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What are the 4 types of joints - from least to the greatest amount of movement? Bony, Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial
What is a Bony(synotosis) joint? Example? Immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and become one. Example: Infants are born w/ a RT and LT frontal bone-which fuses together to form one frontal bone.
What is a Fibrous Joint? Bones are joined by fibrous tissues. No joint cavity is present. The amount of movement depends on the on the length of the fibers uniting the bones.
What are the 3 types of Fibrous(synarthrosis or synarthrodial) joints? Sutures, Gomphoses, and Syndesmoses
What is a suture? Example? Fibers are very short and allow very little or no movement. Example: Sutures between the parietal bones
What is Gomphoses? Example? Fibers are short and allow little movement. Example: Between tooth and bone(maxilla or mandible)
What is Syndesmoses? Example? Fibers are longer and the attached bones are more movable. Example: Between the tibia/fibula and ulna/radius
What is a Cartilaginous Joint? And what are the two types? When the articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage. Types: Synchondroses and Symphyses
What is Synchondroses? Example? When bones are connected by 'Hyaline Cartilage'(articular cartilage) Example:*The epiphyseal plates of the long bones seen in children- *Attachment of rib to sternum by hyaline coastal cartilage.
What is Symphyses? Example? Bones formed by 'Fibrocartilage' Example: Pubic Symphysis and the intervertebral joints.
What is a Synovial Joint? Joints where the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid. All synovial joints are freely movable.
What are the two types of 'pads' found in synovial joints? Give example for each. 1. Articular Disc: In the sternoclavicular joint-the the articular disc covers the entire joint capsule. 2. Meniscus: in the knee- 2 cartilage pads extend inward from LT to RT- but do NOT entirely cross the joint.
What are the functions of the Articular Discs and Meniscus Pads within the Synovial joints? Absorb shock and pressure, improves fit between 2 bones, and stabilizes the joint.
What is a tendon? Strip or sheet to tough dense regular collagenous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
What is a ligament? Tough dense regular collagenous connective tissue that attaches bone to bone.
What is a bursa? Fibrous sac of synovial fluid located between two muscles/or where tendons pass over bone.
What are 3 functions of a bursa? 1. cushions muscle 2. helps tendons slide easily over joints(tendon sheaths) 3. can improve mechanical effect(s) of muscle.
Synovial Joint: Define 'Hinge' and Example Moves only in one plane(Monoaxial) Example: Humeroulnar=Flexion & Extension (can only bend in 1 direction)
Synovial Joint: Define 'Gliding' and Example Adjacent bones slide over one another(limited monoaxial movement) Example: Joints between the carpals- intercarpals.
Synovial Joint: 'Pivot' and Example (Monoaxial joint) An example of this type of joint is the articulation between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2), which allows the head to rotate from side to side (in the "no" motion). C1 & C2 rotation
Synovial Joint: 'Saddle' and Example Articular biaxial surface is shaped like a saddle. Example: carpalmetacarpal of thumb(CMC of thumb)
Synovial Joint: 'Condyloid/ or Ellipsoid and Example Similar to a ball and socket, but movement is more restricted. Allows two way-biaxial movement. Example: Metacarpophalangeal (knuckles)
Synovial Joint: 'Ball and Socket' and Example One bone has a smooth hemispherical head that fits into the cup of another bone. Can move in all directions Example: Hip and Glenohumeral(shoulder) Example:
Flexion and Extension/ Anatomical Position / and Example Flexion: Bending Extension: Straightening Anatomical Plane: Sagittal Example: arm, knee, humeral joint, hip
Abduction and Adduction/ Anatomical Position/ and Example Abduction: Away from midline Adduction: Towards midline Position: Frontal Plane Example: Fanning of fingers and bringing back together
Lateral Rotation and Medial Rotation/ Anatomical Position/ and Example Lateral Rotation: External Rotation Medial Rotation: Internal Rotation Position: Transverse Plane Example: Hip and Glenohumeral Joint
Supination and Pronation/ Anatomical Position/ and Example Supination:Movement of palm to anterior(upward) position Pronation: Movement of palm to posterior(downward) position. Position: Supinated position Example:proximal and distal radioulnar joint
Dorsiflexion and Plantarflexion/ Anatomical Position/ and Example Dorsiflexion: Toes flexed towards knees Plantarflexion: Toes pointed down Position: Sagittal Plane Example: Talocrural Joint
Inversion and Eversion/ Anatomical Position/ and Example Inversion: Turning foot inward Eversion: Turning foot outward Position: Frontal Plane Example: Subtalar joint
Elevation and Depression/ Anatomical Position/ and Example Elevation: Arms up-pushes scapula up Depression: Arms Down Position: Frontal Plane Example: Scapulothoracic Joint
Protraction and Retraction/ Anatomical Position/ and Example Protraction: Closer to vertebral column Retraction: Away from vertebral column Position: Frontal plane
Upward/Lateral Rotation and Downward/Medial Rotation- Anatomical Position/ and Example Upward Rotation: Tips up Downward Rotation: Tips down Position: Frontal Plane Example: Scapulothoracic
Created by: Anniemal



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