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Ch 23

The Digestive System

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system mixing and propulsion
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the mouth ingestion
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine absorption
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to soften and moisten food salivary glands
Which of the following accessory organs stores bile liver
Which of the following accessory organs of the digestive system produces a fluid that function to emulsify dietary fats gallbladder
These are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response MALT
This specific plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis myenteric plexus
Why would you expect emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract
This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine greater omentum
The hard palate all of the preceding
In the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with periodontal ligament
Deciduous molars are replaced by premolars (bicuspids)
Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine feces formation
This structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage rugae
Which of the following secrete gastric acid parietal cells
This cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid G ell
This major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions pancreatic duct
Which of the following gastric enzymes digests proteins pepsin
This is the heaviest gland of the body liver
This is found on the liver and is a remnant of the umbilical cord in the fetus round ligament
This is the principle bile pigment bilirubin
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver storage of bilirubin
Which of the following small intestine cells secrete lysozyme Paneth cells
Which of the following enzymes acts to produce monoglycerides and fatty acids as products lipase
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts to produce monosaccharides amlayse
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts to produce smaller peptides from proteins chymotrypsin
This hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine secretin
This hormone is stimulated by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine cholecystokinin (CCK)
This digestive aid, produces by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins hydrochloric acid
This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon ileocecal
The wavelike, rhythmic contractions that move food through the digestive tract are called peristalsis
The pyloric sphincter is found between the stomach and duodenum
The pancreas is stimulated to release its secretions by secretin
The physical and chemical breakdown of food is completed primarily in the small intestine
Gastric glands increase their secretory activity in response to a hormone released from the stomach
The space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum is the _____ cavity peritoneal
The intrinsic factor is produced by ___ cells of the gastric glands parietal
Digestion begins in the mouth
Taste buds are found in elevations on the dorsal surface of the tongue called papillae
What are the names of the three sections of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The final products of protein digestion are amino acids
Absorption of nutrients occurs primarily in the small intestine
Which hormone stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice that is rich in digestive enzymes and contraction of the wall of the gallbladder to release bile cholecystokinin
The inner surface of each lip is attached to the gum by a midline fold of mucous membrane called the labial frenulum
Mumps is a viral infection, inflammation, and enlargement of the parotid salivary glands
During the act of deglutition food moves from the oral cavity to the stomach
The dental formula of the deciduous teeth in humans is 2-1-0-2
The dental formula of the permeant teeth in humans is 2-1-2-3
Wisdom teeth are this late erupting type molars
Some organs or part of organs 'within' the abdominal cavity are retroperitoneal True
The serosa of the GI tract is the same as the layer known as the parietal peritoneum False
The greater omentum is the largest of the paritoneal folds True
The localized mixing contractions and relaxations of the muscularis that do not push along the GI tract is called peristalsis False
Some digestion occurs at the surface of the absorptive cells of the small intestine, rather than in the lumen True
Some digestive enzymes are released when absorptive cells slough off into the lumen of the small intestine True
Peyer's patches are found in the wall of the ileum True
Nearly all digestive enzyme precursors secreted into the GI tract are identified by having the prefix 'pro' or the suffix 'ogen' True
The round ligament is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus, a vessel found in fetal circulation False
Carbonic acid is the source for H+ (protons) that are pumped out of the parietal cells into the lumen of the stomach True
HCl is necessary for the activation and activity of pepsin in the stomach True
The hepatic portal vein delivers deoxygenated blood from the GI tract to the sinusoids of the liver True
The sight, smell, taste, or thought of food initiates the cephalic phase of gastric activity True
Both neural and hormonal factors regulate the gastric and intestinal phases of digestion True
Processed blood from the liver returns to the systemic circulation by way of the hepatic vein True
The end products of chemical digestion of complex carbohydrates and double sugars are ___ monosaccharides
The end products of chemical digestion of lipids (triglycerides) are _____ and ____ monoglycerides, fatty acids
The end products of chemical digestion of proteins are ___ ___ amino acids
Lipases break down this nutrient group ____ lipids
Proteases break down this nutrient group ___ proteins
Individuals who do not produce adequate amounts of the enzyme lactase are said to be ___ ____ lactose intolerant
The lymphatic capillary found in a villus is specifically called a ____ lacteal
_____ is the specific term that describes the movement of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach Deglutition
The four principal anatomic regions of the stomach are the: cardia, the _____, the _____, and the _____ fundus, body, pylous
Intrinsic factor is released by the ____ cells in the stomach mucosa and is important for the absorption of vitamin ___ that is needed for erythropoiesis pariteal, B12
Responsible for churning, peristalsis, storage, and chemical digestion with the enzyme pepsin Stomach
Responsible for ingestion, mastication, and deglutition Mouth
Contains aggregated lymphatic follicles in the submucosa Ileum
Produces and secretes bile Liver
Contains duodenal glands in the submucosa Duodenum
Coiled tube of lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum Appendix
Collapsed muscular tube involved in the deglutition and peristalsis Esophagus
Produce a fluid in the mouth that helps cleanse the mouth and that lubricates, dissolves, and begins the breakdown of food Salivary gland
Forces the food to the back of the mouth for swallowing; places food in contact with the teeth Tongue
Forms a semisolid waste material through haustral churning and peristalsis Colon
Passageway for food, fluid and air; involved in deglutition Pharynx
Composed of enamel, dentin, and pulp; used in mastication Teeth
Contain 'acini' that release juices containing several digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate to buffer stomach acid Pancreas
Storage area for bile Gallbladder
Lymphatic capillary used for chylomicron absorption in the small intestine Lacteal
Longitudinal muscular bands in the large intestine; tonic contractions produce haustra Teniae coli
Stomach enteroendocrine cells that secrete gastrin G cells
Secrete lysozyme; help regulate microbial population in the intestines Paneth cells
Produce HCl and intrinsic factor in the stomach Parietal cells
Finger or ridge-like projections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase the surface area for digestion and absorption Villi
Layer of microvilli of the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption; also contain some digestive enzymes Brush border
Created by: lawalk