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Anatomy1

QuestionAnswer
Topic 1a: m. latissimus dorsi, m. trapesius, m. rhomboideus m. latissimus dorsi, m. trapesius, m. rhomboideus
M. Latissimus Dorsi O: Lig Supraspinale + fascia thoracolumbalis I: Tuberositas teres major Humerous A: flexes shoulder joint & draws limb caudally (digging)
M. Trapezius Pars Cervicis O: Median raphe of neck Pars Thoracis O: Lig Supraspinale (t4-t13) I: Spina Scapula A: elevate & abduct forelimb
M. Rhomboideus pars capitis o: Crista nuchea/squama occip Pars cervicis O: Lig nuchea Pars thoracis O: Lig supraspinale (T4-T6) I:margo dorsalis scapula A: elevate forelimb
Topic 1b: m. serratus ventralis, mm. Pectorales M. Serratus ventralis M. Pectoralis superficialis Transverse pectoral M. Pectoralis profundus
M. Serratus ventralis Pars cranialis O: proc. transversus C3-C7 Pars caudalis O: Ribs 1-7 I: Facies serrate A: supports trunk and depresses scapula
M. Pectoralis superficialis Decending O: Presternum I: Crista tuberculum majoris A: adducts limb or prevents adduction when bearing weight Transverse O: cran 1/3 sternum I: crista tuberculum majoris
M. Pectoralis profundus O: Sternum I: Lesser tubercle of the humerus A: flex and extend shoulder joint & pulls trunk cranially/draws limb caudally
Topic 2a: extensors of the shoulder M. Supraspinatus M. Coracobrachialis
M. Supraspinatus O: Supraspinous fossa of scapula. I: Greater and lesser tubercle of humerus. A: Extends and flexes shoulder; supports the trunk.
M. Coracobrachialis O: Medial side of the humeral neck. I: Coracoid process. A: Extends shoulder.
Topic 2b: flexors of the shoulder M. Deltoideus M. Infraspinatus M. Teres major M. Teres minor M. Subscapularis
M. Deltoideus O: Spina scapula and acromium. I: Deltoid tuberosity. A: Flexes the shoulder, abductor of the upper arm.
M. Infraspinatus O: Infraspinous fossa and scapular spine. I: Facies m. infraspinatus on the greater tubercle of humerus. A: Extends and flexes theshoulder; its tendon functions as a collateral ligament.
M. Teres major O: Proximal 1/3 caudal border of scapula (medial). I: Major teres tuberosity. A: Flexes the shoulder.
M. Teres minor O: Distal 1/3 caudal border of scapula (lateral). I: Teres minor tuberosity. A: Flexes the shoulder.
M. Subscapularis O: Subscapular fossa. I: Lesser tubercle of humerus. A: Flexes, extends and adducts shoulder; its tendon functions as a collateral ligament.
Topic 3a: extensors of the elbow M. Triceps brachii M. Tensor faciae antebrachii M. Anchoneus
M. Triceps brachii O: long head: Caudal distal border of scapula lateral head: lateral on humerus medial head: medial on humerus accessory head: caudal proximal on humerus I: Olecranon tuberosity. A: Extends elbow
M. Tensor faciae antebrachii O: Terminal tendon of m. latissimus dorsi and m. teres major. I: Faciae antebrachii + olecranon A: Extends elbow.
M. Anchoneus O: Caudal distal border of humerusand epicondyles (fossa supratrochlearis). I: Laterally on olecranon and antebrachial fascia. A: Extends elbow.
Topic 3b: flexors of the elbow M. Biceps brachii M. Brachialis
M. Biceps brachii O: Supraglenoid tubercle on scapula I: Medially on olecranon and antebrachial fascia. Ulnar + radial tuberosity. A: Flexes elbow and extends shoulder
M. Brachialis O: Caudal on the neck of humerus. I: Proximal medial on radius andulna (between biceps). Ulnar +radial tuberosity. A: Flexes elbow.
Topic 4a: carpal flexors, pronators of the radioulnar joint Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris M. Pronator teres M. Pronator quadratus
Flexor carpi radialis O: Medial epicondyle of humerus. I: 2nd and 3rd metacarpus. A: Flexes the carpus.
Flexor carpi ulnaris O: Medial Epicondyle of humerus (large humeral head), olecranon(weaker ulnar head). I: Accessory carpal bone. A: Flexes the carpus.
M. Pronator teres O: Medial epicondyle of humerus. I: Cranial medial surface proximally on radius. A: Pronation of the forearm.
M. Pronator quadratus O: Radius and ulna (interosseousspace). I: Radius and ulna (interosseousspace). A: Pronation of the manus
Topic 4b: digital flexors of the forelimb, pronators of the radioulnar joint M. Pronator teres M. Pronator quadratus Superficial digital flexor Deep digital flexor
M. Pronator teres O: Medial epicondyle of humerus. I: Cranial medial surface proximally on radius. A: Pronation of the forearm.
M. Pronator quadratus O: Radius and ulna (interosseousspace). I: Radius and ulna (interosseousspace). A: Pronation of the manus
Superficial digital flexor O: Medial epicondyle of humerus. I: Palmar base surface of the middle phalanxes of 2,3,4 and 5. A: Flexes the carpus and digits.
Deep digital flexor O: Medial epicondyle of humerus (large humeral head), medially on olecranon (weaker ulnar head), middle third of radius (the smallest radial head). I: Flexor palmar surface of distal phalanxes. A: Flexes the carpus and digits.
Topic 5a: carpal extensors, supinator of the radioulnar joint Extensor carpi radialis m. Ulnaris Lateralis m. Brachioradialis M. Supinator
Extensor carpi radialis O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus. I: Proximal on 2nd and 3rdmetacarpal bone. A: Extends the carpus.
m. Ulnaris Lateralis O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus. I: Lateral on 5th metacarpal bone and accessory bone. A: Abducts the carpus, flexes when lifted and extends when on the ground.
m. Brachioradialis O: Humeral crest I: Medial distal extremity of radius. A: Supinate the forearm and paw.
M. Supinator O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus. I: Cranial surface of the proximal 4th of radius. A: Supinates the forearm and flexes elbow.
Topic 5b: digital extensors of the forelimb, supinator of the radioulnar joint m. extensor digitorium communis m. extensor digitorium lateralis m. digitorium 1 and 2 m. abductor Brachioradialis M. Supinator
m. extensor digitorium communis O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus. I: Extensor process of distal phalanx. A: Extends the carpus and 2nd,3rd,4th and 5th digits.
m. extensor digitorum lateralis O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus. I: Middle + distal phalanx of 3,4 and 5. A: Extends the 3rd,4th and 5th digits.
m. digitorium pollicis et indicis O: Middle 3rd of ulna. I: 1st and 2nd digit. A: Extends the 1st and 2nd digits.
m. abductor pollicis longus O: Lateral on radius. I: 1st digit. A: Abducts and extends
Brachioradialis O: Humeral crest I: Medial distal extremity of radius. A: Supinate the forearm and paw.
M. Supinator O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus. I: Cranial surface of the proximal 4th of radius. A: Supinates the forearm and flexes elbow.
Topic 6: m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. omotransversarius M Omotransversarious M. Sterocleidomastoideus -M.Sternocephalicus -M.Brachiocephalicus
M Omotransversarious O: Wing of atlas + Trans proc C2 I: Distal end of spina scapulae A: advance limb and flex neck laterally
M. Sterocleidomastoideus M.Sternocephalicus M Brachiocephalicus
M.Sternocephalicus m.Sternooccipitalis O: Manubrium Sterni I: Crista nuchea M. Sternomastoideus O: Manubrium sterni I: Processus mastoideus A: Draws head and neck to the side
M Brachiocephalicus m. cleidocephalicus - m. cleidomastoideus O: Processus mastoideus - m. cleidocervicalis O: Lig nuchea M. cleidobrachialis O: Humeral crest I: Clavicular intersection A: Advance limb, extend shoulder, draw head and neck to the side
Topic 7: muscles of the pelvic girdle M. psoas minor M. iliopspas M. quadratus lumborum
M. psoas minor O:last 3 thoracic v, 1-4th lumbar vertebrae I: linea arcuata os illium A: Flexes and stabilizes the lumbar vertebral column.
M. iliopspas m. psoas major o:last thoracic v, lumbar v I:lesser trochanter femur m. iliacus O:fascia illiaca, wing of illium A: Flexes hip and rotates thigh.
M. quadratus lumborum O: ventral on transverse proc. Lumbar vertebrae I: transverse proc lumbar vertebrae, wing of sacrum and wing of illium A: Fixes the lumbar vertebral column
Topic 8: dorsal and deep muscles of the buttock Superficial gluteal Middle gluteal Deep gluteal M. piriformis External obturator Internal obturator Gemelli muscles M. quadratus femoris
Superficial gluteal O: Gluteal fasciae, lateral border of sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament and surrounding area. I: Distal to the greater trochanter. A: Extends hip and abducts limb.
Middle gluteal O: Gluteal surface and crest of the illium. I: Near the greater trochanter. A: Extends hip and abducts limb, rotates limb to medial.
Deep gluteal O: Gluteal surface of ilium (wing). Body of ilium + ischiatic spine. I: Greater trochanter. A: Extends hip and abducts limb, rotates limb to medial.
M. piriformis O: Last sacral vertebra and sacrotuberous ligament. I: Near the greater trochanter. A: Extends hip and abducts limb.
External obturator O: Foramen obturatum (ventral). I: Trochanteric fossa caudal on femur. A: Rotates hip outward.
Internal obturator O: Foramen obturatum (ventral). I: Trochanteric fossa caudal on femur. A: Rotates hip outward.
Gemelli muscles O: Lateral surface of ischium. I: Trochanteric fossa caudal on femur (on both sides of the internal obturator). A: Rotates hip outward
M. quadratus femoris O: Tuber ischiadicum + ventral border of caudal ischium. I: Distal to trochanteric fossa A: Extends the hip, rotates hip outward
Topic 9: caudal muscles of the buttock M. Biceps femoris M. abductor cruris caudialis M. semitendinosus M. semimebranosus
M. Biceps femoris O: Sacrotuberous ligament and ischiatic tuberosity. I: Femoral and crural fasciae and tuber calcanei. Patellar ligament+ cranial border of tibia. A: Extends hip, stifle and hock, and caudal part flexes the stifle.
M. abductor cruris caudialis O: Sacrotuberous ligament. I: Fascia cruris. A: Stifle flexor, hip extensor and abductor.
M. semitendinosus O: Ischiatic tuberosity. I: Medial surface of the tibia and crural fasciae to tuber calcanei. A: Stifle flexor, hip and hock extensor
M. semimebranosus O: Ischiatic tuberosity. I: Caudal rough area on femur and proximal caudal on tibia. A: Extends hip and stifle, can also flex stifle depending on position.
Topic 10: medial muscels of the thigh, canalis femoralis M. Sartorius M. Gracilis M. Pectineus m. Adductor Canalis femoralis
M. Sartorius O: Tuber coxae (cranial and caudal) + lumbar facia. I: cranial: Fasciae genus + patella caudal: fasciae cruris caudialis and cranial border of tibia A: Flexes the hip, extends and flexes the stifle.
M. Gracilis O: Pelvic symphysis. I:Fasciae cruris (tibial tuberosity) and accessory tendon to tuber calcanei. A: Adducts limb, flexes the stifle and extends hip and hock.
M. Pectineus O: Pecten ossis pubis. I: Labium mediale (medial vesalian sesamoid) of femur. A: Adducts the limb.
M. Adductor O: Lateral of the pelvic symphysis. I: All of labium laterale on the caudal side of the facies aspera A: Adducts the limb and extends the hip.
Canalis femoralis Dorsal: M. Iliopsoas. Caudal: M. Pectineus. Crainial: M. Sartorius pars caudialis.
Topic 11: m. quadriceps femoris, m. tensor fasciae latae, m. sartorius M. Quadriceps femoris M. Tensor fasciae latae M. Sartorius
M. Quadriceps femoris O: Ilium (rectus) and proximal on femur (vasti). I:Patella through straight ligament of patella to tibial tuberosity. A: Extends stifle and rectus flexes hip.
M. Tensor fasciae latae O: Tuber coxae and middle gluteal aponeurosis. I: Fasciae latae. A: Flexes hip and extends stifle.
M. Sartorius O: Tuber coxae (cranial and caudal) + lumbar facia. I: cranial: Fasciae genus + patella caudal: fasciae cruris caudialis and cranial border of tibia A: Flexes the hip, extends and flexes the stifle.
12a: tarsal flexors M. Tibialis cranialis M. peroneus longus M. peroneus brevis
M. Tibialis cranialis O: Lateral condyle and crest of tibia and fibula. I: Medial on tarsal and metatarsal bones. A: Flexes hock.
M. peroneus longus O: lateral condyle of tibia and proximal end of fibula. I: 4th tarsal bone on the plantar side. A: Flexes hock.
M. peroneus brevis O: Fibula. I: 5th metatarsal. A: Flexes hock.
Topic 12b: digital extensors of the hindlimb M. extensor digitalis longus M. extensor digitalis brevis M. extensor digitalis lateralis M. extensor hallucis longus
M. extensor digitalis longus O: Extensor fossa of the lateral femoral condyle. I: Extensor process of the 2nd,3rd 4th and 5th distal phalanx. A: Extends digits and flexes tarsus.
M. extensor digitalis brevis O: Cranial tarsal surface from connective tissue over hock. I: 2nd, 3rd and 4th proximal phalanx. A: Assisting digital extensors.
M. extensor digitalis lateralis O: Fibula and lateral collateral ligament of the stifle. I: Blends with the long digital extensor on the 5th digit, proximal phalanx. A: Extensor of the 5th digit.
M. extensor hallucis longus O: Middle part of fibula. I: 2nd phalanx of the 1st digit. A: Extending the 1st digit (if any) and flex tarsus
Topic 13a: tarsal extensors M. Gastrocnemius
M. Gastrocnemius O: Medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosity of femur with sesmaoids. I: Tuber calcanei through the common calcanean tendon. A: Extends the hock, flexes the stifle.
Topic 13b: digital flexors of the hindlimb Superficial digital flexor Deep digital flexors
Superficial digital flexor O: Fossa supracondylaris of femur. I: Middle phalanx of the digits after forming calcanean cap. A: Flexes digits and extends hock.
Deep digital flexors (digitorum lateralis, digitalis medialis and tibialis caudialis) O: Caudal surface of tibia and fibula. I: Flexor surface of the distal phalanx of the digits after running through sustentaculum tali. A: Flexes digits and extends hock.
Topic 14: tendo calcaneus communis Tendo accessorisus Tendo gastrocnemius Tendo plantaris
Tendo accessorisus (biceps femoris, semitendinosus and gracilis) O: Sacrotuberal ligament, ischiatic tuberosity and pelvic symphysis aponeurosis. I: Tuber calcanei through the common calcanean tendon. A: Extends tarsus and hock.
Tendo gastrocnemius (Achilles) O: Medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosity of femur with sesmaoids. I: Tuber calcanei through the common calcanean tendon. A: Extends tarsus and hock.
Tendo plantaris (superficial digital flexor) O: Supracondylar fossa on femur. I: Middle phalanx on the digits. A: Extends tarsus and hock, flexes digits. (superficial digital flexor) O: Supracondylar fossa on femur. I: Middle phalanx on the digits. A: Extends tarsus and hock, flexes digits.
Topic 16: m. splenius, m. semispinalis capitis, muscles of mastication M. Splenius capitis M. semispinalis Capitis M. Masseter M. Temporalis M. Pterygoideus M. Digastricus M. mylohyoideus
M. Splenius capitis O: Thoracolumbar fascia and transverse processes. I: Occipital squama. A: Extends, holds and bends the neck.
M. semispinalis Capitis O: processus transversus I: occipital squama Biventer (dorsal) Complexus (ventral)
M. Masseter O: arcus zygomaticus I: fossa masseterica A: closes the jaw, grinding in herbivores
M. Temporalis - fossa temporalis O: crista sag. Externa, arcus zygomaticus and squama I: proc coronoideus A: closes the jaw
M. Pterygoideus O: proc pterygoideus I:fossa pterygoideus A: closes the jaw
M. Digastricus O: proc jugularis I: margo ventralis on the mandible A: opens the jaw
M. mylohyoideus O: mandible I: hyoid bone A: elevates the hyoid bone
Topic 17: abdominal musculature, rectus sheath M. Obliquus externus abdominis M. Obliquus internus abdominis M. Rectus abdominis M. Transversus abdominis
M. Obliquus externus abdominis O: 3rd-4th rib to thoracolumbar fasciae. I: Inguinal ligament and linea alba. A: Supports stomach (inpirator).
M. Obliquus internus abdominis O: Tuber coxae, transverse processes and thoracolumbar fasciae. I: Last rib and linea alba. A: Suports stomach (expirator).
M. Rectus abdominis O: 1st ribs, sternum and linea alba. I: Pubic symphysis. A: Suports stomach.
M. Transversus abdominis O: Tansverse processes. I: Linea alba. A: Suports stomach.
Topic 18: canalis inguinalis Superficial inguinal ring Deep inguinal ring
Superficial inguinal ring Abdominal and prepubic tendons and external oblique abdominal muscle. Crus laterale and mediale against the pelvis.
Deep inguinal ring Inguinal ligament, m. rectus abdominis and m. internal oblique abdominis. Inguinal ligament, m. rectus abdominis and m. internal oblique abdominis.
Created by: 1043003904