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Key Terms

Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Biotechnology "Manipulation of parts of living organisms to make useful products. Using knowledge of cells to modify activities to make living organisms more effective in serving people. Manipulation of genes of organisms to alter behavior, characteristics, or value."
Bioremediation "An environmental improvement process whereby living organisms can be used to consume and convert pollutants to harmless substances."
Stem cells "Cells that are programmed to begin the differentiation process of cell development."
Gene therapy "A medical procedure to treat & cure genetic disorders. Includes: modifying or replacing disease-causing genes. Procedure to combat genetic diseases. Involves: Insertion of genes into human genome that corrects a problem with a person’s original genes."
Personalized genomics "The particular gene makeup of an individual."
Personalized medicine "Medicine that is designed for a particular individual"
Pharming "A term combining the words pharmaceutical and farming that refers to growing organisms (usually genetically altered) for the purpose of producing pharmaceuticals."
Biomanufacturing "Manufacturing through the use of biotechnology, such as gene splicing."
Cloning "Production of a genetically identical offspring by artificial means."
Genetically engineered "The process of removing genes from one organism and transferring them to another organism."
Genetically modified "Organisms that have been genetically changed through the intervention of humans.This includes the process of selective breeding."
Biotech "The use of technology to influence biological functions."
Transgenic "Organisms that have genetic materials inserted from a different species."
DNA "Deoxyribonucleic Acid. A genetic protein-like nucleic acid on plant and animal genes and chromosomes that controls inheritance."
Green Revolution "A term referring to the tremendous advances in food production that began in the 1970's."
Developing countries "Countries that are in the process of developing in terms of infrastructure, food production, and so on."
Synthetic biology "The process where biological parts and entire living systems may be designed and synthesized in the laboratory."
Bioinformatics "The use of information technology to store, analyze, sort, label, and share the many DNA sequences generated by genome sequencing projects."
Genetic engineering "The process of removing and/or inserting genetic material in order to change an organism’s trait(s)."
Created by: t_fleshman