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Chapter 12

Stauzenberger college: Anatomy and physiology vet tech- Chapter 12

This is the most vital requirement for survival. Oxygen
This is the most essential nutrient to life. Water
A __% loss of water in mammals would be fatal without immediate treatment. 15
What are some clinical signs of an animal with 8-9% dehydration? -Gums are tacky - Eyes are slightly sunken in -Skin has lost elasticity
What are the 3 categories of carbohydrates? -Sugars -Starches -Cellulose
Glucose is used to make what molecule? ATP
This is considered the most dominant structural material of the animal body. Proteins
It takes ______ amino acids to make a protein 100 to 10,000
The bond that joins proteins is know as a ________ bond. Peptide
Cell metabolism is divided into what 2 categories? -Catabolism -Anabolism
How many stages of catabolism are there? Where do they occur? -3 -The stomach(1st stage), The cytosol(2nd stage), and The mitochondria(3rd stage)
This is an important molecular product of an anaerobic respiration. Acetylcoa
What organelle is known as the energy-producing factory? Mitochondria
Anabolic events are also called: Biosynthetic Processes
Dehydration synthesis occurs in _________ metabolism. Anabolic
Hydrolysis occurs in _______ metabolism. Catabolism
Many anabolic processes occur where? Cytosol
Where is glycogen stored? Liver
Most enzymes end in what 3 letters? -ASE
___________ is required for survival of all living things. Energy
What are 2 types of cells that rely almost exclusively on glucose for their energy needs? Brain & RBC
What is the most vital steroid? Cholesterol
An enzyme reacts with it's substrate to form a Product
Aerobic Respiration: The cell function that produces chemical energy with the use of energy. ***Uses Oxygen***
Coenzymes Non-Protein organic substances may also act as cofactors. They are often derived from vitamins.
Dehydration Synthesis The combination of two or more simple materials to form one or more complex materials by removing water.
Anaerobic respiration Metabolic process ***DOES NOT USE OXYGEN***
Hydrolysis Breaks down more complex materials into simpler ones
Nutrient A substance derived from food that is used by the body to carry out all of it's normal functions
Glycolysis takes place in the Cytosol
The primary carbohydrate found in the bloodstream of a dog or cat is Glucose
The Krebs cycle takes place where? Mitochondria
Mammals consist of about __% of water 70
One molecule of glucose can generate a maximum of ____ ATP molecules 38
An enzyme reacts with its substrate to form a coenzyme
What is the net ATP production during glycolysis? 2
Where does the electron transport chain take place? mitochondria
How many steps take place during glycolysis? 10
In deamination ammonia is converted to ______ which can be excreted in the urine. urea
What is the correct order of energy burned in a healthy animal? Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins
In ruminants carbohydrates can be supplied by ______ which is stored in the liver Propionate
Enzymes are highly _____ as to what substrate they work on. Specific
Build-up of lactic acid in horses can cause a condition called myositis
What passive process is used when glucose enters the cell? Active transport
What is the fluid found in the cristae of the mitochondria called? Matrix
Trandamination The process of amino group transfer to other amino acids
Matrix The intercellular material of connective tissue ***THE FLUID FOUND IN THE CRISTAE OF THE MITOCHONDRIA***
Phosphorylatin The addition of phosphorus into an organic compound
Cytochromes ***The final stage of the Electron transport system*** Complex of enzymes transfer electrons to oxygen.
Cellular Respiration The oxidation of organic material to yield energy, carbon dioxcide, and water
Lipolysis The break down of fats
Kerbs Cycle The metabolism of sugar, fatty acids, and amino acids through oxidation to produce carbon dioxcide, water and energy.
Cellulose A complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls and fibers of plant tissue
Deamination The process during catabolism in which the amino group NH2 is removed.
Created by: brookie44