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KIN 100 Exam 2

KIN 100 Exam 2 Study Guide Flash Cards

What are the 3 importance's of dieting - protection from disease - nutrients to function - maintaining proper body weight
The 6 major nutrients - carbs - proteins - fats - vitamins - minerals - water
How much of your diet should be carbs? 55% - which is broken down by the body and used as glucose
What are complex carbs? starches and fiber (40-45% of diet)
How much of your diet should be simple sugars? 10-15%
How many grams of fiber should be eaten each day for males/females? 38 g - male 25 g - female
What is the role of protein? Growth, maintenance and repair (but is last and least efficient source of energy)
Protein is broken down and used by the body as? Amino Acids
1 kg = ? lbs 2.2 lbs
Fat should make up ___% of your diet 30%
Functions of lipids - energy source - transport fat soluble vitamins - cell function
Lipids are ingested as ______ and broken down and used by the body as ____. - triglycerides - fatty acids
Name some essential fats and what they do. - Omega 3 & 6 - Fatty acids - Help lower blood cholesterol level
Hydrogenation - liquid oils are converted into solid fats
What is the problem with trans fats? - increase LDL and decrease HDL
Cholesterol How much is normal? too much? 100-190 mg/dl - normal LDL < 100 mg/dl - normal 200-239 mg/dl - moderate risk > 240 mg/dl - high risk
Total cholesterol formula HDL + LDL + 1/5
Triglycerides - type of fat found in your blood - released between meals when you need energy
Role of vitamins - regulate metabolism - convert fat and carbs to energy - help form bone and muscle
The 4 fat soluble vitamins A D E K
Water soluble vitamins B complex & C
How much of the body is water? 50-60%
Suggested daily dietary fiber for men and women Under 50 = 38 g - Male 25 g - Female Over 50= 30 g - Male 21 g - Female
3 diseases related to nutritional deficiency - Osteoporosis - Anemia - Hypertension
Atherosclerosis Hardening of the arteries
Anemia Blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of our body, not having enough iron
Hemochromatosis Inherited disease in which too much iron builds up in the body
1 gram of carbs = ? calories 4 calories
1 gram of protein = ? calories 4 calories
1 gram of fat = ? calories 9 calories
1 gram of alcohol = ? calories 7 calories
What ___% of adults are overweight or obese? 65%
What ___% of children are overweight? 17.6%
Body composition ratio (percent) of fat vs. lean body mass
Over-fat more body fat than one should maintain for good health
Obesity fat in excess of desirable norms for a group or gender
Endomorph tendency of having an overweight body type
Mesomorph tendency of having a muscular body type
Ectomorph tendency of having a slimmer body type
Hypothalamus place in the brain where the body turns off when you have become full
Android type apple shape - ab region
Gynoid type pear shape - hip region (less health risk)
Informal estimates of body weight and fat: - mirror & pinch test - ruler & belt line test
Body Mass Index body weight in kg (kilograms) divided by the square of your height in meters
BMI greater 25 Overweight
BMI greater than 30 Obese
Excess protein or carb intake will/will not convert to fat? Will not
Fat Cell Theory - Hyperplasia - Hypertrophic
Hyperplasia Excess number of fat cells early in life
Low iron signs - weakness - paleness - constipation - anemia
Low potassium signs - poor reflexes - nervous disorders - muscle damage
Low calcium signs - muscle spasms - back and leg cramps - brittle bones
How much sodium should a person consume in a day? 2.4 grams or less
Iron requirement for women between ages 19-50? 18 mg per day
During pregnancy how much iron does a woman need? 27 mg per day
Recommended daily iron for men over 19? 8 mg per day
They hypothalamus stimulates ________ nervous system Autonomic
Pituary gland stimulates the adrenal gland
Alarm stage in General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) - stressor is preceived - body shows generalized arousal
Resistance stage of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) - stressors detected - body attempts to adapt and combat the stressors
Exhaustion stage of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) - resistance to stressor is inadequate - stress related illness occurs
Characteristics of the Alarm phase: Increased mental alertness & energy consumption, mobilization of energy reserves, circulation changes, drastic reduction in digestive processes and urine, increased sweat & blood pressure & heart rate
When does the body enter resistance stage? If stress lasts longer than a few hours
Dominate hormone in resistance stage? Glucocorticoids
Effects of resistance stage Mobilize remaining fat and protein reserves, conserve glucose for neural tissues, elevate and stabilize blood glucose concentrations, conserve salts and water
Coping in resistance stage - coping skills reduce or eliminate stress and homeostasis is restored - coping skills prove inadequate (exhaustion phase)
Exhaustion phase beings when: - homeostatic regulation breaks down - there is a mineral imbalance
Cattell's research found what? High correlation between poor physical condition and high anxiety
Created by: 1438973196