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UNIT I Geography

Geography, Climate & Resources

Geography the study of the Earth's physical and cultural features such as mountains, rivers, people, cities, and countries. There are 2 types, physical geography (study Earth's landforms) and human geography (study humans in a particular location).
Five Themes of Geography Location, Place, Human-Environment Interaction (HEI), Movement, & Region
Region an area that has one or more "unifying characteristics" or features that make it different from surrounding areas. EX: The Jersey Shore, the East Coast, the Great Lakes region.
Place generally smaller than a region, a place has a "unique characteristic" that makes it different than its neighbors. Weather, plants and animals, history, and the people that live there can make a place unique.
(HEI) Human Environment Interaction a place's environment influences how people live. People in cold climates wear warmer clothes and to drink more hot soup and hot chocolate. People also impact their environment as they harvest resources like cutting down forests for wood to build homes
Location 1. Absolute _______ - the exact location on Earth. Coordinates made of the intersection between lines of latitude and longitude. 2. Relative ______ - location in relation to other places. Direction and distance are described.
Movement the world is constantly changing, and places are affected by the movement of people, goods, ideas, and physical forces. People and other animals migrate, money and goods are traded between countries, rivers change course.
Physical Map shows Earth's physical, or natural features such as bodies of water, rivers, mountains, valleys, forests etc. Anything "mother nature" created.
Political Map shows political units and the boundaries between them, such as countries, states, counties, towns etc. They have NOTHING TO DO WITH POLITICS.
Special Purpose Map shows the location or distribution of human or physical features on Earth. Ex: If I were going to show who won each state in a presidential election I would use this type of map. If I wanted to study the Northern Hairy-Nosed Wombat, I would use this map.
Altitude aka elevation or height above sea level. Generally, the higher in elevation you go, the colder it gets. One of the factors that affects climate
Latitude Imaginary lines on a map that run horizontally East and West (flat) but are a measurement of distance North or South from the Equator. One of the factors that affects climate. When writing an absolute location, it is written first.
Longitude Imaginary lines on a map that run vertically North and South but are a measurement of distance East or West of the Prime Meridian. When writing an absolute location, it is written second.
Polar Climate high latitudes (66.5⁰N or S - 90⁰N or S); furthest from the equator; generally very cold
Temperate Climate middle latitudes (23.5⁰N or S - 66.5⁰ N or S); generally mild weather, 4 seasons. We live in the Temperate zone.
Tropical Climate low latitudes (0⁰ - 23.5⁰ N or S); closest to the equator, generally hot and humid; There are 2 Tropical zones: Northern - Tropic of Cancer Southern - Tropic of Capricorn
Current similar to rivers flowing through the ocean, carrying warm water from the equator towards the poles, and cold water from the poles towards the equator. That water changes the air temp & keeps temperatures from getting too hot or too cold.
Environment ALL the living and nonliving things that affect life in an area. (Biotic and abiotic)
Natural Resources products of the Earth that people use to meet their basic needs. Materials found in nature that people need and value. EX: iron ore, lumber, stone, mud, fresh water, food
Minerals a pure and naturally occurring substance that people need to dig (mine) out of the Earth. Example: Gold, silver, copper, iron
What are the components of a good map? (Think: D.O.G.S.T.A.I.L.) Date, Orientation, Grid, Scale, Title, Author, Index, and Legend
What affects a region's climate? (There are 3 factors) 1. Latitude, or distance from the equator 2. Altitude, or height above sea level 3. Currents, or river-like movements of water in the world's oceans.
What is the main difference between climate and weather? Climate is the weather patterns for a location OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME, while weather can be for very short periods. When describing climate OR weather, you describe the same 2 characteristics: Temperature & precipitation.
What is the difference between altitude and latitude? Altitude is the height above sea level, while Latitude is a measurement of distance North OR South from the equator.
How do latitude and altitude affect a region's climate? Latitude: The further you go from the Equator the colder the climate will get. Altitude: The further up you go in elevation or height above sea level the colder the climate will get.
How do ocean currents affect a region's climate? They help to circulate both warm and cold water around the world. This water either warms or cools the air directly above it, helping to make many regions more temperate.
Why do people settle in a specific area? People settle in a specific area for 2 main reason: A climate suitable for easy survival, meaning it's not too cold or too hot to survive easily. Also, people look for an area with a lot of natural resources so they have what they need to live well.
What are the 2 types of natural resources? Be able to provide an example of each. Renewable-Resources that can be replaced as fast or faster than they are used i.e. solar energy, farmed animals and plants Non-renewable-Resources that once used up, will not be replenished within a reasonable amount of time, if at all i.e. fossil fuels
How do you use a grid map? 1. Find the (POI) Point of Interest in the index 2. Use the coordinates given in the index to find the location on the map. (Trace with your fingers from the edges of the map. Find where the two lines intersect)
Find Relative Location - A location relative to or compared to another location 1. Find both locations 2. Measure the distance between them 3. Determine the direction (from compass rose) 4. Location A is ___miles ____(direction) of location B.
Find Absolute Location - An exact location (latitude, longitude) 1. Find the Equator, and figure out if you are North or South. Write down how many degrees (distance). 2. Find the Prime Meridian, and figure out if you are East or West. Write down the degrees (distance).
How do you use a scale? 1. Find the Scale 2. Measure (determine) the scale 3. Measure the distance between two locations 4. Set up your equivalent fraction & DO ALL THE MATH!
Draw a 16 point compass rose SEE PAGE 9 IN YOUR NOTES
Good Quality Map Components (D of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Date - When this map was created
Good Quality Map Components (O of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Orientation - A compass rose or north pointer is used to show directions to match North on the map with North in real life.
Good Quality Map Components (G of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Grid - Intersecting vertical and horizontal lines placed ON MAPS THAT ALSO HAVE AN INDEX.
Good Quality Map Components (S of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Scale - Used to determine distances on maps
Good Quality Map Components (T of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Title - Is the name of the region the map shows
Good Quality Map Components (A of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Author - The name of the cartographer or map maker
Good Quality Map Components (I of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Index - An alphabetical list of points of interest on a map WHICH ALSO HAS GRID LINES
Good Quality Map Components (L of D.OG.S.T.A.I.L) Legend - Identifies and decodes the symbols and colors on a map