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Vet Pharmocology

Lesson 2

Five Rights of Drug Administration -Right Patient -Right Drug -Right Dose -Right Route -Right time and Frequency
Oral By Mouth
Emulsions Milky solutions containing the drug
Elixirs Compound medicine held in solution by alcohol
Topical Placed on skin
Liniments Liquid rubs thinner than ointment.
Administering Medications can be done with: -Pill Guns -Speculum (tool placed in cavity opening) -stomach tube -Sryinge -or with your hands
Four types of syringes -Slip tip -Luer Lock -Eccentric tip -Catheter tip
Slip Tip Syringe most commonly used.
Luer Lock Syringe screw top that secures the needle to the syringe.
Eccentric Tip Syringe used when injecting larger volumes (greater than 20 mls) into a vein.
Offset Hub Syringe syringe allows you to place a large syringe parallel to the vein you're trying to inject.
Catheter Tip Syringe good for oral feeding catheters.
Endotracheal Tubes placed in the trachea.
Medications concentrations come in many different unit sizes: Metric: Grams, liters Apothecary System: grains, ounces Household System: ggt(drops), teaspoons, tablespoons
Conversion Factor 1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds To convert pounds to kilograms, divide the pounds by 2.2 to get the weight in kilograms. To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply the weight in kilograms by 2.2 to get the weight in pounds.
Central Nervous System brain, and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System nerves
Neuron basic unit of the nervous system
Dendrites carries electrical impulses carried by the fibers INTO the neuron
Axon carries electrical impulses carried by fibers AWAY from the neuron
Neurotransmitters chemicals released bind to receptors on dendrite
-mimetics Drugs that imitate neurotransmitters
-lytics Drugs that disrupt neurotransmitters
Lyse Disrupt
Somatic Nervous System nerves connecting the central nervous system to brain and to the skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System composed of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. associated with 'fight or flight' (adreneric) dopamine, epinephrine (adrendaline), norepinephrine.
Parasympathetic Nervous System Involves energy conserving processes. (Cholinergic)acethylcholine
Autonomic Nervous System -Imitating neurotransmitters -interfering with neurotransmitter release -Blocking the attachment of neurotransmitter release
Cholinergic Agents -Help diagnose myasthenia gravis -Reduce eye pressures with glaucoma -Stimulate gastrointestinal motility -Treat urinary retention -Control vomiting -Act as antidote for agents that prevent neuromuscular functioning
Direct-acting Agents attach to acetylcholine receptor
Indirect-acting agents inhibit the breakdown or removal of natural acetylcholine from the acetycholine receptors
Bradycardia Abnormally slow heartbeat
Cholinergic Blocking Agents block the action of acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors. They: -Decrease gastrointestinal motility -Dilate pupils for eye examinations -Relieve ciliary spasms in the eye -treat sinus bradycardia
Atropine/Glycopyrrolate/Aminopentamide Adverse Reactions -Drowsiness -Disorientation -Tachycardia -Photophobia -Constipation -Anxiety -Burning sensation at site of injection
Adrenergic Agents catecholamine or noncatecholamine mediated. -Stimulate the heart to beat during cardiac arrest -Reverse hypotension and bronchoconstriction due to anaphylactic shock -Strengthen the heart during congestive heart failure
Adrenergic Agents (Cont) -Correct hypotension through vasoconstriction -Reduce capillary bleeding through vasoconstriction -Treat urinary incontinence -Reduce mucous membrane congestion found in allergic conditions
Adrenergic Agents (Cont 2) -Prolong effects of local anesthetic agents by causing vasoconstriction -Treat glaucoma
Epinephrine stimulates all 4 receptors causing: -Increased heart rate and cardiac output -constriction of skin blood vessels -dilation of muscle blood vessels -dilation of bronchioles -increase metabolic rate
Vasopressor Raises blood pressure
analgesic Pain relieving
sedative sleep causing
Side effects of Norepinephrine -Tachycardia -Hypertension -Nervousness -Cardiac arrhythmias
Adrenic blocking agents Interfer with the activity of the sympathetic nervous system
Created by: 674295615



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