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VTA 160 test 3

Fluid therapy and Injections 3-10-14

What are the goals of bandaging?? limit hemorrhage 2.immobilize the area 3.prevent further trauma & contamination 4.prevent wound desiccation 5.absorbing exudate 6.aid in mechanical debridement
What indicates that you should change a bandage immediately? swelling, redness, bad odor, hot OR cold toes, a wet bandage or a bandage that has slipped or has been damages due to chewing
What are the 3 layers of a bandage? 1. Primary layer 2. secondary layer 3. tertiary layer
what are suitable materials for the primary layer of a bandage? sterile gauze sponges, non-stick bandage pads, rolled gauze
What are suitable materials for the secondary layer of a bandage? rolled cotton, cast padding, etc...
What are suitable materials for the tertiary layer of a bandage? Vet wrap, Elasticon, adhesive tape
What are the phases of healing? 1. Inflammation 2. debridement 3. Repair 4. Maturation
What is exuberant granulation tissue? Highly vascular tissue produced after extensive tissue damage that grows over the wound
What is exuberant granulation also known as?? proud flesh
When would it be appropriate to use a Robert jones bandage? To temporarily stabilize a fracture before surgery OR to control edema after a surgical procedure
when would it be appropriate to use a modified Robert Jones bandage? To protect an incision site, To decrease swelling, To aid in healing
When would it be appropriate to use a dry to dry bandage? When there is loose necrotic tissue OR if foreign material is present on the surface of the wound
When would it be appropriate to use a wet to dry bandage? When exudate is especially viscous, foreign matter must be removed OR if there is copious exudate or transudate
What is exudate? The visible product of the inflammatory process, includes cellular debris and fluid
What are the 4 routes by which you can administer fluid therapy? Subcutaneous, Intravenous, Intraperitoneal, intraosseous
What is an isotonic fluid? has an equal osmotic pressure to blood, maintains equillibrium
What is a hypertonic fluid? fluid with a greater osmotic pressure than blood- These fluids pull fluid from the cells (intracellular space) into circulation (extracellular space)
What is a hypotonic fluid? fluid with a lower osmotic pressure than blood- These fluids flow into cells (intracellular space) from circulation ( extracellular space)
What type of fluid is most commonly used?? Crystalloids
How do you calculate maintenance requirements? 50ml per Kg per day
How do you calculate deficit volume? The estimated dehydration is multiplied by the animals weight in KG
What are the 3 phases of fluid replacement therapy? 1. Emergency 2. replacement 3. maintenance
an animal with a history of fluid loss but no finding on physical examination is what percent dehydrated? less than 5%
An animal eith tacky oral mucous membrane, but no panting or pathological tachycardia is what percent dehydrated? 5%
An animal with mild to moderate decreased skin turgor, dry/tacky oral mucus membrane, slight tachycardia and normal pulse pressure is what % dehydrated? 7%
an animal with moderate to marked degree of decreased skin turgor, dry mucous membrane, tachycardia and decreased pulse pressure is what percent dehydrated ? 10%
an animal with marked loss of skin turgor, dry mucous membrane, and significant signs of shock is what percent dehydrated? 12%
An animal is 5% dehydrated what route would you use to administer fluids? Subcutaneous
An animal is 7% dehydrated what route would you use to administer fluids? Intravenous
What does IC stand for? intra-cardiac
What does ID stand for? intra-dermal
what does IM stand for? intramuscular
What does IO stand for? intra-osseous
what does IP stand for? intra-peritoneal
What does IT stand for? intra-testicular OR intra-tracheal
What does PR stand for? per rectal
what does SQ stand for? subcutaneous
What does SC stand for? subcutaneous
What does PO stand for? per oral
What does IV stand for? intravenous
What does IN? intra-nasal
What angle should you hold the needle when giving an ID injection? 10-15 degrees
What angle should you hold the needle when giving an SQ injection? 45 degrees
What angle should you hold the needle when giving an IM injection? 90 degrees
What would an ID injection be used for? allergy testing, local anesthetic
What type of solutions would be inappropriate for SQ injections? hypertonic, caustic, irritating
What is the process for giving a SQ shot? after choosing and cleaning your site 1. make a tent 2.insert needle 3. aspirate 4. inject
Name the sites for IM injections on a cow or horse lateral neck, gluteal, pectoral, triceps, semimembranosus semitendinosus
Name the sites you can give an IM injection to a small animal lumbar epaxial, quadriceps, triceps,semimembranosus semitendinosus
True or false injections can affect the meat on beef cattle? true
How do you calculate ongoing losses?? volume of estimated loss multiplied by 2
What drip set would be used for an animal weighing 15lbs or less?? micro drip set
How many drips per ML are administered with a standard drip set?? 15
How many drips per ML are administered with a micro drip set?? 60
What are the signs of over hydration?? swelling of conjunctiva, feet, trunk, neck or chin. Generalized swelling of the subcutaneous tissue (feeling jelly like. increased respiratory rate
What is pleural effusion? abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, preventing the lungs from expanding fully
What is pulmonary edema? Lung tissues retain excessive amount of fluid (especially the alveoli) resulting is labored breathing (dyspnea)
What are the main types of injections? intra-dermal, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous
What does AD stand for? right ear
What does AS stand for? LEFT EAR
What does AU stand for? both ears
What does OD stand for? right eye
What does OS stand for? left eye
What does OU stand for? both eyes
What type of injection is absorbed most rapidly? intravenous
True or false? you should use the largest size catheter that fits your patient? true
What are the 3 types of feeding tubes? nasal gastric, esophagostomy, gastrostomy
What are the advantages of a nasal gastric feeding tube? inexpensive, non-invasive, quick, equiptment readily available
What are the disadvantages of nasal gastric feeding tubes? not tolerated by some patients, small tubing size, may cause vomiting or gastro esophagealreflux
What are the advantages of esophagostomy feeding tubes? inexpensive, large tube size, quick, well tolerated by patients, equipment readily available
What are the disadvantages of esophagostomy feeding tubes? more invasive, chronic changes in esophagus, fistula formation, may cause vomiting of gastro esophageal reflux
What are the advantages of gastrostomy feeding tubes? Large tube size, well tolerated by patients
What are disadvantages of gastrostomy feeding tubes?? expensive, invasive, under anesthesia longer, peritonitis, may cause vomiting and gastro esophageal reflux
True or false? you should flush your feeding tube well before AND after each use?? true
True or false- Food should be warmed to body temperature before administering to a patient?? true
What are the anal glands? paired sacs located beneath the skin on either side of the anus @ 4&8 o'clock
What do anal sacs do? express secretions during defecation as a territorial scent marking OR may be expressed due to fear
How are the anal sacs normally emptied? a small amount at a time during defecation
What are the signs that the anal sacs need to be expressed manually? scooting, rubbing, licking of the anal area
What are the 2 methods of expressing anal sacs? internal and external
How do you perform the internal method of expressing the anal sacs? Wearing gloves, lubricate with a water soluble lubricant or lidocane jelly,insert 1st joint of index finger into rectum & palpate anal sac with thumb(external) and forefingergently massage w/light to moderate pressure milking medially toward anal opening
What is the external method for expressing anal sacs? squeeze the anal sacs from the external anal sphincter
Why is the external method of anal sac expression not recommended? The anal sac ducts are frequently occluded & there is an inability to empty anal sacs completely, this method may also cause more pain to the patient
What are the 2 types of nail trimmers available whites and resco
How can you avoid cutting pigmented nails to short? the cutting surface of the trimmer should be held parallel to the palmer or plantar surface of the digital footpads and the nail should be cut on this plane
Explain the progression of anal sac disease the ducts of the anal sacs become impacted, then they become infected, this infection can cause an abcess which can then lead to rupture of the anal sac
What is an ear infection called? otitis media?
What are signs of disease in the ear?? excessive head shaking, scratching at the ears, head tilt, nystagmus, ataxia
What diagnostic test would you use to test for corneal ulcers? fluorescein dye test
What else can you check during a fluorescein dye test? clogged nasal lacrimal ducts
What diagnostic test would be used to test for glaucoma? Tonometry- measurement of the intraocular pressure of the eye using a tonometer
What diagnostic test would you use to test for keratoconjunctivitis? Schirmer tear test A.K.A STT
What diagnostic test would you use to test for bacterial disease? culture and sensitivity??
Created by: Adeprey4311



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