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Anthro 480 Quiz 2

Classical Cultural Evolution

TermDefinition
Epistemology the branch of philosophy that explores the nature of knowledge
The Scientific Revolution the invention of modern science as a method of intellectual investigation & the growth of specialized sciences and their accumulated bodies of knowledge about the natural world
Deduction in scientific epistemology, the use of logic to reason from general to particular statements
Cartesian derived from the name of philosopher Rene Descartes, labeling a radical dualism between mind and matter, body and soul, and subject and object - laid foundation for french rationalism
French Rationalism intellectual tradition associated with Descartes and the scientific epistemology of deduction
positivism the view that science is objective and value free
Induction in scientific epistemology, the process of arriving at generalizations about particular facts (Famous inductive thinkers: Francis Bacon and John Locke)
Empiricism the scientific epistemology of induction fashioned by philosophers Bacon & Locke
Enlightenment the period of the 18th century intellectual history preceding the French Revolution. For Anthro. culture was a key concept produced during this time
Mechanical Philosophy Newton's philosophy, referring to his image of the universe as a complex machine with fine tuned interacting parts
Deistic the view that God created the universe but remains relatively uninvolved in its day to day operations
Theistic the view that God created the universe and remains active in its day to day operations
Culture the accumulated way of living created and acquired by people and transmitted from one generation to another extrasomatically, other than through genes
Ethnocentric culturally biased
Noble Savagery the romanticization of "primitive" life (by Rousseau)
comparative method the use of extant primitive peoples to represent extinct primitive peoples, as in classical cultural evolutionism
Universal Historians Enlightenment thinkers who promulgated laws of human history
Savagery, barbarism, and civilization Lewis Henry Morgan's tripartite schema for the universal evolution of humanity - used by William Robertson
Pietistic Pertaining to piety, or religious reverence & devotion
nationalism Promoted the ideology and mythology of particular peoples rather than a universal outlook on humankind
Positivism created by Auguste Comte - he described how almost all branches of knowledge have passed through 3 stages: theological, metaphysical, and positive
Dialectical Materialism aka: Marxism - created by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Materialism the belief that human existence determines human consciousness
Means of Production in dialectical materialism, how people make a living in the material world
Primitive Communism the view that past primitive peoples lived in a state to which future communism will in a fashion return
Proletariat according to Marxism, the working class
Labour theory of value the proposition of Karl Marx that commodities should be valued in terms of the human labour required to produce them
Created by: erikka.ram