Globules are emulsified by bile salts to produce minute molecular aggregates called Micelles -Pancreatic LIPASES to hydrolyse fats into Glycerol, fatty acids and glycerides which dissociates from Micelles next to apical membrane of epith
The Stomach -Stores food -Gastric Juice Contains Hydrochloric Acid (HCL-Low ph 2-Denature proteins and kills bacteria and PEPSIN (Secreted by Chief Cells of gastric glands) and inactive Proenzyme (ZYMOGEN), Pepsinogen which is activated by the acidic environment
The Stomach-Oesophageal Sphincter -Protects oesophagus from the acid chime refluxing -Chyme is released through Pyloric sphincter into S.I
Small Intestines -Most of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and absorption of nutrients takes place in the S.I -Secretions from pancreas, liver, gallbladder and small intestinal wall. -Most digestion takes place in Duodenum -other Jejunum & Ileum (abs)
Liver -Produces Bile which is stored in the Gall-bladder
Large Intestines (Colon) -Colon is inhibited by rich microflora which live on unabsorbed organic material.
Mechanism of Absorption Absorption is transport of chemically simple compounds e.g monosaccharides, free amino acids and free fatty acids, from G.I lumen-across the epithelial cells lining
3 Mechanism of Absorption 1) Simple Diffusion 2) Facilitated diffusion 3) Active Transport
Inc Expression of GLUT4 -Increase the transport of glucose into muscle and other insulin-sensitive tissue
Inc Glycolysis -Promotes the oxidation of glucose as an energy source
Dec Lipolysis -Prevents release of fatty acids from adipose tissue (so more oxidation of glucose can occur as fatty acids are preferentially oxidized if available)
Inc Lipogenesis Promotes Synthesis of Triacylglycerols in adipose tissue
Inc Glycogenesis Promotes the synthesis of Glycogen (Storage of carbohydrate in liver and muscle)
Dec Gluconeogenesis Inhibits Synthesis of Glucose by liver
Insulin -Is secreted from the endocrine pancreas (B-cells of the islets of Langerhans)
Functions of the Liver (5) 1) Digestive 2) Metabolic 3) Plasma Formation 4) Excretory 5) Endocrine
Digestive (liver) Synthesises and secretes bile
Metablic (liver) During absorptive state
Plasma -Produces Plasma Clotting Factors -Produces plasma proteins
Excretory -Destroys old red blood Cells -Secretes bilirubin and other bile pigments -Excretes many unwanted exogenous molecules -Transforms endogenous and exogenous organic Molecules
Endocrine -Secretes insulin-like growth factors -Produces Erythropoietin -Contributes to the activation of Vitamin D -Forms Tri-iodothyronine from Thyroxine
Micronutrients -Vitamins and Minerals essential to health without them organism will die
Micronutrients:Vitamins -Can not be synthesized by the body in adequate amounts -Very Diverse-Chemically and structurally
Micronutrients:Vitamins -2 Classes 1) Water-soluble 2) Lipid-Soluble
Water-soluble vitamins -Vitamin B (Function as Coenzymes in Metab Proc -Vitamin C
Lipid-Soluble Vitamins -Vitamin A -Vitamin D -Vitamin E -Vitamin K
Fat-Soluble Vitamin -Bind to dietary lipids and are absorbed with the products of Lipid digestion. -Excess is stored in body
Water-soluble Vitamin Are usually absorbed in the upper regions of the small intestine. -Excess of water-soluble vitamins are excreted in the urine so moderate overdoses are usually not harmful.
Vitamin A -Role in Vision -Light-Sensitive Proteins in the Retina -Antioxidants -May Protect against cancer and heart Disease
Vitamin C -Specifically for Quinea-pigs, bats, many birds -Deficiency causes scurvy -Essential for the maintenance and repair of Connective Tissue
Vitamin D -Synthesized in the skin -Endogenous Synthesis -Depends on Exposure of skin to sunlight -Regulating Calcium Homeostasis
Folate -Is a B Vitamin for a number of related compounds including Folic Acid which is added to food
Iron -levels are regulated by altering gut absorption -Overload of Iron Can cause damage to DNA and Cell Membrane -Essential for Pathogen
Calcium -Dairy products -Required for Optimal Development of the Skeletal -Peak Bone Mass
Iodine -Trapped by thyroid Gland and used in synthesis of Thyroid Hormone
Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) -Found in Meat, Veg, Whole Grain -Coenzyme used in amino acid metabolism -Symptoms-Irritability, Convulsion, muscular Twitches
Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) -Fruits and Veg -Citrus Fruit -Used in Collagen Synthesis (Bone, Cartilage) -Symptoms are scurvy(Degeneration of skin, teeth, Blood vessels)
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Calcium (Ca) -Dairy Products, Dark Green Veg -Bone and Tooth Formation, Blood Clotting, nerve and Muscle Function -Retarded Growth, Possible Loss of Bone Mass
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Phosphorus (P) -Dairy Products, Meats, Grains -Bone and Tooth Formation, Acid-Base balance, Nucleotide Synthesis -Weakness, Loss of Minerals from Bone, Calcium Loss
Osmoregulation -Is the Homeostatic Process by which animals control solute concentrations and balance water gain and loss to maintain the fluid environ. of cells which essential
Factors that determine the excess that needed to be excreted -Water Volume Sensors -Salt Sensors -Osmolality Sensors
Routes Of Excretion (4) 1) Respiratory Sys 2) Sweat Glands 3) Digestive System 4) Urinary System
Respiratory Sys Excretion -Remove CO2 and Water Vapour-Lungs
Sweat Glands -Eliminate Water, Salts, small amount Urea-Skin
Digestive Sys Excretion -Removes Bile Salts and Pigments -Gut
Urinary Sys Excretion -Removes Urea, Salts, Water, other soluble waste products
Kidney Main Function (4) Function mainly in Waste Removal 1) Blood Filtration, re-absorption & Secretion 2) Fluid Balance (Blood Pressure) Regulation 3) Acid-Base (pH) Balance Regulation 4) Hormone Production (Erythropoietin, rennin, vitamin D and Prostaglandins)
Kidneys -Behind Peritoneum -Left Kidney is More Cranial -Right Kidney embedded within part of the liver -Fibrous Capsule -Hilus-Blood and Lymph Vessels, nerves, ureters
Types of Kidneys (2) 1) Multipyramidal 2) Multilobar Kidneys
Kidneys are made up of ? Nephrons
Nephrons is and contains? Blinded Ended Tubes with a number of specific parts -Glomerulus -Bowman's Capsule -Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) -Loop of Henle -Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) -Collecting Duct
Glomerulus -Tuft of Capillaries where filtration occurs -Blood in this area is High Pressure for Sufficient Filtration
Bowman's Capsule -Surrounds Glomerulus -Collects Filtrate
Collecting Duct -Adjust Volume & Concentration Of Urine
Afferent Arteriole -Brining Blood into Capillary Tuft
Efferent Arteriole -Carrying Blood Away from Capillaries
2 Types of Nephron 1) Short Loops 2) Long Loops 1) Cortical Nephrons 2) Juxtamedullary Nephrons
Mechanism of Renal Action (3 Main Mech) 1) Filtration (Renal Corpuscle) 2) Reabsorption (Renal Tubule and Collect D) 3) Secretion (RT & C D)
Counter Current Mechanism **** To recover the remaining water from the tubular fluid, the environment of the renal medulla is maintained in a hyperosmotic state by this mechanism
Decrease Urine Volume (Conserving Water) ANTIDIURETIC Hormone-CausesAquaporins (Which form water-Selective Chanels) to translocate from the epithelial cells internal stores to the membranes of the Collecting Duct Cells so Hyperosmotic environ. will draw water from Collecting Duct by Osmosis
Antidiuretic Hormone -Produced by the Hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary Gland -Absence of ADH results in collecting ducts being impermeable to water -Presence of ADH in blood -water leaves the collecting ducts
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteone System (RAAS) -Involved in maintain Homeostasis
Specialized tissue called Juxaglomerular Apparatus releases RENIN (Enzyme that Cleaves Plasma Protein, Angiotensinogen to a peptide, ANGIOTENSIN 2
Angiotensin 2 (2 Main Roles) 1) it Causes Arteriole constriction so blood pressure increase 2) it Stimulates the Adrenal Glands To Produce ALDOSTERONE
Aldosterone -Increase Sodium (and water) reabsorption in the distal tubules so blood volume (and therefore pressure will increase)
Altrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) -Is produced by the atria (Upper Chambers) of the heart in response to increased blood pressure -Inhibits release of renin from the JGA -Inhibits Sodium Reabsorption by he collecting ducts and reduces aldosterone release -Oppose Actions of RAAS
2 Parts of the Skeleton and What bones they Contain 1)Axial Skeleton (Trunk of Body)-Skull, spine 2)Appendicular Skeleton (Limbs)
What is the Main purpose of The G.I Tract to Digest food and absorb nutrients
4 Main stages of Food Processing 1) Ingestion 2) Digestion 3) Absorption 4) Elimination
Ingestion -eating -Food Mostly consists of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in forms that cannot be absorbed
Digestion -Breaking down of food into molecules small enough to be absorbed predominantly by enzyme hydrolysis (Chemical Digestion)following the mechanical fragmentation of food (Mechanical Digestion) which increases surface area
Absorption -The cells of the G.I tract absorb small molecules such as amino acids, simple sugars and glycerol and fatty acids
Elimination -Undigested material is passed out of the G.I tract
Prehension -is the Process of getting the food into the mouth -First step in digestion
G.I Tract is lined with layers of? -Smooth Muscles which generate waves that propel the food along the tract
Fluids Introduced into G.I Tract (5) By which lining and which glands? -Saliva -Acid -Bicarbonate -Enzymes -Emulsifiers Some secreted by Glandular epithelium lining and others produced by accessory exocrine glands
Accessory Glands Of Digestive system (4) -Salivary Gland -Pancreas -Liver -Gallbladder
Carnivores & Omnivores -have Gastric epithelium at the start of stomach
Classified by preferred Food (3) -Carnivore -Herbivore -Omnivore
Classification by type of Digestion (2) -Monogastric Animals (Simple Stomach) -Ruminants (Four Components in Herbivores)
Classification By site of Fermentation (2) Pregastric Fermentation Postgastric Fermentation
Pregastric Fermentation -Have microbial digestion BEFORE the host animals digestive epithelium (which secretes acid and enzymes)
Postgastric Fermentation -Have Microbial Digestion AFTER the host animals digestive epithelium
Caecum What is it and what is its function? -Blind Sac at the junction of the small and large intestine, which contains an active microbial population. -Breaks Down Cellulose -Monogastrics (Horse, rabbits) can digest cellulose but this take place after main cite of absorption to rel insuf
Large Intestines -water absorption and the faeces are concentrated -Important in water conservation
Faeces -Consist of bacteria, products of bacterial breakdown, undigested food material, cellular debris from the lining of the tract and Mucus
In Ruminants Digestive Tract -Utilize microorganisms during digestion -No AMALYSE in Saliva -Bicarbonate and Phosphate are produced in large amounts to buffer the rumen
Four Chambers of The Ruminants G.I Tract 1) Rumen 2) Reticulum 3) omasum 4) Abomasum (True Stomach)
Rumen (Papillae) -Occupies left side of ab cavity -Area of Absorption -Rough Surface to facilitate mixing of the food
Reticulum (Honey Comb) -Contains an opening into rumen -Contribute to breaking down molecules
Rumen and Reticulum are called -Reticulo-rumen -2 Openings 1)Entry of Oesophagus 2)Reticuo-omasal orifice -where the digesta drains into the omasum
Reticular Groove -Reflex Musclar Contraction to form tube through which milk in suckling animals may pass direly from oesophagus to the omasum, thus bypassing the Rumen
Cellulase -Enzyme that breaks down Cellulose walls of plant tissue
Reticulo-Rumen Includes ? -A population of symbiotic -Microbes -Bacteria Fungi -Protozoans Main end product is Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs)
VFAs-Volatile Fatty Acids (3) -Co2 -Methane -Ammonia
Abomasum (true Stomach) -Bacteria and protozoa are killed by acid
Eructation (Blenching) -Expelled gases from forestomach -If Not Bloat will occur
Omasum (Laminae) Book -Water and VFAs are absorbed in this struct.
Abomasum -First Glandular Portion -Acid Secretion kills microorganisms -A suitable environ. for enzymatic digestion of the food
Ruminants -Have microbial digestion followed by host enzyme digestion -Most efficient at cellulose Digestion
Monogastrics -Begins with host enzyme digestion and ends with microbial digestion
Function of Skeleton -Scaffold -Supporting framework that also protects many internal organs
Function of Skeleton -Lever -Required for movement
Function of Skeleton -Mineral Stores of? -Calcium and Phosphorous
Function of Skeleton -The production of many important ? -Blood cells
Types of Bone (5) 1) Long Bone (Femur) 2) Short Bone 3) Flat Bone (Scapula) 4) Irregular (Vertebrae) 5) Sesamoid (Patella)
Long Bone includes -Diaphysis -Medullar Cavity -Cartilaginous end -Periosteum -Epiphysis -Epiphysial Line -Metaphysis
Types of Joints (3) -Fibrous Joint -Cartilaginous Joint -Synovial Joint
Fibrous Joint -Immovable joints in skull
Cartilaginous Joint -Semi-movable in Vertebrae
Synovial Joint -Movable and are connected to fibrous capsules containing synovial Fluid (Slippery)
Synovial Joint Sub-Types (5) 1) Hinge -Elbow and Knee 2) Ball & Socket -Hip & Shoulder 3) Pivot -Base of skull 4) Saddle -Wrist 5) Gliding -Spinal Processes
Ligaments -Strong bands made of Fibrous connective tissue -Holds Bone to Bone -Either intracapsular (inside synovial Jt) -Or Extracapsular (Outside) -Prevent dislocation and excessive movement
Muscle (3) Types 1) Striated or skeletal 2) Heart 3) Smooth
Skeletal Muscle -Under Voluntary Control by NS -Aids in Movement -No Intercalated disks -Striated
Smooth Muscle -no Striations -No intercalated disks -Under involuntary Control -Found in G.I tract
Heart (cardiovascular) Muscles -Under involuntary Control -Striated -Have intercalated Disks -Simultaneous Contraction -Branched
Tendons -Connect Muscle to bone -Stiff Elastic Tissue -Transfers force from muscle to bone
Structure of skeletal Muscle -Ref To as Muscle Fibres -Contain Muscle Protein MYOSIN & ACTIN arranged in the form of MYOFIBRILS
Myofibrils (Skeletal Muscle) -long, thin rods composed of filaments of actin and myosin -These filaments are the contractile apparatus of the muscle
Muscle Fiber -Surrounded by layer of connective tissue called ENDOMYSIUM -These fibers are arranged in bundles called FASSICLES which are surrounded by PERIMYSIUM -These bundles are grouped into individual muscles surrounded by EPIMYSIUM
Muscles -pull on two bones either side of a joint which act as levers to produce movement around the joint (Fulcrum)
First-Class Levers -Act like a crowbar: The Force is a long distance from the fulcrum -Enabling transfer of minimal force to overcome heavy resistance -Very Efficient Levers e.g Head resting on vertebral column
Second-Class Levers -Act like a wheelbarrow -The resistance is between the fulcrum and the force -Also Efficient levers e.g foot
Third-Class Levers -Act like a lacrosse stick -The force is between the fulcrum and the resistance -Least efficient lever e.g arm
1) Shorter Levers 2) Longer Levers 1)Strength 2) Speed
Locomotion -Has to overcome friction, gravity and own inertia -Factors include -Body Density -Shapes -appendages -musculature -Skelton -factors include
Swimming -Ani less dense than water-Buoyancy -Does not require much energy to overcome Gravity -Water is a dense medium to travel through so friction is an issue -Fusiform shape is a effective
Flying -Overcoming Effects of gravity -Fusiform shape and light
Land Walkers -Inertia -Require a strong Skelton and powerful muscles
Energetics-Survival Depends on ? the balance between maximizing energy intake (appetite) with minimizing energy expenditure -Energy is stored as fat in the body
Muscles (Engine) device that can harness energy from fuel (Food)
Skeleton Chassis
Tendon/Ligaments Transmission
Direct Calorimetry Body heat production used to measure energy expenditure
Indirect Calorimetry measure energy expenditure is by assessing the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that occurs during oxidate phosphorylation -Measures amount of O2 and CO2 exchanged
Efficiency of work Gross Efficiency (%)=external work done/whole body energy expenditure Measure power output (watts)/Rate of whole body oxygen consumption (O2)
Larger Animals The larger the animal the less energy it expends (per kg body Mass)
Stance (2) 1)Semi-Erect Stance 2) Fully Erect Stance
1)Semi-Erect Stance Used by some primitive mammals like the duckbill platypus -Legs are to the side of the torso and the body held above the ground
2)Fully Erect Stance -Main Stance of Mammals -Legs below body -Long stride length
Number of legs (3) 1)Bipedal 2)Tripedal 3)Quadrupedal
1) Bipedal -2 legs support weight
2) Tripedal -3 legs -Kangaroo
3) Quadrupedal -most mammals -4 Limbs support weight
Foot Structure (4) 1) Plantigrade 2) Digitigrade 3) Unguligrade 4) Knuckle Walking
1) Plantigrade (Bear) -walking on whole underside of the foot
2) Digitigrade (Dog) -Walking on the toes
3) Unguligrade (Deer) -Phalanges
4) Knuckle Walking (Gorilla) -bending fingers
Gait (5) 1) Walking Gait 2) Running Gait 3) Leaping Gait 4) Alternate Left-right gait 5) Hopping Gait
1) Walking Gait -at least one foot on the floor
2) Running Gait -all feet are off the ground in some point
3) Leaping Gait -a quardruped gait type involving a leading leg (Galloping)
4) Alternate left-right gait -alternating front back gaits are associated with leaping gaits in quadrupeds
5) Hopping Gait -Gait in which all limbs move together
Thermoregulation -Maintaining body temperature
Endotherms -use metabolic heat to maintain a constant body temp. (thermoregulate) -Have ability to maintain body temp significantly higher than their surrounding -Disadvantages-expensive=requires high metabolic rate to maintain high BT -Act behavior and Physi
Ecotherms -Use behavioral techniques to control temp
Control Of Thermoregulation (3) 1)Thermoreceptors 2)Thermostat (controller) 3) Effectors
Heat Exchange (4) 1) Radiation 2) Conduction 3) Convection 4) Evaporation
1)Radiation -Heat energy from sun
2)Conduction -Direct transfer of heat between molecules with two objects
3)Convection -Transfer of heat by movement of water, air, blood passing a surface
4)Evaporation -removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is evaporating e.g. sweat
For mammals to Thermoregulate -they must be able to control heat gain and heat loss occurring in the 4 main processes
Rate of heat Exchange (3 factors) Warm-cool 1) Surface Area 2) Temperature Difference 3) Thermal Conductance
1) Surface Area -Surface area relative to volume decreases as mass increases -Small animals more expensive to run
2) Temperature Difference -Temp diff between surface of body and environment -The closer the animals temp. to ambient temperature the less heat is exchanged
3) Thermal Conductance -How easily dry heat can transfer between animal and its environment -Ani with higher thermal conductance will exchange dry heat faster as heat can transfer through body more easily
Dry heat -Does not involve conduction, convection, evaporation or Radiation
Peripheral Heterothermy -Temperature of core is controlled -The shell or periphery may vary according to circumstances -Varying the exchange of heat between ani. and environ.
Heat is exchanged within the body by Convection -Blood Carries heat to and from the core -Vasodilation-Causes more blood carrying heat to the surface -Vasoconstriction- causes less blood to the skin and therefore appears cold (less blood with heat)
Thermoneutral zone -Metabolic rate in this zone is BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) -i.e. No additional metabolic heat (energy) is required to maintain constant body temp.
Acute Responses to heat (In TNZ at BMR=Minimum metabolic heat) -Reduce heat gain and increase heat loss -Behaviorally= Change posture or POSITION to reduce SA exposed to radiation or inc SA exposed to cooling breeze -Physi=Vasodilation-Send blood to the outer surf of skin to reduce heat gain (O=I) -No ATP Req
Acute Response to Heat (Above UCT-Upper Critical Temp) -Dry head loss insufficient -Evaporative heat loss required by: =Spreading saliva on fur =Sweating =Panting -ATP is required
Heat Acclimatization -Due to seasonal changes -Inc Thermal Conductance (Dec Insulation) -Inc Capacity for Evaporative heat loss
Evolutionary Adaptations -Hot dry places -Evaporation=Water loss :( -Adapted to reduce evaporative heat loss -Reducing need for evaporative head loss
Response and Adaptations to Cold (In TNZ-No extra energy Required to raise MR) (3 Ways) Heat Conservation (Acute Response Phase 1) 1) Change in position and Posture-Used to dec heat loss (Taking shelter) 2)Piloerection-Each hair held up by contraction (Sympathetic NS)-To trap air 3)Vasoconstriction-Restr flow of blood-Cold exteria
Vasoconstriction -Reduces Thermal Conductance of shell -Less heat is transferred from core to the periphery -Reduces Peripheral Temp below core -Reduces heat loss by convection, conduction and radiation
Ambient Temp drops below LCT-Metabolic Heat Production increases -Eventually hits a point where cant increase metabolic heat any more=Summit Metabolism (Phase 2-Physio Factors)
Phase 1 & Phase 2 1) -Increase heat 2) -decreased heat
Heat Production (Acute Response Phase 2) Decreased Temperature 2 Specialized Physi 1) Shivering Thermogenesis (invol Contractions of skeletal muscle)-Shivering 2) Non-shivering Thermogenesis- Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)-Specialized for Heat Production
Acclimatization to Cold (2) 1) Decrease heat Loss-Inc Insulation= Lower LCT 2) Increase heat production-Increase BMR (Thyroxine)-Increase non-shivering thermog -BAT 3) Counter-Current
Evolutionary=Adaptations of Large animals -Large size -Insulation -Shivering
Evolutionary=Adaptations of Small Animals -More Brown Adipose Tissue -Microhabitats-burrows -Communal Nesting -Torpor-Dropping Body Temperature(Save ATP) =Controlled Hypothermia -Reducing Metabolic Rate in Dec in temp
Level of Response (3) 1) Acute Response-Straight away (Indiv) 2) Acclimatization-Change to develop (Indiv) 3) Evolutionary Adaptations-Mutation (Over generation)
Energy =capacity to do work
Work =Force applied over a distance
Different Types of Energy (4) 1)Kinectic-Movement 2)Potential-Stored 3)Chemical 4)Thermal-Heat
Laws of Thermodynamics (2) 1) Energy can be transferred or transformed but NOT Created or destroyed -Chemical energy (food)=ATP + Heat 2)Every energy transfer increase entropy of the universe =heat
Metabolism -Total of all the chemical reactions occurring in an organism -Includes Anabolic and Catabolic Pathways
Anabolic Pathway BUILD of Complex molecules Simple->Complex -Use energy e.g Amino acid-> Protein
Catabolic Pathway BREAK down Complex Mol Complex->Simple -Release Energy e.g. Protein->amino Acid
Metabolic Rate 2 ways of measuring Total Amount of energy used by an animal in unit of time 1) Indirect 2) Direct
1) Direct measure of Metabolic Rate -Measure heat loss from Animal -Put in an insulated chamber with a device to measure heat loss '
2) Indirect measure of Metabolic Rate -Measure of O2 consumption OR -Measure of CO2 Production -Resulting from Cellular Respiration
Acute -Constantly changing e.g. food intake
Acclimatization -e.g. Cold Temperatures
Evolutionary Adaptations -Endothermy -Body Size
MMR- Minimum Metabolic Rate =Minimum energy required for basic function (Survival)
Factors effecting MMR-Minimum Metabolic Rate (2 Categories) 1)Endotherms 2)Ectotherms
1) Endotherms -Maintain constant Tb with metabolic heat -Expensive=High BMR -Can Stay active in Cold
2) Ectotherms -Don't use metabolic heat to maintain Tb -External heat source -Cheap=Low BMR -Limits size and activity
BMR-Basal Metabolic Rate =Controlled by THYROXINE (secreted from Thyroid Glad) -increase rate at wh cell uses energy -Sustain Basic Function while lying in a hammock For Endotherms (Mammals & Birds) -At Rest -Empty Stomachs -Thermoneutral Temp -Not Growing -No Stress
Metabolic Rate Fuel + O2-> ATP + CO2 + H2O
Factors effecting Basal Metabolic Rate (2) 1) Bioenergetics Strategies (Ecto or Endo) 2) Body Size
2) Body Size-Large -Overall BMR is larger in relation to body mass -But in relation to surface area to volume ratio has a lower mas-Specific BMR -Cheaper to run -More efficient
2) Body Size-Small -Overall BMR is lower in relation to body mass -Bu in relation to Surface area to volume ratio has a higher Mass-specific BMR -MORE Expensive to Run
Why do small animals have a large Mass-specific MR (Fast Pace Life) Save oneself -More cells -High level of Hemoglobin -High RBC Count -High Metabolism -Inc Heart Rate -Inc Respiratory Rate
Respiration (4) 1) Ventilation 2) Pulmonary Diffusion 3) Circulation 4) Tissue Diffusion
1) Ventilation or Breathing -Movement of Air from the environment to the respiratory surfaces (Alveoli) of Lungs
2) Pulmonary Diffusion -Movement of gas molecules between the Alveolar air and the blood in Pulmonary Capillaries
3) Circulation or Transport -Movement of gas molecules between the lungs and the cells throughout the body
4) Tissue Diffusion -Movement of gas molecules between the blood in systemic/tissue capillaries and the interstitial fluid surrounding cells (then into cells)
Control of Ventilation -Relies on the amount of Carbon Dioxide in blood CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3 <-> H+ + HCO3-
Oxygen Affinity -HIGH Oxygen Affinity mean haemoglobin takes oxygen up easily -LOW -Not easily -HIGH P50 indicates lower binding ability fro oxygen to haemoglobin
Haemoglobin -Oxygen Binds to it and allow the ability to be transported
Hypoxaemia -Reduced pO2 in Arterial Blood -Leads to tissue Hypoxia
Causes of Hypoxaemia (3) 1) Low O2 in environment 2) Insufficient Ventilation 3) Insufficient Pulmonary Diffusion
Hypoxic Condition (3) 1) High Altitudes 2) Underground Burrows 3) During Diving
What Is the Acute Response To Hypoxia Hyperventilation
Acclimatization To Low O2 (3) 1) Hyperventilation Persists or increases 2) Increased O2 Carrying Capacity of blood -Polycythemia 3) Capillary Recruitment
1) Hyperventilation Persists or increases -Changes in the sensitivity of chemoreceptors to arterial oxygen Levels
2) Increased O2 carrying capacity of Blood- Due to Polycythemia -inc In the numb. of red blood cells in Blood -inc the haemoglobin conc
3) Capillary Recruitment -increase in capillary
Evolutionary Adaptations (3) 1) Genetic Changes to cope with low O2 2)Shape/Function of hemoglobin 3)Change Hb affinity for O2
Lower P50 =Higher Affinity For O2 =Easier to pick up O2
Marine Mammals Diving (2) 1) Increase O2 Storage in body (Mus) 2) Efficient use of O2 during Diving
1) Increase O2 Storage 1) No increase in lung Storage (Compact them) 2) Increased Storage in blood + Muscles -Increased Blood Volume -Increased Hemoglobin -Increased Myoglobin in Muscl
Efficient use of O2 (3) 1) Diving Reflex 2) Change in Circulation 3) Decreased metabolic Rate
Muscle Contraction (1-6) (10) -Intention- 1) Activity In Cerebral Cortex, Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum 2)Motor Cortex Firing 3)Impulses in descending motor pathways 4)Motor Neuron Excitation 5)Impulse propagation to axon terminals 6)Neuromuscular Transmission
Muscle Contraction (7-10) (10) 7)Impulse propagation along sarcolemma 8)Impulses into T-Tubules 9)Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum 10) Engagement of cross-bridge -Movement-
Single Action Potential =Twitch
Multiple action Potentials Cause? =Tetanus
Slow Twitch Fibres (Type 1) are most suited to aerobic respiration
Fast Twitch Fibres are suitable for sprints
Type 1 (Slow Twitch) -Slow -Oxidative Intermediate -Slow Fatigue -Slow Twitch response
Type 2a (Fast Twitch) -Fast -Fatigue-Resistant -Fast Oxidative Glycotytic -Red
Type 2x (Fast Twitch) -Fast Fatigue -Fast Glycolytic -White
Types of muscle contraction (3) 1) Concentric 2) Isometric 3) Eccentric
1) Concentric Muscle Contraction -In tension and shortening -Muscle Force is greater than resistance -Lifting weight
2) Isometric Muscle Contraction -In tension, at a constant length -Muscle force is equal to resistance -Holding a weight stationary
3) Eccentric Muscle Contraction -In tension and lengthens -Muscle force is less than resistance -Slowly lowering a weight
Created by: Melissa Jones



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