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Vet. Phys

Veterinary Physiology

What is physiology? How things work
What is pathophysiology? When something goes wrong
What are cells? The basic structural and functional unit
What is homeostasis? the maintenance of nearly constant condition in the internal environment of the body
Where does regulation and integration exist? On all levels
what is the difference between the extracellular and intracellular fluid? Some values will be higher in one where in the other will be lower
How is extracellular fluid transported? By the movement of blood
What is interstitial fluid? The fluid between cells
What is plasma? Water and electrolytes within the blood
What does the body want to try to keep normal? The extracellular fluid
What effect does the extracellular fluid being normal have? It helps keep the ICF normal
Where is the origin of nutrients in extracellular fluids? The respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, the liver, and the musculoskeletal system
What does the live do in respect to nutrients? It convert nutrients into usable forms for the body
What within the body removes metabolic waste products? The respiratory system, the liver, the kidneys, and the GIT
What within the body regulate the body functions? The nervous system, and the hormonal system of regulation
What are the control systems of the body? Regulation of oxygen and CO2 in ECF, regulation of arterial pressure, and regulation of blood glucose
What happens when values fall outside of the normal range within the body? This foretells of disease within the body
What does negative feedback do? It promotes stability (through arterial pressure regulation), and regulation of blood glucose
What does Positive feedback do? It promotes a change in one direction
What could be a difference between different cells? They may have different proteins in their membrane
What is a ion channel? A pore in the membrane
What is a carrier protein? Its a protein that pick substances from one side and place it on the other side of the membrane
What are the 2 types of transport through the membrane? Diffusion and active transport
What are the two types of diffusion? Simple and facilitated diffusion
What is simple diffusion? Movement through the membrane, through a channel protein or a pore
What is facilitated diffusion? a type of movement that requires interaction of carrier proteins which aides passage
What types of molecules move readily across the membrane? Lipid-soluble molecules
What type of ions diffuse through channels or pores? Water-soluble ions
What make the channels in the cell membrane selective? Different proteins
Ungated channels are? Always open
Gated channels can be? Open and/or closed in response to a stimulus
What are the 2 different types of gated channels? Voltage and chemical gated channels
What are 3 factors that affect net rate of diffusion? Concentration gradient, membrane electrical potential, and pressure
When will net diffusion stop? When the concentration gradient is balanced by the electrical potential
How does pressure difference effect the net rate of diffusion? When there is an increased in pressure on one side of the membrane, more molecules will strike the pores allowing for more molecules to diffuse to the other side
What is osmosis? the concentration difference for water causes a net movement of water
What is Osmotic pressure? The amount of pressure required to counter osmosis
What is osmotic pressure attributed to? The osmolarity of a solution
What determines osmotic pressure? The number of osmotic particles
What is osmolarity? The concentration of a solution in terms of number of particles
What is the osmolarity of normal saline? 300milliOsmoles/L
What will happen to a red blood cell if the body is flushed with normal saline? (RBC= 300 mOs/L) No net diffusion will occur. Nothing will happen the the RBC
What will happen to a RBC if surrounded by water? (water=0 mOs/L) The RBC will burst. The water would rush into the RBC
What will happen to a RBC if bathed in a NaCl solution? (500 mOs/L) The water within the RBC will rush out, causes the RBC to shrink
What is the difference between diffusion and active transport? Active transport requires energy where diffusion does not
What are the two types of active transport? Primary and secondary transport
What is primary transport? Its where molecules are pumped against its concentration gradient using direct energy
What is secondary active transport? Its where transportation is driven by energy stored in the concentration gradient of another molecule
What are two types of secondary active transports? Co-transport, and counter-transport
What is co-transport? It is where a substance is transported in the same direction as the "driver" ion
What is counter-transport? It is where a substance is transported in the opposite direction from the driver ion
What is the driving force of the secondary active transport? The high concentration gradients
What is a membrane potential? A charge difference across the membrane
What are membrane potential caused by? Diffusion
How can passive diffusion of K and Na lead to development of negative membrane potential? When K diffuses across the membrane, it takes/remove positive charges with it. When Na diffuses out of the cell, it causes the outside to be more positive
What are 3 things that determines the resting potential? The charge, the concentration gradient, and the permeability of the ion
How can a cell change its resting potential? By changing the number of channels it has for a specific ion
What are the 3 stages of action potential? The resting stage, depolarization, and repolarization
What 3 things contribute to the resting membrane potential? Potassium diffusion potential, sodium diffusion potential, and Na-K pump
What is the permeability of K? High
What is the permeability of Na? Low
What will cause a resting nerve to depolarize? Stimulation
What is propagation? The opening of Na channels generates local current circuit that depolarizes adjacent membrane, opening more Na channels
How is the gradient re-established within the cell? by the Na-K ATPase
Are there different types of action potentials? Yes, it depends on the type of cell
Created by: 533105139