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VET 113: A&P

Anatomy and Physiology I

anatomy study of the structure of the body
physiology study of how the body functions
gross anatomy study of structures that can be seen without a microcope
regional approach study of all structures and their functons in a specific area of the body
systemic anatomy study of structures and functions within specific body systems
histology study of the microscopic structure and composition of tissues
4 tissues types epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithelial sheets of cells that cover all the internal and external surfaces of the body, lines body cavities
3 shapes of epithelial tissues squamous, cuboidal, columnar
simple epithelium single layer of cells
stratified epithelium multiple layers of cells
microvilli finger-like projections on cells
cilia hairlike projections on cells
glands epitheilal tissues that manufacture and secrete substanaces
exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts
endocrine glands secrete their products directly into the blood and lymph vessels
connective tissue function functions to bind and support the organism and it sytems
6 types of connective tissue cartilage, bone, fibrous, loose, adipose, blood
membranes function cover surfaces, line cavities and separate organs
membranes composed of linked epithelial and connective tissues
4 types of membranes mucous, serous, curaneous, synovial
mucous membranes line the orgnas of the reproductive, urinary and respiratory tract systems
serous membranes line the organs within the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities
2 serous membrane layers visceral, parietal
visceral layer serous membrane layer closest to the organ
parietal layer serous membrane closest to the body cavity
mesenteries supportive ligaments, secure organs to the body wall
cutaneous membranes integument, skin
synovial membranes line the joint cavities
synovial membranes are composed of loose connective and adipose tissue
synovial membranes produce synovial fluid
muscle tissue specialized cells the can shorten to produce movement
3 types of muscles tissue smooth, skeletal, cardiac
smooth muscle compose the walls of the digestive tract, involuntary
skeletal muscle ataches to bones, voluntary
cardiac unique to the heart, involuntary
nervous tissue specialized cells that conduct electrical impulses
neuron cellular subunit of nervous tissue
3 parts of a neuron cell body, axon, dendrites
vasoconstriction blood vessels narrow, cause decrease in blood pressure
vasodilation widening of the blood vessels
granulation tissue composed of collagen fibers with many capillaries
organs structures in the body made of different types of tissues
organ systems collections of organs that perform a function for the body
atoms join together to form molecules and compounds
3 types of chemical bonds covalent, ionic, hydrogen
ionic bonding atoms either donate or accept elections
ions atoms that participate in an ionic bond
cation ion with a poistive charge
anion negatively charged ion
salts ionic bonds between mineral compounds
acids release hydrogen ions
bases release hydroxyl ions
covalent bonding atoms have an unpaired electron in theri outer shell
nonpolar bond equal sharing of electrons between atoms
polar covalent bond unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
hydrophilic molecules that dissolve in water
hydrophobic molecules that don't dissolve in water
hydrocarbons carbon and hydrogen molecules
inorganic compounds don't contain hydrocarbons
organic compounds contain hydrocarbons
4 types of organic compounds carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
carbohydrates used as energy and structural materials
3 types of carbohydrates monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides
monosaccharides simple sugars
oligosacchrides simple sugars bonded together
polysaccharides complex carbohydrates
lipids fats , used for energy storage
lipids composed of fatty acids attached o glycerol
proteins form enzymes and hormones
proteins control metabolic and biochemical reactions and processes in cells
proteins composed of chains of amino acids joined by peptides bonds
number of amino acids twenty
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) control synthesis of proteins,
enzymes proteins that act as catalysts to speed up a metabilic reacation
What are the levels of organization from smallest to largest? Chemical or Molecular Level, Cellular Level, Tissue Level, and Organ Level.
What are the major organs of the integumentary system? Skin, hair, sweat glands, and nails.
What are the functions of the integumentary system? Protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temperature, provides sensory information, activates vitamin D, and stores fat to use as engergy source.
What are the major organs of the nervous system? Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and sense organs.
What are the functions of the nervous system? Directs immediate reponses to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions, tries to maintain the intercal balance of the body
What are the major organs of the skeletal system? Bones, cartilages, associated ligaments, and bone marrow.
What are the functions of the skeletal system? Provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other minerals, and forms blood cells.
What are the major organs of the endocrine system? Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissue in other systems.
What are the functions of the endocrine system? Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, controls many structural and functional changes during development.
What are the major organs of the muscular system? Skeletal muscles and associated tendons and aponeuroses (tendinous sheets)
What are the functions of the muscular system? Provides movement, procides protection and support for other tisses, generates heat that maintains body temperature.
What are the major organs of the cardiovascular system? Heart, blood and blood vessels.
What are the functions of the cardiovascular system? Distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature.
What are the major organs of the lymphatic system? Spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes and tonsils.
What are the functions of the lymphatic system? Defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream.
What are the major organs of the urinary system? Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
What are the functions of the urinary system? Excretes waste products from the blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, and regulates blood ion concentrations and pH.
What are the major organs of the respiratory systems? Nasal cavaties, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and alveoli.
What are the functions of the respiratory system? Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs), provides oxygen to bloodstream, removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream, and produces sounds for communication.
What are the major functions of the digestive system? Teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
What are the functions of the digestive system? Processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients (ions, water, and the breakdown products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fats), stores energy reserves.
What are the major organs of the male reproductive system? Testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and scrotum.
What are the functions of the male reproctive system? Produces male sex cells (sperm) and hormones.
What are the major organs for the female reproductive system? Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands.
What are the functions of the female reproductive system? Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones, supports developing embryo from conception to delivery, and provides milk to nourish newborn infant.
What is homeostasis? The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment.
What is negative feedback? A corrective mechanism that opposes or negates a variation from normal limits.
What is positive feedback? A mechanism that increases a deviation from normal limits after an intitial stimulus.
What is the anatomical position? Standing upright with palms facing forward.
What plane divides the body into anterior and posterior? Frontal plane
What plane divides the body into superior and inferior? Transverse plane
What plane divides the body into equal right and left halves? Sagittal plane
What organs are in the right upper quadrant? Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of the stomach, small and large intestine.
What organs are in the left upper quadrant? Left lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of the large intestine
What organs are in the right lower quadrant? Cecum, appendix, portions of small intestine, right ovary in female and right spermatic cord in male, and right ureter.
What are the organs in the left lower quadrant? Most of small intestine, portions of large intestine, left ureter, left ovary in female and left spermatic cord in male.
What are the functions of the body cavity? Protect vital organs; brain, lungs, intestines, heart.... cavities allow organs to change in shape and size.
Anatomy scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure
List some of the different levels of anatomy developmental, embryology, cytology, histology,gross anatomy, systemic anatomy, regional anatomy, surface anatomy
Developmental Anatomy the study of the structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood.
Embryology a subspeciality of developmental anatomy considers changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development. (Most birth defects occur during this period)
Cytology examines the structural features of cells.
histology examines tissues, which are cells and the materials surrounding them.
Gross Anatomy or Macroscopic Anatomy the study os structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope.
systemic anatomy the body is studied system by system. Ex. circulatory, nervous etc.
regional anatomy the body is studied area by area. Ex. to study all the structures in the arm.
Surface Anatomy the study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures.
Anatomic Imaging Uses radiographs (x-rays), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures.
Physiology investigation of the processes or functions of living things.
Physiology can be considered at many different levels. Name some. Cell physiology, systemic physiology, neurophysiology, cardiovascular physiology.
Cell Physiology examines the processes occurring in cells
systemic physiology considers the functions of organ systems.
neurophysiology focuses on the nervous system
cardiovascular physiology deals with the heart and blood vessels.
Pathology is the medical science dealing with all aspects of disease, emphasis on the cause and development of abnormal conditions as well as structural and functional changes resulting from disease.
Exersize Physiology focuses on changes in function, but also structure, caused by exercise.
What is pH? It is a scale representing relative concentrations of hydrogen ions in a solution.
Hydrogen ions (H+) are? Acidic!
What is the number range on the pH chart? Which is acidic and which is basic? 0 is the most acidic, and 14 is the most basic.
The lower the pH the more? H+ (Acidic - Lower on Chart)
What is the Normal mammalian pH? Approximately 7.4, slightly basic.
What is a substance which helps keep the pH at the correct level? "Buffers"
Created by: CarrieMP



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