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Cell Phy

Veterinary Cell Physiology

What regulate animal development? Genes
How many genes does the human have? ~22,000
What are cells organized by? By fiber systems
What structures surround the genome organized within the nucleus? Fiber systems
What 3 types of filament/tubule systems are present in each cell? Actin filament, microtubules, and intermediate filament
What does redeploying microtubules during mitosis provide? They provide the scaffold supporting karyokinesis
How do we account for the continuity of life from one generation of animals to the next? Genes
What does life depend on? Life depends on the ability of cells to store, retrieve and translate genetic instructions
What must cells and organisms pass onto their offspring? Hereditary information
Where is hereditary information encoded? Within genes that are in DNA
What encode proteins or structural RNA? Genes
What is epigenetics? The differences that lies even between clones
How many genes encode for the protein for size in dogs? Three
What are alleles? Slightly different sequence versions of each gene that encode phenotype variations within a trait
What provided the first evidence for heredity? Animal breeding
Who discovered the principles of heredity? Mendel
Who rediscovered the principle of heredity? Hugo de Vries
Who was the person that coined the term "genetics" to describe biological heredity? William Bateson
Who published Origin of Species? Darwin
What was the name of the clone sheep? Dolly
what does fidelity mean? Perfect copy
What is hybridization? The hydrogen bonds that occur between the base pairings on the DNA strands
DNA strands are...? Anti-parallel
What is transcription? the transfer from one nucleotide language to another. The process of turning DNA to RNA
What is translation? The process of taking RNA and making proteins
How can more protein product be made? The more transcription of mRNA made, will increase the amount of protein product
What is the purpose of mRNA? To encode proteins
What is a catalyst? A protein that lowers the free energy of a reaction
What is an enzyme? A macromolecule that acts like a catalyst
What enzyme is used to synthesizes RNA? RNA polymerase
What exactly does RNA polymerase do? It reads the template strand of DNA 3->5 and assembles a new complimentary RNA strand 5->3 from ribonucleotides
What does the promoter do? It encodes regulatory signals controlling gene expression
What is coordinate control? the controlling of expression of multiple genes at one time
What is polycistronic? The mRNAs encoding several discrete proteins
What is monocistronic? The mRNAs encoding for one protein
What is a cistron? A complete gene coding sequence
What are exons? Gene sequence encoding protein sequence
what are introns? noncoding interruptions between exons
Created by: 533105139



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