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Chapter 2


environment The conditions and circum- stances surrounding an organism.
plant breeding The selection and collection of seeds from desirable plants to encourage their traits in future plant production.
enzyme A large, complex protein molecule produced by the body that stimulates or speeds up various chemical reactions without being used up itself; an organic catalyst.
rennin A coagulant enzyme occurring particu- larly in the gastric juice of calves and also in some plants and lower animals.
fermantation The processing of food by means of yeasts, molds, or bacteria.
yeast A yellowish substance composed of mi- croscopic, unicellular fungi of the family Saccha- romycetaceae that induces fermentation in juices, worts, doughs, and so forth. (Herre
Heridity The traits that are passed to an off- spring from the parents.
law of segregation A law, developed by Gregor Mendel in the nineteenth century, that says that the factors responsible for the traits from each par- ent are separated and then combined with factors from the other parent at fertilization
law of independent assortment " \ A law which states that factors (genes) for certain characteris- tics are passed from parent to the next genera- tion and are separate from the other factors or genes that transmit other traits; this separation allows the tremendous amount of diversit
cells The ultimate functional unit of an organic structure, plant, or animal. It consists of a micro- scopic mass of protoplasm that includes a nucleus surrounded by a membrane. In most plants, it is surrounded by a cell wall.
vaccine A substance that contains live, modified, or dead organisms or their products that is injected into an animal in an attempt to protect the host from a disease caused by that particular organism.
antibiotic Germ-killing substances produced by a bacterium or mold.
artificial insemination The deposition of spermatozoa in the female genitalia by artificial rather than natural means.
embryo transfer The process of removing an embryo from a superior female and implanting it into an inferior female.
genetic code The order in which four chemical constituents are arranged in huge molecules of DNA; these molecules transmit genetic information to the cells by synthesizing ribonucleic acid in a corresponding order.
vertical gene transfer The transfer of genetic information from parents to offspring.
DNA A genetic pro- teinlike nucleic acid on plant and animal genes and chromosomes that controls inheritance.
double helix Description of the two spiral- shaped strands of phosphoric acid and deoxyribose found within the nucleus of cells.
genetic engineering The process of removing and/or inserting genetic material in order to change an organism’s trait(s).
horizontal gene A process in which microbes are natural “genetic engineers” transfer- ring genetic material between cells.
transfer gene splicing The process of removing and/or inserting genetic material in order to change an organism’s trait(s).
Created by: ReginaWiechert