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Vet Pharamacology

Lesson 1

Indications Reasons for giving a drug.
Contraindications Reasons for NOT giving a drug.
Drugs are regulated by the FDA
Prescription Drug Legend Drug
Veterinarian-client relationship must exist to receive a prescription
The Veterinarian is responsible for: - assumed responsibility for making clinical judgments and the need of treatments. -having sufficient knowledge of the animal to issue a diagnosis. -being available for follow-up evaluations.
Over The Counter Don't require prescriptions to purchase. These don't require supervision by a professional to administer.
Drug Regimen - Kind of Drug -Route of Administration -Dosage -Frequency -Duration
Pharmacokinetics Complex series of events the occurs once a dug is administered to a paitent.
Oral PO
Intravenous IV
Intramuscular IM
Subcutaneous SQ or SC
Parenteral Injectible
Intradermal ID (into the skin)
Intraperitoneal IP (into the abdominal cavity)
Intra-arterial IA (into an artery)
Intra-articular Into a Joint
Intracardiac into the heart
Intramedullary into the bone marrow cavity
Epidural/Subdural Into the spine (epi) or near the spine (sub)
Inhalation Drugs anesthetic- lose consciousness and through a vaporizor Antibiotics- bronchodlators
Transdermal Topical Drugs
Concentration Gradient the difference in concentrations of drugs from one compartment of the body to another. Drugs move from high to low concentration areas.
Bioavailability measures the amount of drug that gets absorbed and is able to the paitent.
Water-soluable Dissolves in water.
Lipid-soluable Dissolves in bodily fats.
Interstitial Fluid in the space between organs and tissues.
Placenta organ that connects a growing fetus to the mother's uterus
Blood-brain-barrier barrier that prevents blood from entering the brain tissues
Oxidation Loss of electrons in the drug's chemical makeup.
Reduction The gain of electrons in the drug's chemical makeup.
Hydrolysis splitting of the drug's molecule and the addition of water molecules to each split portion.
Conjugation joining together two compounds to make another compound that dissolves more quickly in water,
Enzymes proteins produced by living cells
Drug Excretion removal of the drug, through the liver (Bile) or kidneys (Urine). Some drugs can be excreted by the mammary glands (Milk), sweat, saliva, or through the skin.
Residue drugs that appear in the animal's milk or meat products.
Pharmacodynamics the study of the mechanisms by which drugs produce physiological changes in the body.
Receptors Parts of the cell that receive stimuli.
Agonists Drugs that attach to certain receptors and cause specific actions.
Antagonists drugs that block receptors from being acted.
Efficacy The degree to which a drug produces it's desired effect.
Potency the amount needed of the drug to produce a desired effect.
Lethal Dose the dose that is lethal to 50% of the animals given the drug.
Effective Dose a dose of the drug that provides desired effect.
Therapeutic index LD50/ED50. The higher the therapeutic index, the safer the drug is. Drugs with lower therapeutic index must be used with caution.
adverse drug reaction any undesired response to a drug.
Proprietary Trade/Brand Name
Generic Unpatented copy of the drug
Formulary a book that contains drug dosages and a listings of adverse reactions.
Drug Labels Must contain: -Drug Names (both generic and trade name) -Drug concentrations and quanity -Name and address of manufacturer -Controlled Substance status -Manufacturer's control or lot number -Drug expiration date
Center for Veterinary Medicine CVM
Enviromental Protection Agency EPA
United States Food and Drug Administration FDA
Drug Enforcement Agency DEA
Records of Drugs should include: -Date of prescription -Owner and patient name -Drug name -Amount dispensed and strength of drug -initials of dispensing doctor
United States Department of Agriculture USDA regulates the development and approval of biologics.
Biologics medical products such as: -vaccines -serums -antitoxins
Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank FARAD Sponsored by USDA and is involved with producing "safe foods of animal origin"
Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA) made the extra-label use of approved veterinary drugs legal under certain well-defined conditions.
FDA Policy on compounding involved diluting or combining various medications in order to medicate animals of various sizes. -Identification of legitimate veterinary medical need -need for an appropriate regimen for a particular species, size, gender, or medical condition of paitent
FDA (cont') -lack of an approved animal or human drug that when used as labeled will treat the condition -not enough time to secure the drug needed
Veterinary Feed Firective (VFD) gave CVM the ability to better regulate drugs that go into animal feeds.
Created by: 674295615



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