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NASM-CPT Ch.13 2013

Resistance Training Concepts

The resistance training secion of the OPT template requires 3 sections, which are: filling in exerceses for each body part, the sets, repetitions, tempo, and rest interval based on assessment outcomes of each client.
Adaptation is a function of: General adaptation syndrome + principle of specificity.
General adaptation syndrome is a term used to describe: how the body responds and adapts to stress.
Hans Selye stated that: exercise, including resistance training can be considered a good form of stress called eustress that over time allows the human movement system to adapt and thus be able to maintain homeostasis states under a variety of conditions.
3 stages of response to stress are: alarm reaction, resistance development, exhaustion
initial reaction to stressor such as increased oxygen and blood supply to the necessary areas of the body. Alarm Reaction
Increased functional capacity to adapt to stressor such as increasing motor unit recruitment. Resistance Development
A prolonged intolerable stressor produces fatigue and leads to a breakdown in the system or injury. Exhaustion
Pain or discomfort often felt 24 - 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity. Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
The body increases it functional capacity to adapt to the stressor. Resistance Development
4 symptoms of exhaustion are stress fractures, muscle strains, joint pain, and emotional fatigue
What is the dividing of a training program into smaller progressive steps? Periodization
What is the principle that states that the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it? principle of specificity or SAID
Type I is the? slow twitch, smaller in diameter and slower to produce maximal tension, more resistant to fatigue
Type II is the fast twitch, larger in size, quick to produce maximal tension, and fatigue faster than slow twitch
To train at higher intensities, what is necessary? postural stabilization
The body can only adapt if . . . it has a reason to adapt
what refers to the weight and movements placed on the body? Mechanical Specificity
What refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection? Neuromuscular Specificity
What refers to the energy demand placed on the body? Metabolic Specificity
In general adaptation, there are 3 phases. They are? alarm phase, resistance development and exhaustion
What is the initial reaction to a stressor? alarm reaction
What is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity? DOMS delayed onset muscle soreness
What is the term for the body increasing its capacity to adapt to a stressor? resistance development
What is prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system? exhaustion
What are the physiologic benefits of resistance training? Improved cardiovascular efficiency, beneficial endocrine and serum lipid (cholesterol) adaptations, and increased metabolic efficiency (metabolism)
What are the physical benefits of strength training? Increased tissue (muscle, tendons, ligaments) tensile strength, Increased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, increased bone density
What are the performance benefits from restistance training? Increased coordination, Increased endurance, increased strength, increased power
What are the different ways to manipulate stress (what are the variables)? sets, reps, intensity, rest periods, exercise selection, etc.)
What are the break down injuries? stress fractures, muscle strains, joint pain, emotional fatigue
What is it called when an athlete train beyond the body's ability to recover? Overtraining
What are the symptoms of over training? decreased performance, fatigue, altered hormonal states, poor sleeping patterns, reproductive disorders, decreased immunity, loss of appetite, and mood disturbances.
What is SAID specific adaptation to imposed demands. . . . the body will adapt to the demands imposed on it.
What are adaptations that occur from resistance training? stabilization, muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, and power
What is the term for being able to support and maintain correct posture during all movements? Stabilization
What is the term for the ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time? Muscular endurance
What is the enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to being recruited to develop increased levels of tension, as seen in resistance training? Muscular Hypertrophy
What is the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external force? Strength
What is the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest AMOUNT OF TIME? Power
How do you train for power? increase either force or velocity, this can be achieved by increasing the weight, or the speed with which weight is moved
How do you achieve stabilization adaptations? high reps, low volume and low intensity
How do you achieve muscular hypertrophy? low to intermediate reps ranges with progressive overload lead to muscular hypertrophy.
How do you achieve power? both heavy and light loads must be moved as fast and controlled as possible.
What is a single set? 1 set per exercise. (usually recommended that single-set workouts be performed two times per week.
What is performing multiple sets for each exercise? Multiple Set (like INSANITY)
What is increasing or decreasing weight with each set called? Pyramid - the strip set
What is performing a series of exercises, one after the other, with minimal rest? Circuit training
What is a variation of circuit training that uses different exercises for each set through the circuit. Peripheral heart action
What is a split routine? A routine that trains different body parts on separate days
What is vertical loading? Performing exercises on the OPT template one after the other in a vertical manner down the template.
What is horizontal Loading Performing all sets of an exercise before moving onto the next exercise or body part