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Primate Origins

Introduction to Primate Evolutionary History

What are primitive traits? Traits retained from the past ancestor
What are derived traits? New(divergent) traits.
What is adaptive radiation? Divergence of multiple taxa from a common ancestor into numerous niches
Describe a common ancestor? Exists at the base of an adaptive radiation. Problematic or difficult to identify due to the nature of the fossil record and evolutionary processes. Retains primitive traits and have derived traits.
What are some facts about Plesiadapiforms? Small shrew like animal, insectivore - needed enhanced visual cortex to catch their prey, Coincident with the extinction of the dinosaurs; K-T boundary.
Paleocene Primate Candidates? Many possible candidates discovered in NA & Europe, but most have too many derived traits, so the exact common ancestor is unidentified.
One possible candidate is Carpolestes simpsoni. Describe this species. Discovered in Wyoming. Has a Divergent Hallux and Toe-nail, but non-primate cranial and dental features.
Describe Plesiadapis. Originally palced in a suborder within primates, but now placed in their own order because they are too specialized.
What are the two groups of Euprimates (true primates) and when do they appear? Primates that appear during the Eocene. Adapids (Strepsirhines) & Omomyids (Haplorhines)
When did the infraorder Catarrhine begin to appear? During the Oligocene 34-25 mya.
Proplioithecids are direct ancestors of what primitive infraorder? Catarrhini.
Parapithecids are ancestors of what primitive infraorder? Platyrrhini.
What is it called when the body size difference between males and females is extreme? Sexual Dimorphism
Proconsul was a generalized ancestor of what primate group? Homninoidea
What are the features that are retained from ancestors and usually considered to be generalized called? Primitive Traits
Which epoch is considered the "Age of the Apes"? Miocene
What is the problem with assigning the Plesiadapiforms as a part of the Primate Lineage? The traits are too specialized.
Which fossil is considered to be ancestral to orangutans? Sivapithecus, because of the similar jaw structure.
There was originally d33 Genera which included 54 species of Apes. What are the Ape genera remaining today? Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and Humans.
Created by: cassidylm34