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VTA 150 FINAL 3-20-14

What are the 6 nutrient classes?? water, vitamins, minerals, protein, carbs, fats
What are they important for? sustaining life
What are carbohydrates used for? energy
What are soluble carbohydrates? sugars and starches, they are easily digested and converted to energy
What are insoluble carbohydrates? FIBERS
What is required for the digestion of fiber? fermentation
give examples of ruminant animals rows, goats, sheep
Give examples of hind gut fermenter animals horses
What does fiber do? increases bulk & water in intestine, reduces caloric density for weight control while maintaining satiety, stabilizes blood sugar levels by extending time it takes to absorb nutrients, assists in regulating bowel function
What are lipids? Dietary fats
What is the difference between fat and oil? fat is solid at room temp, while oil is liquid at room temp
What are the functions of fat? energy, palatability, supplies essential fatty acids, acts as a carrier for fat soluble vitamins
What is the difference between essential and non-essential fatty acids?? The body cannot essential fatty acids, therefore they MUST come from the diet
Which nutrients are energy producing? carbs, fats protein
Which nutrients are non-energy producing? vitamins, water, minerals
Vitamin E & Selenium are vital for what? Muscle development
Iron and iodine are vital to what? Thyroid support
calcium and phosphorus are vital for what? Bone development
What vitamins are fat soluble? Vitamin A,D,E,K
What is vitamin K important for? health of the skin
Name the different macro minerals calcium, phosphorus ,magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur
Name the different micro minerals manganese, copper iodine, zinc, selenium
Cats have limited carbohydrate metabolism because? they are obligate carnivores
cats require 2 specific amino acids, What are they? Taurine and Arginine
Cats have an increased need for what type of vitamins? B vitamins
Feline orphans have a stomach capacity of what? 50ml/kg
What is the #1 problem associated with diet? obesity
What can happen if diet is changed too abruptly? Diarrhea
Females greatest nutritional needs are during what time? Lactation
What type of diet would be recommended for a diabetic cat?? High protein, low carbs, more fiber
What type of diet would be recommended for a diabetic dog? High fiber and LOW fat
High fiber diets generally result in more or less feces than low fiber diets? more
What mineral pair is important for proper bone development? calcium and phosphorus
an animal when fearful pins its ears flat back and retreats to the back of the cage.. What species is this animal? feline
What type of dogs are often delivered by C-section? Dogs with dome shaped heads OR brachycephalic dogs ex. Chihuahua, bulldogs
What type of dogs have poor anesthetic tolerance? sight hounds ex Borzoi
What kind of cat has been known to have "crossed" eyes also known as strabismus? Siamese
Kittens should be weaned by what period of time in their development? 7-9 weeks of age
Ovulation is described as what? Release of egg for fertilization
What color pattern is often associated with deafness?? White animals
What route of administration and injection site would be appropriate for giving a feline leukemia vaccination? Subcutaneously in the LEFT rear limb as distally as possible
What is AAFCO? Association of American feed control officials
Who makes up AAFCO? FDA officials, leaders from many pet food companies
Name the kitten and puppy milk replacers Esbilac and KMR
protein deficiency leads to what in cats?? obesity
When is it recommended to vaccinate horses during pregnancy? 5-7-9 months along in pregnancy you vaccinate for the equine herpes virus
When is it recommended to vaccinate cats or dogs during pregnancy? It is not recommended to vaccinate cats or dogs during pregnancy, it is best to get them vaccinated before they become pregnant,
If you absolutely have to vaccinate a pregnant cat or dog what type of vaccine would you use? Killed instead of modified live
What are the core vaccines for cats? panleukopenia, calici, herpes/ rhinotrachitis, rabies
What are the core vaccines for dogs? distemper, parvo, adenovirus type 2, rabies
What vaccine is never recommended for cats? corona virus a.k.a F.I.P
What is one of the biggest concerns about shipping animals? overheating them
What is the most prevalent animal in American households? Cats
What type of dog would you think might be prone to intervertebral disc problems? Dachshund or other long dog breeds
What type of dogs most commonly have eye issues such as entropion and pifora? Shar-pei
What type of dogs are at the highest risk for GVD? Deep chested breeds such a great danes
What kind of dogs are at the highest risk for hip problems? Large breed dogs
What type of dogs are known to be destructive if they are not given a "job" to do and lots of mental and physical stimulation? Northern Breeds, Siberian huskies etc...
How can you make a vet visit more pleasant for an animal? treats, short wait times, whenever possible separate species
What should you never use a dogs crate for? punishment
by what age should puppies/kittens be able to stand with decent postural reflexes? 3 weeks
A kitten should double its birth weight in what period of time? 10-12 days
a kitten should gain roughly how much weight per month? 1lb
A diet with reduced protein and phosphorus but includes protein of a high biologic value might be recommended for what type of animals? Geriatric, or renal patients
What is theobromine? the chemical that makes chocolate toxic to dogs
Can mammals digest insoluble carbohydrates? nope
Name the parts of the estrous cycle in order Proestrus, Estrus, Diestrus, Anestrus
What is proestrus defined as? follicles begin growing, output of estrogen increases, lining of uterus, oviduct and vagina thicken, vaginal epithelium begins to cornify
Define estrus the period of receptivity of the female
define the diestrus phase progesterone produced by corpus luteum temporarily inhibits follicular development in the ovary, lining of the uterus prepared for the implantation of fertilized ovum,cornified epithelial lining that developed in the vagina in proestrus and estrus is lost
What is the anestrus phase? period of temporary ovarian inactivty
What does it mean to be polyestrus? An animal that cycles continuously throughout the year if they are not pregnant
What does it mean to be seasonally polyestrus> an animal that has seasonal variations in the estrus cycles
What does it mean to be diestrous? Animals that have only 2 cycles per year, typically in the spring and the fall
What does it mean to be monoestrus? An animal that has only one estrus cycle per year
What is an example of a polyestrus animal? cows and pigs
What is an example of a seasonally polyestrus animal? horses, sheep, cats
What is an example of a diestrous animal? Dogs
What is an example of a monoestrus animal? wolves and fox
What type of ovulators are cats? induced ovulator
Created by: Adeprey4311