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Chapter 4

Stauzenberger College: Chapter 4

Name the four types of tissues and their functions -Epithelial: Covers and Lines -Connective: Provides support -Muscle: Enables movement -Nerve: Controls work
Name the two surfaces of an epithelial cell -Apical -Basal
Which surface faces the lumen? Apical
Epithelial cells lack blood vessels and capillaries which make them _____ Avascular
What are the six functions of epithelial tissue? -Protection, Filter, Absorption, Detect changes in environment, Secretion, and Excreation
What are the three types of functional complexes and what are their differences? -Tight Junctions: Prevents the passage of substances from the luminal end to the basal end of the cell. -Desmosomes: Found in tissues that undergo repeated episodes of tension and streaching. -Gap Junctions: fond in intestinal epithelial cells.
A half of a desmosome is called what? Hemidesmosome
This is the foundation of the epithelial cell. Basement membrane
Name and describe the three different shapes of cells. -Flat cells: Squamous -Cube Shaped: Cuboidal -Tall, Colum-like cells: Columnar
A cell with microvilli has how much more surface area compared to a cell without microvilli? 20 times
What is the substance of the surface of the skin that is a protective, water proof covering? karatin
What does "pseudo" mean? False
What are the 6 different ways that glands can be classified? -Presence or absence of ducts -Number of cells that compose them -Shape of secreting ducts -Complexity of the glandular structure -Types of secretion they produce -Manner in which the secretion is stored and discharged
What is the different between endocrine and exorine glands? Give some examples of each -Endocrine: They have no ducts! & their secretions travel throughout the body via blood stream. -Exocrine: They have ducts! & they do not enter the blood stream or lymphatics
Holocrine secretion occurs principally in what specific gland? Sebaceous gland
Mixed exocrine glands contain what components? water
Thin, watery secretions are considered _______ Serous
Thick viscous secretions are ______ Mucous
Which type of connective tissue (dense or loose) is poorly vascularized? Dense
If the main duct is branched, it is considered ______ compound
What is the difference between fixed and transient cell types? The difference between fixed and transient cells are: -Fixed cells remain in the connective tissue -Transient cells pass in and out of the connective tissue
How does brown fat differ from white fat? Brown fat is only found in newborns & animals that hibernate. Brown in color because there are exceptionally high numbers of mitochondria which produces more heat.
What are the 3 subtypes of dense connective tissue? -Devise regular -Dense irregular & elastic tissue
Give 3 examples of specialized connective tissue -Cartilage -Blood -Bone
Why is cartilage limited in thickness and slow to heal?
Name and describe the 3 types of cartilage: -Hyaline cartilage: Most rigid and found in joints and the tracheal rings. -Elastic Cartilage: more flexible and is found in the epiglottis and ears. -Fibrocartilage: Able to take on compression forces the vertebrae and in joints.
Even though blood and bone appear to be grossly different, they both represent types of connective tissue? Because both have ground substances, cells & fibers
Membranes are composed of what two tissue types? mucous membranes & serous membranes
Where are mucous membranes found? -Mouth -Stomach -colon -esophagus -nostrils -trachea -bladder
What is effusion? Excess fluid that has escaped into a body cavity of normal body function.
What is ascites? an abnormal condition in which excessive amount of fluid accumulation is present in the abdominal cavity.
What is the difference between exudate and transudate?
Where are synvial membranes found? In joints it does not have epithelium
List the 3 types of muscle and how they differ -Skeletal: responsible for movement. Is under voluntary control*only one* -Smooth muscle: has only one nucleus per cell. under involuntary control -Cardiac: only found in the heart and is under involuntary control
Describe the process of inflammation: 1. Casoconstruction to control bleeding 2.Cells release histamine & heparin 3.vasodilation Hot, swollen, red 4.blood flow compresses on nerves and causes pain 5.Clotting begins 6.Pus forms 7.Swelling begins
Basement Membrane: A non-cellular, collagen-based structure that supports epithelial tissue
Mucous: Complex, gel-like substance that is secreted nu goblet cells. Acts as a lubricant and protective barrier.
Mast Cells: A transient cell of connective tissue used in the infamatory response. DOSE NOT CIRCULATE IN BLOOD. It recognizes foreign invaders & release herarin and histamine to increase blood flow
Adipose tissue: Asipose connective tissue is a vascularized type of connective tissue. General functions are to protect, insulate, and provide a major source of energy to the body can occur as brown or white adipose tissue.
Squamous cells: Flat hexagonal cells
Loose connective cells: It is a vascularized type of connective tissue. General functions are to support the structures it surrounds.
Columnar cells: Tall, thin epithelial cells having nuclei located at their basal end; often ciliated
Cuboidal cells: Cube-shaped cells having centally located nuclei
Serous cells: Thin, watery secretions composed of mostly enzymes; transudoles
Extracellular matrix: The non-living substance found between cells that provides support and nourishment
Macrophages: Phagocytic cells that can engulf relatively large cells or bits of debris. They may be fixed in place or they may travel around in the tissues.
Secretory Ducts: Secretions are produced by secretory cells and carries the secretion to the seposition site.
What are the 2 connective tissues? -Connective tissue proper -Specialized Connective tissue
Loose connective tissues includes: Aerolar, adipose and reticular
What is the most common type of connective tissue in the body? Aerolar Tissue
Adipose Tissue is_____ fat
Retecular connective tissue contains only one type of fiber Reticular fiber
Dense connective tissue: It's what tendions and ligaments are. It connects muscles to structures and is made of collogen
true or false: is bone the most rigid of the connective tissues and forms the skeleton? True
Membranes: Thin protective layers that line body cavities, seperate organs, and cover surfaces
What are the 4 different types of membranes? -Mucous -Serous -Cutaneous -Synovial
The epithelial layer is either stratified squamous or simple columnar 1 thin layer
Lamina propria: Covers a layer of loose connective tissue
Submucosa: Another connective layer is under that
Parietal and visceral peritoneum means abdominal
Parietal and visceral pleura means: lungs
Parietal and visceral pericardium means around Heart
Viseral means: Covers organs
The fluid that it secretes is thin and watery and not cloudy look so you can see threw them. They lubricate and reduce friction is called: transudate
Transudate in the abdominal cavity is called: Peritoneal fluid
Transudate in the thorac cavity(around lungs) is called: Pleural fluid
Transudate in the pericardium(around the heart) is called: pericardial fluid
The transudate has blood in it or if it is not clear it's called: exudate
The serous fluid is overproduced it is called: effusion
peritoneal fluid is over produced an animals abdomen will be distended this is called: Ascites
The mesentery that attaches the stomach to the body wall is called: omentum
The mesentery that attaches to the uterus body wall is called: broad ligament
Cutaneous membrane: intergument or skin
The underlying connective tissue is called: the dermis
Synovial Membranes: Line the cavities of joints, They have NO epithelium, they are composed exclusivly of connective tissues.
Dry, tacky gums: dehydration
Yellow, icteric gums: liver problems or amneia
Blue gums: Hypoxia
Deep Red gums: Fever, increased heart rate
White, Pale gums: Shock, anemia, hypothermia
Steps of wound healing: -Inflammation -Organization -Regeration
Proud flesh is what? the granulation tissue over proliferates and gets too thick. **ONLY IN HORSES**
Wound repair is classified as what: first, second and third intention
What side of the cell faces the lumen or body cavity? The Apical surface
What side of the cell faces the underlying connective tissue? The basal surface
Avascular means: they have no blood vessels or capillaries. They relay on underlying connective tissue to provide oxygen and nutrients.
A hemidesomosome(half a desmosome) .
The surface of a cell that has microbilli is called: Brush border & has to do with absorption
If their is only one layer of skin it is called: Simple
If their is more than one layer it is called: stratified
A ______ gland releases its products by exocytosis and the cells remain intact: Merocrine
An __________ gland loses part of the secretory cell when it releases its prodcuts. Apocrine
in a _________ gland, the entire secretory cell is destroyed when its products are released holocrine
ferrets need this removed: adrenal
Created by: brookie44



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