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Week1Anth&Arch

Edit Teri's stack and add archaeology

TermDefinition
What is Cultural Anthropology? Also known as social or sociocultural anthropology. The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. It focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures.
Name four fields or "subgroups" of Anthropology Cultural Anthropology, Archaeology, Physical Anthropology, and Linguistic Anthropology
What are the Anthropological Perspectives? a. Holism b. Relativism c. Comparativism d. Ethnocentrism e. Cultural Relativism
What is the difference between Ethnocentism and Cultural Relativism? Ethnocentism is the perspective that your own culture is superior. CR is the perspective that all cultures have worth.
What is Ethnography? A written description of a single culture. Example: A description of Nez Perce culture.
Define Culture: Socially patterned and learned thoughts and behavior that is passed on from generation to generation and that guides human behavior and is the unique way humans adapt to natural and social environment.
What is Ethnology? Relates to comparativism: The comparative study of specific aspects of 1-2 cultures.
What is Participant Observation? Living and participating in the daily lives of people being studied without actually becoming a member of the culture.
What is Ethnographic Present? A specific period of time during which a culture is studied and information is recorded. (A snapshot in time)
What are three aspects of "Culture" 1. What people make - material culture 2. What people think 3. The way people act or behave
What is a Sub-Culture or a microculture? A culture within a multicultural society. Social groups w/in a larger society. Same distinctive language, beliefs, and behaviors.
What is an Ethnic Group? A dependent culturally distinct population that forms part of a larger state and that formally was autonomous (African Americans)
What are some of the aspects of World View? The way people perceive and interpret reality and events. It can include physical and spiritual aspects, one's purpose in life, whether there is a creator, if there is evil and where it comes from, time and space, economic conditions, and values.
What can one's World View lead to? Generalizations and stereotypes. People overuse resources and produce garbage (less people = less garbage)
Define Acculturation Refers to the culture change that occurs when 2 or more cultures come into contact and the smaller scale population (non-western)changes
Define Holistic Perspective Holistic Perspective: An attempt to understand all the factors of the community, rather than focusing on a single aspect.
Define Comparative Perspective General theoretical ideas about humans or human societies or cultures must be tested from a comparative perspective. (nature, sexuality,warfare,family,and relationships)
Define Relativism All cultures have intrinsic worth and must be understood on their own terms. No culture is inherently superior or inferior to any other. Your culture does it this way, we do it that way.
Define Archaeology Archaeology – Study of the non-written past. The study of the past using material objects that people use (artifacts).
What is Biological (or physical) Anthropology? Also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms. Study of diversity (physiological) among human populations and the study of human ancestors (migrations of human populations). Genome Project (DNA)
Define Linguistic Anthropology Linquistic Anthropology – Study of human language (the human language is the most complex). Including historical connections and documentation of languages that are going extinct.
Define Ethnography A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.
Define Ethnology The study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities occur among groups..
What is the biocultural approach? Focusing on the interaction of biology and culture
What is Anthropology? The study of humankind in all times and places.
What is the holistic perspective? A fundamental principle of anthropology: that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence.
What is applied anthropology? The application of anthropology to the solution of human problems
What is fieldwork? The term anthropologists use for on-location research
What is relative dating? Relative dating is used to determine if something is older or younger than something else but cannot tell how old something is.
What is chronometic or absolute dating? A method of dating a deposit or specimen that measures the actual age.
What is Stratigraphy and the Law of Superposition? Stratigraphy can be described as a "layer cake" type arrangement of deposits. The Law of Superposition interprets those layers as the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top.
What is radiocarbon dating? A method of absolute dating based on the measurement of the radioactive carbon content of organic materials.
What is Cultural Resource Management? Archaeology that is conducted to comply with federal and state laws that protect archaeological sites.
What is an archaeological site? Any place where physical remains of past human activities exist.
What is an archaeological artifact? Objects made or used by people.
What is an archaeological feature? A non-portable artifact that thus was made by people but cannot be removed from the site such as a storage pit or a garbage dump.
What is an ecofact? Plant and animal remains at an archaeological site. Animal remains and plant pollen are ecofacts that help archaeologists identify what people ate.
What is archaeological context? The relationship between and among the artifacts, features, ecofacts and so on at a site. Without the context, an artifact has little or no scientific values
Scientific thinking: (1)Natural universe can be explained through observation and application of rules and reasoning of a scientific discipline(2)Seeks independent confirmation of facts (3)Entertains multiple working hypotheses that are falsifiable but favors the simplest.
Created by: suvetter