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Key Terms

Chapter 2

1.) Environment: The conditions and circumstances surrounding an organism.
2.) Plant Breeding: The selection and collection of seeds from desirable plants to encourage their traits in future plant production.
3.) Enzyme: A large, complex protein molecule produced by the body that stimulates or speeds up various chemical reactions without being used up itself; an organic catalyst.
4.) Rennin: A coagulant enzyme occurring particularly in the gastric juice of calves and also in some plants and lower animals.
5.) Fermentation: The processing of food by means of yeasts, molds, or bacteria.
6.) Yeast: A yellowish substance composed of microscopic, unicellular fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae that induces fermentation in juices, worts, doughs, and so forth.
7.) Heredity: The traits that are passed to an offspring from the parents.
8.) Law of Segregation: A law, developed by Gregor Mendel in the nineteenth century, that says that the factors responsible for the traits from each parent are separated and then combined with factors from the other parent at fertilization.
9.) Law of Independent Assortment: A law which states that genes for certain characteristics are passed from parent to the next generation and are separate from the other factors or genes that transmit other traits; this separation allows the tremendous amount of diversity among organisms.
10.) Cells: The ultimate functional unit of an organic structure, plant, or animal. It consists of a microscopic mass of protoplasm that includes a nucleus surrounded by a membrane. In most plants, it is surrounded by a cell wall.
11.) Vaccine: A substance that contains live, modified, or dead organisms or their products that is injected into an animal in an attempt to protect the host from a disease caused by that particular organism.
12.) Antibiotic: Germ-killing substances produced by a bacterium or mold.
13.) Artificial Insemination: The deposition of spermatozoa in the female genitalia by artificial rather than natural means.
14.) Embryo Transfer: The process of removing an embryo from a superior female and implanting it into an inferior female.
15.) Genetic Code: The order in which four chemical constituents are arranged in huge molecules of DNA; these molecules transmit genetic information to the cells by synthesizing ribonucleic acid in a corresponding order.
16.) Vertical Gene Transfer: The transfer of genetic information from parents to offspring.
17.) DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid A genetic protein-like nucleic acid on plant and animal genes and chromosomes that controls inheritance.
18.) Double Helix: Description of the two spiral-shaped strands of phosphoric acid and deoxyribose found within the nucleus of cells.
19.) Genetic Engineering: Gene splicing.
20.) Horizontal Gene Transfer: A process in which microbes are natural “genetic engineers” transferring genetic material between cells.
21.) Gene Splicing: The process of removing and/or inserting genetic material in order to change an organism’s trait(s).
Created by: t_fleshman