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Clinical Pathology


Rouleaux loose, linear association of RBCs with one another due to alterations in membrane surface charges
Autoagglutination irregular clumping, does not disperse in saline
Macrocytes Cells larger than normal
DDX for Macrocytes Hereditary macrocytosis of poodles, FeLV infections, Preleukemic conditions in cats/dogs, Vit B12 deficiency of giant schnazers, possible regeneration in an anemic horse
Microcytes cell smaller than normal
DDX for micocytes Iron deficiency, Heinz bodies, potential epicellularhemoparasites, normal in some breeds
Polychromasia Young erythrocytes that stain purple/blue-gray, New Methylene Blue staining = reticulocytes
Hypochromia increased central pallor/ decreased cytoplasmic staining
DDX for Hypchromia Iron deficiency, Lead toxicosis
Poikilocytosis Any shape change in erythrocytes, common in pigs, calves, goats. Certain shapes are associated with certain diseases.
Echinocytes RBCs that have uniform membrane projections,- commonly in vitro artifact.
DDX for Echinocytes Artifact, Uremia, electrolyte depletion, lymphoma, doxurobicin toxicity, glomerulonephritis
Keratocytes Two projections of the cell membrane, from rupture of a vesicle. Associated with oxidative damage to the cell membrane, also with Heinz bodies.
Schistocytes Irregular fragments of RBCs that vary in size and shapes. Associated w/ trauma to RBCs from shearing by fribrin strands within vasculature
DDX for Schistocytes Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Hemangiosarcoma, Glomerulonephritis, Congestive heart failure, Myelofibrosis, Chronic Doxorubicin toxicosis, Generalized vasculitis
Acanthocytes Erythrocytes with several irregularly-spaced membrane projections, often irregularly shaped overall. Seen with RBC trauma. Believed to be caused by altered ration of lipid-cholesterol within erythrocyte
DDX for Acanthocytes Hemangiosarcoma, Glomerulonephritis, Lymphoma, Hepatopathies
Fusocytes spindle-shaped erythroctyes. Normal in Angora goats.
Elliptocytes (ovalocytes) Thin, oval RBCs- normal in camelids. Occasionally in other species with Iron deficiencys. Rare hereditary condition in dogs.
Dacrocytes Teardrop-shaped cells, cells that were unable to return to normal shape after passing through vessel. Maybe fixing artifact. Llamas w/ iron deficiency.
Drepanocytes Sickle-shaped. Normal in cervids (deer). Artifact that occurs when RBCs are exposed to air.
Leptocytes Thin cells with more membrane relative to cell volume "wrinkled"
Stomatocytes Type of leptocyte that is bowl-shaped. Has oval/linear area on central pallor on blood smear. Hereditary in some breeds. May be an artifact.
Codocytes Type of leptocyte that are bell-shaped and target-shaped on blood smear. Associated with hepatopathies, iron deficiency anemia, and reticulocytosis/polychromasia.
Spherocytes Removal of portions of damaged cell membrane by splenic macrophages. Cells round up and becomes spherical. No central pallor can be appreciated- cells are small dark all the way across. Only identify in dog.
Basophilic stippling very small, blue-purple dots evenly distributed evenly through an entire erythrocyte. Dots are aggregates of residual RNA & protein.
DDX for Basophilic stippling lead toxicosis, regenerative anemias (sheep, cattle, sometimes cats)
Siderotic Inclusions Basophilic inclusions that are focally distributed inside an RBC (siderocyte). Inclusion bodies contain iron.
DDX for Siderotic Inclusions Hemolytic anemias, Lead toxicity, Dyserythropoiesis, Myeloproliferative diseases, Chloramphenicol treatment, Idopathic cases
Howell-Jolly Bodies Round, deeply basophilic (dark purple) structures within the cytoplasm of RBC, typically single, sometimes 2 present. Seen in low numbers or part of regenerative response. Removed by spleen.
Heinz Bodies Small, red/pink, round protuberance("nose") on the side of erythrocytes. Caused by oxidative damage, made of aggregates of denatured, precipitated hemoglobin. New Methylene Blue staining = good.
Eccentrocytes Clear, crescent-shaped area remains at one side of erythrocyte. Due to oxidative change in which hemoglobin moves to one side of RBC
Nucleated erythrocytes (nRBCs) Immature erythrocytes that have been prematurely released. Seen due to regenerative response in anemic dogs/cats. Can be seen in hypoxic animals.
DDX of nRBCs of non-anemic patients Lead toxicity, Iron/Copper deficiency, splenic disease (hemangiosarcoma), Bone marrow (myelophthisis, trauma/necrosis, Endotoxemia, drug toxicity, Myelodysplasia secondary to infectious disease, herditary macrocytosis of poodles)
Viral Inclusions Irregular, round, or ring-shaped, found within the cytoplasm of RBCs and leukocytes. Associated w/ distemper in dogs.
Created by: bbvet