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Horticulture 102-203

FFA New Mexico

The proper spacing of apple trees will vary with the variety. vary with the soil variety. vary with the water holding capacity of the soil. all of the above Vary with variety
About 30-40 healthy leaves are needed to supply enough sugar to produce 1 apple. 5 apples. 2 apples. 10 apples. 1 apple
Most commercial apple orchards should be replaced at least once by the time they are ____ years of age. 60 40 50 20 40
What is the first prerequisite of a site for an apple orchard? The fertility of the soil The availability of water The cost of the land The elevation, so that cold air may settle below the orchard during the cold nights of spring The elevation, so that cold air may settle below the orchard during the cold nights of spring
The best branch angle for strong limbs in apple trees is 45 degrees. is 20 degrees. is 30 degrees. is 15 degrees. 45 degrees
When bare-root apple trees are being handled in the winter the exposed roots may be killed by temperatures of 30 to 34 degrees F. of 24 to 28 degrees F. of 34 to 38 degrees F. of 20 to 24 degrees F. of 20 to 24 degrees F.
When pruning, a heading cut encourages fruiting. reduces growth of branches. promotes the growth of lateral buds. loosens the branches. promotes the growth of lateral buds.
During the period of training of an apple tree, careful attention must be paid to the spread of lateral branches into the horizontal position early selection of framework branches. the use of proper pruning cuts to adjust tree growth. all of the above All the above
The central leader type training of any tree is one inwhich the center trunk is removed in which the center trunk is maintained in which most of the fruit is borne on the inner part of the tree in which the lateral branches spread to a 90 degree angle in which the center trunk is maintained.
Pears require a longer chilling period than apples. are often susceptible to fire blight. are restricted in production to the western states. all of the above All the above
_______ is known as a Pome fruit. Pineapple Apple Lemon Peach Apple
Apples are grown in northern New Mexico because they are prone to scab. they require moisture during the winter months. they need a warm summer before flowering. they need a cold period before flowering. they need a cold period before flowering.
The clonal stocks of apples should be budded ______ above ground. 8-12 inches 6-8 inches 3-6 inches 1-2 inches 8 - 12
______ of the life of apple trees is required to bring them into full production. One- half One-third One-fourth One eighth One-Third
Spur type apple trees are usually _____ smaller in height and width than standard trees. 25 % 15 % 40 % 50 % 40%
Dwarf apple trees are ______ feet tall. 4-5 6-8 10-12 less than 2 6-8
Apple quality is largely determined by how _____ the fruit is when harvested. red mature green free from worms Mature
When using a liquid fertilizer it is applied directly to the soil. to the foliage. to the roots. none of the above The foliage
Characteristics of a good germination media is one that is sterilized and high in nutrient content. low in perlite content. low in nutrient content. none of the above Low in nutrient content
Active absorption is when water moves into the plant by outside pressure. by the process of transpiration. by internal pressure. both B and C both B and C
The photosynthesis process is increased if the leaves develop a purple color. develop a dark green color. develop a light green color. develop a red color. Develop a dark green color
Transpiration is increased during the day because the stomates are open in the light. the temperature is warmer. water is more available. both A and B Both A and B
_______ determines the fertility of the soil. A soil test The soil texture A foliar test The soil structure A soil test
_______ make better use of hot bed, greenhouse, or coldframe space. Six inch pots Flats Three inch pots Ten inch pots Flats
Transpiration is _____ as air movement around a leaf increases. increased not effected decreased stopped Increased
_______ acid causes leaf drop in deciduous trees. Abscorbic Abscisic Hydrochloric Nitric Abscisic
Terminal buds are located on the _______ of plants. sides tops bottoms none of the above Tops
Which of the following elements is used to increase the flowering of a plant? Nitrogen Phosphorous Iron Potassium Phosphorous
The objective of composting is to convert waste material into a type of ______ fertilizer. organic nitrogen synthetic iron organic
If the soil is too acidic, it may be necessary to add ground limestone. iron. sulfur. potassium. Limestone
Plants tend to grow toward light sources, this is known as photosynthesis. transpiration. phototropism. the light cycle. phototropism
A tuber is an example of a root. modified leaf. modified stem. none of the above modified stem
The xylem tissue in the interior of a plant is responsible for growth in diameter. transports manufactured foods (sugars) downward. transports water and minerals upward from the root. is the center of photosynthesis transports water and minerals upward from the root
The function of the seed coat is to keep the seed from drying out. to contain the food supply for the new plant. to protect the embryo from injury. all of the above all of the above
Little-leaf is an abnormal condition caused by a ______ deficiency. iron zinc boron calcium zinc
Chlorosis is an abnormal condition that may be caused by a __________ deficiency. phosphorous potash calcium iron iron
Pollen is produced in a structure called an ovary. a filament. a style. an anther. an anther
Plant roots tend to grow toward gravity, this is known as positive geotropism. negative geotropism. negative phototropism. positive phototropism. positive geotropism
Which of the following statements is not true? Nitrogen increases protein in a plant. Phosphorous aids in flower formation. Potassium gives hardiness to a plant. Nitrogen causes a plant to yellow. Nitrogen causes a plant yellow
Ethylene gas causes fruit to ripen early. change colors. remain immature. both A and B both A and B
The material that will decompose quickest in a compost pile is dry leaves. grass clippings. sawdust. shredded bark. grass clippings
Which is an inorganic mulch? peat straw gravel compost gravel
Indoleacetic acid is a contact pesticide. a selective herbicide. a natural occurring hormone. a stomach poison. a natural occurring hormone
A major advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that it is safer. is faster. introduces new genetic variation. does not need water. introduces a new generic variety
A complex cellular tissue that transports manufactured compounds is xylem. phloem. cambium. chlorophyll. phloem
What three major elements are found in most commercial fertilizers? -N, Fe, K -N, H, P -N, P, K -N, P, Ca N P K
The portion of the pistil in which the ovules are produced and develop is the ovary. stigma. sepal. style. ovary
A ripened ovule is called the stamen. stigma. sepal. seed. seed
Which of the following terms is not associated with grafting? stock terminal bud cambium scion terminal bud
In order for a graft to be successful it is essential that the grafts are made only in winter. twigs are the same length. stock and scion are the same size. plants are botanically related. plants are botanically related
The plant that is to receive a graft is called the graftor. stock. graftee. scion. stock
The principle tissue of a plant that makes grafting possible is phloem. xylem. cambium. inner bark. cambium
Cut worms attack young plants at the soil level. at the growing tip. on the underside of leaves. on the top of the leaves. at soil level
Long-day crops require 12 hours or more of light per day. require 12 hours or less of light per day. will grow regardless of the light period. none of the above require 12 hours or more of light per day
Which of the fertilizer analysis below is higher than the others in phosphorous? 5-10-5 5-5-10 10-5-5 16-8-9 5-10-5
The best method for getting a plant ready to plant outdoors is to water it heavily. put it in a hot bed. harden it off. increase temperature. harden it off
The function of the stomates is to take in CO2 and give off excess water vapor and oxygen. give of CO2 and prevent loss of water. both A and B none of the above both A and B
The place on the stem where leaves and buds are attached is the bud scar. lenticle. node. internode. node
A plant's root system is responsible for all the following except photosynthesis. absorption of water. anchorage. absorption of minerals. photosynthesis
A characteristic of taproots is they spread over a large area. are very shallow. reach deep into the soil. occur only in monocots. reach deep into the soil
A typical seed contains all of the following except a seed coat. a cotyledon. a sori. an embryo. a sori
If the petals of a particular plant occur in multiples of five. the plant is probably a monocot. conifer. dicot. cycad. a dicot
As a general rule, seedlings should be transplanted from a flat when the cotyledons emerge. the second set of 'true leaves' have formed. the first set of 'true leaves' have formed. the radicle emerges. the first set of true have formed
Which of the following materials is not likely to cause temporary nitrogen tie-up? fresh saw dust. fresh straw. fresh wood chips. peat moss. peat moss
To control damping off one must stratify the seed. control environmental conditions. treat seed with gibberellic acid. all of the above control environmental conditions
Preconditioning of seeds may involve stratification. soaking in water. scarification. any of the above any of the above
a 'green manure' is a mixture of soil and decayed plant material. fresh animal wastes. composed manure. a cover crop grown to plow under and add organic matter. a cover crop grown to plow under and add organic matter.
The amount of water held against the force of gravity, which is available for plant growth is capillary water. gravitational water. hydroscopic water. subsoil water. capillary water.
Mulches may be used to insulate the soil. control weeds. conserve moisture. all of the above all of the above
When planting bare root fruit trees, the bud union must be not a consideration. 2 inches above the ground. level with the ground. 2 inches below the ground. 2 inches above the ground
If a plant's flower is very colorful and produces nectar, it is probably pollinated by water. self-pollination. wind. insects. insects
The green pigment in plants is named chlorophyll. xanthophyll. chloroplast. chromophyll. chlorophyll
In "Sunset Western Garden Book" the western United States has ______ climate zones. four sixteen eight twenty-four twenty - four
Some plants lack petals and sepals on their flowers. They are referred to as incomplete flowers. mutated flowers. complete flowers. conspicuous flowers. incomplete flowers
A ________ zone is an area in which a common set of temperature ranges, humidity patterns, and other geographic and seasonal characteristics allow certain plants to succeed and cause others to fail to grow. temperature geographic climate seasonal climate
The three particles of soil are -gravel, sand, and clay. -sand, clay, and silt. -gravel, sand, and silt. -sand, silt, and gravel. sand, clay, and silt
No matter how much or how little pruning one does on an established plant, the objective is to _____ the plant's growth. increase modify decrease none of the above modify
The smallest mineral component in soil is clay. sand. gravel. silt. clay
The female parts of a flower are -stamen, style and ovary. -stigma, style and ovary. -anther, style and ovary. -pistil, style and ovary. stigma, style and ovary
The viability of a group of seeds is measured by germination percent. leaves produced. fruit produced. roots produced. germination percent
A time during which no growth occurs because of unfavorable conditions is known as transpiration. dormancy. photosynthesis. phototropism. dormancy
Albuquerque is in Western Garden Zone number ________. 375 10 10
The coddling moth most often attacks grapes. apples. peaches. cherries. apples
The science and practice of growing and harvesting tree fruits, small fruits, and tree nuts is viniculture. olericulture. floriculture. pomology. pomology
The science and practice of growing vegetable crops is viniculture. floriculture. olericulture. pomology. olericulture
The first part of the plant to emerge from the seed is plumule. radicle. leaf. endosperm. radicle
Soil sterilization requires heating the soil at 120 degrees F. for two hours. 180 degrees F. for half an hour. 160 degrees F. for two hours. none of the above 180 degrees F. for half an hour
The label in a flat of seeds should include name of plant. the date seeded. variety of plant. all of the above all of the above
The USDA plant hardiness zone map is divided into ___ zones. 10 46 12 10
Las Cruces is in USDA plant hardiness zone 10. 6. 7. 4. 6
Tomatoes need at least _____ hours of direct sunlight. 84 12 6 6
Soybeans need inoculation with fungicide. nematodes. antibiotics. nitrogen-fixing bacteria. nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Asparagus is mainly harvested when the tops mature. in the late summer. in the spring. in the fall. in the spring
A potato is an example of a stolon. rhizome. tuber. root. tuber
The globe artichoke is a member of what family? gourd morning glory thistle maize thistle
How much rain does the average garden plant require per week? 1 foot 3/4 inch 1 1/2 inch 1 inch 1 inch
Mulching of strawberry plantings with straw of other material is used in western regions of the United States to -prevent winter freezing and thawing and to control weeds. -keep fruit clean and control fungus disease. control insects and field mice. prevent winter freezing and thawing and to control weeds.
Strawberries grow best in a loamy soil that is high in sand content. organic matter. phosphorous. calcium. organic matter
In the renewal process, the tops are mowed off all plants in the strawberry planting and the plants are fertilized. sprayed for diseases. thinned out. mulched. thinned out
In the hill system of planting strawberries, runners are hand placed to widen the rows. allowed to grow in limited numbers. allowed to grow freely. not allowed to root and grow. not allowed to root and grow
Weeds growing in strawberry beds can best be controlled by spraying with Roundup. crop rotation. planting hardy varieties. cultivation. cultivation
Strawberries prefer soil that is -fertile and highly acidic. -fertile and slightly acidic. -fertile and slightly alkaline. -fertile with a high pH. fertile and slightly acidic.
Created by: 100000534521744



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