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AP World History

Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 12

TermDefinitionSignificanceTime PeriodChapterRegion
Decline in Manichaism (blank)Manichaism came under pressure in the Sasanid Empire due to the emperor’s desire to spread Zoroastrianism. Manichaists were also persecuted against in the Roman Empire because of the religion’s origins in the Sasanid Empire. (blank)The decline of Manichaism showed how the authority of the state overpowered the religious preferences of its people, thus defining the all-powerful leaders of the time period. 5th and 6th centuries CE (classical period) 12 Mediterranean
Epidemic Diseases (blank)Large outbreaks of bubonic plague, measles, and smallpox that caused significant demographic damage (around ¼ of the population in China and Rome) and had a partial impact on the fall of the Han and Roman Empires. (blank)Large outbreaks of bubonic plague, measles, and smallpox that caused significant demographic damage (around ¼ of the population in China and Rome) and had a partial impact on the fall of the Han and Roman Empires. 100-600 CE 12 Mediterranean and China
Effects of Epidemic Diseases (blank)Epidemic disease led to the constriction of economies with desperate attempts towards self-sufficiency, as well as a withdrawal from the larger imperial market. (blank)The economic and social changes led to the weakening of the Han and Roman Empires, thus serving as catalysts to their falls. 100-600CE 12 (blank)Mediterranean and China
Peasant Rebellion Due to the large landowners of the Han Dynasty gaining influence in government and reducing their taxes, peasants were forced to carry a heavier burden causing many peasants to organize rebellions, most notably the Yellow Turban Rebellion. The growing power of the wealthy prompted discontent in the peasants, all in all contributing to the internal decay of the Han Dynasty and assisting in its collapse. Around 100-220CE 12 China
Collapse of the Han Dynasty The Han Dynasty finally fell when in 190CE the Han emperor became a puppet figure and generals with armies alligned with landowners leading to the fall of the Han Dynasty in 220 CE and the division of the empire into three kingdoms. The fall of the Han Dynasty led to the disunity of China for over 350 years and also projected foreign nomadic influence into the region. 190-220CE 12 China
Sinicization of the Nomadic Peoples Nomadic peoples filtering into China adopted Chinese ways of agriculture, philosophy, structure building, and literature and became increasingly intertwined with the Chinese people (marriage). They built their society in a turbulant world. The sinicization of nomads allowed for people from other cultures to become part of Chinese life and also promted the popularity of Buddhism and Daoism in an effort to find peace and the loss of faith in Confucianism. 220-570CE 12 China
the monsoon system governed sailing and shipping in Indian Ocean, knowledge of winds allowed mariners to sail safely aloowed for trade throughout Indian Ocean basin and when used properly allowed ships to travel faster than usual; helped enhance world trade second century b.c.e. 12 India-indian ocean basin
trade in the hellenistic world trade from Bactria and India in east to Mediterranean basin in west. From India:spices,pepper,cosmetics,gems,and pearls by caravan and ship. Persia and Egypt:grain. Mediterranean: wine, olive oil,jewlery, art. trade allowed different areas to receive goods that were previously unheard of in their areas. It also allowed for an exchange of ideas and philosophies. hellenistic era 12 Bactria, India, Mediterranean,Persia,Egypt(eurasia and hellenistic world)
overland trade routes network of trade routes that were called silk roads because high-quality silk was a principal commodity. It was a caravan trade system from the Roman empire to China connected eurasian landmass and allowed a constant and easy flow of goods from one land to another. It also helped create a whole new era of social interaction 200 b.c.e.-300 c.e. 12 china to Roman empire, eurasian landmass, classical empires
sea lanes and maritime trade Sea lanes from the South China Sea linked east Asia to SE Asia.Indian sea lanes went through the Arabian Sea to Persia and Arabia.From the Persian Gulf & Red Sea they went to the Mediterranean basin.Silk and spices traveled west from SE Asia,China,& India These lanes allowed goods and technology to travel from one area to another in a whole different way. Goods could now travel from one area to another from land or sea. 200 b.c.e-300c.e. 12 China, India, SW and SE Asia, Persia, Arabia, Mediterranean, north Africa
trade goods Silk and spices from China, SE Asia, and India. Central Asia made large, strong horses and jade. The Roman empire made glassware, jewlery, art, decorations, bronze goods, textiles. pottery, iron tools, olive oil, wine, & gold and silver bullion Allowed lands to get goods that are not natural to their areas and created new types of foods,drugs, perfumess, potions, etc. 200 b.c.e-300c.e., classical times 12 Roman empire Cental Asia, China, Mdeiterranean
the organization of long-distance trade Long-distance trade was handled in stages.No merchant went across all of Eurasia.They would pass the goods to another merchant in exchange for something else until the goods reached their destination.Malayans and Persians were some of the major mariners. This system of organization allowed for easier trade and quicker attainment of good. It also helped stimulate economies along the trade routes. 200 b.c.e.-300c.e especially 1st century b.c.e-1st century c.e. 12 silk roads(Eurasia) and South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, Mediterranean Basin
Taklamakan Desert It was also known as the Tarim Basin and is translated as "he who enters does not come back out" because it is so dangerous. The silk road splits and goes to the north and south of it, but not directly through. This desert not only caused the death of anyone who crossed it, but also forced the Silk roads to be split into two different directions. not time period specific just an area, but used from 200b.c.e.- 300c.e. 12 central asia
roads and bridges Rulers invested in them for military and administrative reasons, but they also encouraged trade and exchanges between socieies. They created interaction between socities that previously had no connetions and they held together an empire. during the classical age 12 Eurasia
Popularity of Buddhism Buddhism gained acceptance in China with the fall of the Han Dynasty, which prompted nomadic Buddhists to enter China and spread the faith to the Chinese. The instability of the period also strengthed the doctrine of Buddhism, which sought for peace. Buddhism in China established a vital cultural foundation neccessary to the restoration of unified political order. 4th and 6th centuries CE 12 China
The Barracks Emperors The 26 claimants to the Roman imperial throne (mostly generals) who went through a series of power struggles resulting in all but one of their assasinations. These series of power struggles sparked further internal decay of the Roman empire, which already teetered from sheer size and devastating epidemics. 235-284CE 12 Mediterranean (Rome)
Buddhism In Central Asia many residents of the oasis towns along the silk roads adopted this prominent faith spread Buddhism to nomadic people from the steppes and aided the overall expansion of the religion 2nd century B.C.E. 12 Central Asia
Buddism in China Chinese foreign merchants were the first believers and built many monosaries and had missionaries to help spread Buddhism in China as well as along the silk roads The presence of the merchants' monosaries and their missionaries attracted many Chinese converts and helped faciliate the spread of Buddhism into other regions such as east Asia, Japan, and Korea 1st century B.C.E. 12 China
Buddism in Southeast Asia spread by merchants traveling on the silk roads, many rulers converted to Buddhism, enhanced authority by associating themeselves with honored religious traditions and set a precedent of this for many future societies late centuries B.C.E., first century C.E. 12 Southeast Asia
Hinduism In Southeast Asia spread by merchants traveling on the silk roads, most prominent in modern Vietnam and Cambodia, led to the adoption of Sanskirt as a written language, Shiva and Vishnu most prominent cults significantly impacted the style and architecture of souteastern Asian cities as well as their cultural traditions late centuries B.C.E., first century C.E. 12 Southeast Asia
Christianity in the Mediterranean Basin Christianity became an enourmously popular religion in the Roman Empire, Greece, Italy, Spain, and many other prominent regions thanks to the help of Gregory the wonderworker led to the expansion of Christianity in many other regions such as southwest Asia 2nd and 3rd centuries C.E. 12 The Mediterranean Basin
Christianity in Southwest Asia Sizable Christian communties began to flourish in regions such as Mesopotamia, Iran, and as far as India as well as many other regions, endureds forced Islamic conversions aided Christianity into becoming a prominent source of religious inspiration, facilitated the spread of a major religion still practiced in large numbers today 2nd century C.E. 12 Southwest Asia
Mani a prophet, a devout Zoroastrian from Babylon and Mesopotamia, and the founder of the religion called Manichaeism Offered the world a rational explanation for the presence of good and evil, 216-272 C.E. 12 The Roman Empire
Manichaeism This religion, founded by Mani, appealled strongly to merchnats and had two sects, "the elect," and "the hearers" Attracted so many converts that it became a prominent religion and affected the cultural, political, and religous aspects of mant societies, especially the Roman Empire The 2nd and 3rd centuries C.E. 12 The Roman Empire
Manichaean Ethics "the elect" were devout and abstained from sex, fine clothing, meat, rich foods, and other comforts and dedicated their lives to prayer, ritual observacnes and fasting, and the "hearers" who led more conventional lives but still adhered to a moral code affected the lives of many individuals as they follwed these rules and ethics, and also slowed the spread of other major religions, thus impacting the religious aspects of many societies The 2nd and 3rd centuries C.E. 12 The Roman Empire
Gregory The Wonderworker a tireless Christian missionary who helped facilitate the spread of religion in central Anatolia, was able to perform miracles, and expelled demons led to the spread of Christianity into southwest Asia as well as many other regions and helped Christianity become world-wide and a largely practiced prominent religion mid-3rd century C.E. 12 Central Anatolia
Emperor Diocletion Divided the Roman Empire into the East and West districts which reported to the Emporer. The new and more effective government stopped inflation and stabilized the economy. decentrailized the government which made rome prone to internal struggles. 284-305 CE 12 Mediterranean
Tetrarchs The four officials who aided the coemperor in governing both the Eastern and Western districts of Rome After Diocletion's resignation of office, the Tetrarchs engaged in internal struggles for power and a bitter civil war. 284-324 CE 12 Mediterranean
Emporer Constantine The son of Diocletion's coruler Constantius, Constantine reunited the Roman Empire and moved the capitol to the strategic location of Constantine. His reunification of the two halves of the empire made it harder to govern. this led to the collapse of the western portion. 324-350 CE 12 Mediterranean
Visigoths Orrigionally from Scandinavia and Russia, the Visigoths settled around the northeatsern border of Rome, acting as buffer states. They drew deep inspiration from Roman society and law, and in 410, sacked Rome they streamed into Rome when threatened by the Huns and brought down the Western Empire since 2nd century CE 12 Mediterranean
Attilla the Hun Led the nomadic Huns in a conquest through Europe, pressuring the Germanic neighbors of Rome to invade for protection forced Germanic people to invade and eventually collapse Rome mid 5th century CE 12 Mediterranean
Romulus Agustulus Was the last Roman emporer of the Western half. He was deposed by the Germanic general, (blank) (blank) 12 Mediterranean
(blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) 12 Mediterranean
(blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) 12 Mediterranean
(blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) 12 Mediterranean
Diocletion Roman emperor who divided the Empire into the Eastern and Western districts headed by corulers. He stopped inflation and stabilized the economy New decentrialized rule led to internal power struggles 284-305 CE 12 Mediterranean
Tetrarchs The four officils who helped the coruled govern half of the Empire. After Diocletion's resignation, the tetrarchs fought over power and started a civil war 284-324 CE 12 Mediterranean
Constantine Was the son of Diocletion's coruler, Constantus, he reunified Rome and moved the capitol to the strategic location of Constantinople The recentralization of power in the Empire made it more difficult to govern and led to the collapse of the western half 324-350 CE 12 Mediterranean
Visigoths Germanic settlers around the northern borders of rome, who invaded and sacked Rome in 476. was mostly responsible for the fall of Western Rome since 2nd century CE 12 Mediterranean
Romulus Agustulus Was the last emperor of the western half of Rome. He was deposed by the Germanic general,Odovacer in 476 ended the long chain of 476 CE 12 Mediterranean
Edct of Milan Promulgated by Constantine, it pronounced that christianity was legal in the Roman Empire allowed for a signifigant spread of christianity 312 CE 12 Mediterranean
Theodosius Proclaimed christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire Greatly influenced and quickened the spread of Christianity 380 CE 12 Mediterranean
St. Agustine The well educated bishop of the north African city of Hippo who's writings on christianity persuaded people to convert was key in the spread of christianity through literature 354-430 CE 12 Mediterranean
Dioceses The districts which the bishops governed Every important Roman city was a part of a christian diocese - 12 Mediterranean
Council of Nicaea and Chaldon Discussed the issue of Jesus' nature. The bishops agreed that Jesus was both completely human and completely devine. Solved the ongoing arguement between Nestorians and Arians 325, 451 CE 12 Mediterranean
Created by: ch12isthebest