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Final Review

VTA 160 Q&A Test questions 3-20-14

QuestionAnswer
All are examples of acceptable means of labeling a radiograph except:A. permanent marker on film after developing B. Lead tape C. Photo imprinting D. Lead marker A. permanent marker on film after developing is unacceptable radiographic labeling
Radiographic contrast is primarily controlled by: A. mAs B. luck C. kVp D. developing C. kVp
According to the FILM density, which of the following lists the most dense to least dense? A. Fluids, air, bone, lead B. Lead, bone, fluid, air C. Air, fluid, bone, lead D. Bone, lead, fluid, air C. Air, fluid, bone, lead
The kVp selector controls? A.The speed of electrons B. The time of exposure C. The amount of electrons D. The size of the focal spot A. the speed of the electrons
The cathode is: A. positively charged and the site of electron production B. negatively charged and the site of electron production C. positively charged and the target site for the electrons D. Negatively charged and the target site for the electrons B. Negatively charged and the site of electron production
How is a wavelength measured? A. By the height B. From 2 corresponding points on the wave, C. By the inverse square law D. In accordance with the heel effect B. from 2 corresponding points on a wave
The anode is? A. positively charged and the site of electron production B. negatively charged and the site of electron production C. positively charged and the target site for the electrons D. Negatively charged and the target site for the electrons C. Positively charged and the target site for the electrons
Having a short exposure time does all of the following except? A. Prevents motion artifacts B. Decreases the amount of exposure for personnel C. Decreases the mA requirement D. increases the mA requirement D. Increases the mA requirement
Radiographic density is primarily controlled by? A. mAs B. Luck C. kVp D. developing A. mAs
All of the following are ways to reduce motion on a film except? A. Increase time of exposure B. Decrease time of exposure C. Use restraints D. Use positioning devices A. Increase time of exposure
The mA selector controls? A. The speed of electrons B. The time of exposure C. The amount of electrons D. The size of the focal spot c. The amount of electrons
According to the tissue or subject density which of the following lists the most dense to the least?A. Fluids, air, bone, lead B. Lead, bone, fluid, air C. Air, fluid, bone, lead D. Bone, lead, fluid, air B. Lead, bone, fluid, air
A VA has radiographed a fractured femur in a large dog and upon developing the film, discovers the image is too gray and detail of the born is hard to see, how can they best correct the setting for improved quality on the bone? Increase the mAs and Decrease the kVp
True or false Lower kVp and higher mAs are used for bone and structures with high subject density? true
true or false? Latex gloves provide protection from scatter radiation? False
True or false? if a radiograph appears overexposed and too dark, the exposure power (kVp penetrability) should be decreased? True
True or false? a technique chart must be developed for each individual machine? true
true or false? a film that after processing is completely clear was never exposed to the xray beam? true
true or false? shades of gray are influenced by the kVp setting? True
true or false?if a radiograph image is too white the assistant should decrease mAs to improve the quality of the film when retaking it True
True of false? increasing kVp will help reduce movement caused by rapid breathing in a thoracic radiograph? False
True or false? x-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation? true
true or false? ventrodorsal views in radiography have the animal in the sternal recumbency? False
True or false? Potter-Bucky Diaphragm (bucky tray) is located under the table? True
True or false? Radiographs are admissible as court evidence only if they are properly labeled att he time of processing true
true or false? Barium is a negative contrast medium and can be used IV? False
True or false? Tissue will show on radiographs having less radiographic density (lighter in color) than air? true
What is Sante's Rule and how is it used? Sante's Rule is used to determine kvp when a technique chart is unavailable or inaccurate the rule states the kVp= 2 times the subject thickness in CM + 40 (add an extra 5 if using a bucky)
You are asked to determine the setting for a thoracic study of a cat that measures 7cm. The focal distance is 40 and the mAs is 100, what kVp setting will you use? kVp= 64 2x7=14+40=54
What views are routinely taken of a patient suspected of having cancer? Ventrodorsal, medial lateral, oblique
List personal safety equipment that must always be used when taking radiographs lead apron and gloves, Dosimeter badge, lead thyroid shield, lead lined glasses
Define Dorsoventral Animal in sternal recumbency, x-ray beam passing from dorsal through to ventral side
Define Ventrodorsal Animal in dorsal recumbency, the x-ray beam passes from ventral to dorsal side
Define Oblique positioning body part turned at roughly 45 degree angle to prevent overlapping body parts
Define right lateral positioning Animal in lateral recumbency w/ right side of body lying on table
Define Dorsopalmar positioning The front paws,pad side down, beam travels through entering dorsally and exiting the paw pad side
define Dorsoplantar The back paws pad sid down, beam travels through dorsally and exits paw pad side
Define mediolateral x-rays trvel from medizn plane, through to left or right side
What is the normal range for heart rates in felines? 160-240bpm
What is the normal range of heart rate in canines? 70-180bpm
What are the 2 ways to take the heart rate? auscultate the chest where the elbow meets the chest when bent, 2. Palpate the femoral artery
Why should you always do both? to check that the rates are consistent if they don't match up it can indicate cardiac issues
How to you take the respiratory rate? Auscultate with stethoscope or watch the chest rise and fall
What is the normal respiratory rate range for felines? 16-30bpm
What is the normal respiratory rate range for canines? 16-24bpm
What is the normal mucous membrane color? pink
What does a blue mucous membrane indicate? cyanotic
What does a white mucous membrane color indicate? anemia
What does a brick red mucous membrane indicate? sepsis
What does a muddy/gray mucous membrane indicate? shock
What does a yellow mucous membrane indicate? ictric/jaundice
How to you find capillary refill time? press on mucous membrane and count how many seconds it takes to return to normal
What is another word for the mentation of an animal? attitude
What is a normal mentation score? BAR= Bright alert responsive
What does QAR mean? Quiet, alert, responsive
What does QLR mean? Quiet, lethargic, responsive
What does QLN mean? Quiet, lethargic, non-responsive
Which mentation score is the most abnormal/critical? QLN
What is the normal temperature range for felines? 99-102
What is the normal temp range for canines? 99-102.5
WHat vital sign is taken last? temperature
Why do we take weight and temp at every single visit to the vet? to collect a baseline of information that will help us begin to figure out what is normal for any given animal, and will tell us if things are changing with the animal
What is parenteral nutrition? feeding intravenously either all of some nutrients
What are the different types of feeding tubes? nasal gastric, esophagostomy, gastrostomy
What is the VA's role when dealing with feeding tubes? gathering supplies, and restraining the animal that is receiving the feeding tube
What is the appropriate size catheter for a large dog? 18
What is the appropriate size catheter for a small dog? 22-18
What is the appropriate size catheter for a cat? 22
What is the basic principle of restraint? use as little as is safe, start with the least and use more restraint as needed
What would the least amount of restraint for a dog be? leash and verbal commands
What is the least amount of restraint that can/should be used with a cat? kitty "burrito"
What are the best recommendations for working with an aggressive dog? Have the VA in the room before the dog is brought in, never crowd or corner an aggressive dog
What is the soap format? Subjective, objective, assessment, plan
What does subjective mean? these are symptoms that are verbally given to the assistant, they include the clients descriptions of pain or discomfort or observations made by other vet staff
What does objective mean? these are symptoms that the assistant can actually see, hear, touch feel, or smell, including vitals, swelling, or results from tests done
What is the assessment portion of SOAP? this is done by the DVM following the objective observations, this is the diagnosis of the patients condition and may include several different diagnosis possibilities
What is the Plan part of SOAP? this include any tests/labs that are ordered, medications prescribed, treatments performed, patient refferals made, and follow-up directions
What does DDX stand for? differential diagnosis
What does TDX stand for? tentative diagnosis
What does DX stand for diagnosis
What does SX stand for? surgery
What does TX stand for? treatment
What does RX stand for? prescribe
What does PX stand for? prognosis
What are good questions to ask when taking a history? eating and drinking normally?, eliminating normally? vomiting/diarrhea/coughing/sneezing? medications? yes? when last taken, how much, what? any other concerns?
What equipment is needed for a routine exam? stethoscope, thermometer, otoscope???
How do you assess dehydration? firstly checking skin turgor, then checking vitals primarily heart rate and temp
what is the major indicator of dehydration? low temp
What equipment is needed to give an enema?
How do you give oral medications? open animals mouth, insert pills are far back in the throat as possible, shut the mouth quickly and hold mouth/jaws closed until animal swallows
How to you give subcutaneous injections? pick and clean the site, make a tent, insert needle, aspirate, inject
How to you give intravenous injections? pick and clean the site, occlude the vein, insert needle, aspirate checking for flash of blood, give injection
Hoe do u give an IM injection pick and clean site, insert needle at 90 degree angle, aspirate to assure you are not in a vein, give injection
What are the different restraint positions? Lateral recumbency, dorsal recumbency, sternal recumbency, sitting/ standing restraint
How do you restrain a bird? use an appropriate size towel, grasp bird dorsally, and wrap fingers ventrally around neck, wrap towel around wings to keep them lateral against the body being careful to leave towel open to watch respiration and preventing pressure on the keel
Why is it so important to handle a bird gently and always watch their respiration? because they don't have a diaphragm and can be suffocated if held to tightly
How do you restrain snakes? always by the base of the head, w/ free hand support the weight of the rest of the snake, snake tubes can also be helpful for venomus snakes or venipuncture
What is the general rule for amount of handlers a snake needs? 1 person for every 3 ft of snake
How do you restrain lizards? always hold the head a towel can be used for medium/large lizards, small lizards should be held in bare hands, always control the head and legs, being cautious of the tail
What is important to remember when handling lizards? like birds they have no diaphragm, and can suffocate if head too tightly around the chest
What must you remember to do when handling amphibians? always wear powder free latex gloves wet with either distilled or tank water for semi-aquatic species, hold frogs securely between thumb and index finger with hind legs extended
Which side of a horse should you always stand on? left side
What type of equipment can you use when dealing with an aggressive dog? catch poles, muzzles,
What triggers parturition? size and weight of uterus, hormonal changes,
What hormone cause the myometrium to contract? OXYTOCIN
Where is oxytocin released from? posterior pituitary gland
What are the stages of labor? 1st stage= uterine contractions press fetus down against cervix, and dilate cervix 2nd stage=delivery of the newborn, 3rd stage- delivery of the placents
What does multiparous mean? having given birth to more than one child
What does uniparous mean? producing a single young at a birth
Ovulation is? the release of the egg for fertilization
What is the corpus luteum ? what is left of the follicle after the egg burst forth from it, it regulates/produces hormones such as progesterone and
What is the difference between feeding tube sizes and needle sizes? larger feeding tubes have larger numbers, so a size 30 is smaller than a 33, needle sizes are opposite, a larger number means the needle is smaller so a18 gauge needle is much larger than a 25 gauge
What does a fluorescein dye test check for? corneal ulcers, blocked nasal lacrimal ducts
What does a schirmer tear test check for? dry eyes
What does tonometry test for? glaucoma
What route of administration is absorbed most quickly? IV
What route of administration is absorbed most slowly? Subcutaneous
How can you tell if you are in a vein? you are in a vein if you see a flash of blood in the hub of the syringe
What are the signs of shock? Pale MM , tachycardia, weak pulse, hypothermic, depression
What are triage priorities? Absence of a heart beat, respiratory distress, bleeding from body orifes, Rapid abdominal distension, protracted vomiting, inability to urinate, ingestion of toxins, severe coughing, pale mucous membranes
What recommendations would you make to an owner in an emergency situation? warn them that even the gentlest dog may bite/snap if it is frightened/painful or having trouble breathing
What are the principles of CPR? A= Airway intubate B=Breathing (positive pressure ventilation) C= circulation (chest compressions D= Drugs
How do you control hemorrhage? digital pressure
What are the signs of dehydration? dry oral MM, tachycardia, decreased pulse pressure, decreased skin turgor
What is legally required on a radiograph label? Clinic name, Doctor name, date, address, patient name
What does mAs affect most? Radiographic density= blackness
kVp has the greatest affect on what? Radiographic contrast=Shades of gray
What is the unit of exposure as recorded by the dosimeter badge? Sieverts
What material can x-rays not penetrate? lead
If there is an artifact on a cassette that is blocking x-rays what will it look like? there will be white areas on the develoved radiograph
What do patient motion and penumbra affect? Radiographic detail
How do we control effects of patient motion? Shorted exposure time
What are safety factors in radiography? 1. Eliminating scatter, distance, PPE, Collimation, Restraint, Dosimeter badge, use radiology badge
If a film comes out too white it is?/ under exposed, increase mA
If a film has never been exposed to x-rays how will it look if it gets developed? clear
What is fogging? haziness on a film/lack of clarity
What causes fogging? accidental light exposure, scatter radiation
What equipment would you want to have on hand if giving a cat an enema? a litter box
What does an endotracheal tube do? opens the airway
What does a chest tube do? drains fluid or gasses out of the thoracic cavity
A vet assistant cannot do what types of injections? IV w/o catheter, IC
What is the normal feline heart rate range? 160-240 BPM
What is the normal canine heart rate range? 70-180 BPM
Created by: Adeprey4311