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NASM CPT: Ch.7 2013

Flexibility Training Concepts

What are the 4 stages of postural distortion patterns? Muscle imbalances -> poor posture -> improper movement -> injury
What are predictable patterns of muscle imbalances called? Postural patterns of muscle imbalances
What is the tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during fuctional movement patterns? Relative Flexibility
What is the ability to move a joint through its complete range of motion? Flexibility
What is dynamic ROM? Optimal control of movement throughout a joints entire ROM.
The ability for the nervous system to recuit the correct muscles to produce force, reduce force, and dynamically stabilize the bodys structure in all three planes of motion. Neuromuscular Efficiency
Altered movement patterns when the body seeks the path of least resistance is called? Relative Flexiblity
Alterations in the lengths of muscles surrounding a given join in which some are overactive and others may be under active. muscle imbalance
What are some of the reasons for muscle imbalances? Postural stress, emaitional duress, repetitive movement, cumulative trauma, poor training technique, lack of core strength, lack of neuromuscular efficiency
Simultaneous relaxation of one muscle and the contraction of its antagonist is called . . . Reciprocal Inhibition
This occurs when synergists take over function for a weak or inhibited prime mover. The result is faulty movement patterns. Synergistic Dominance
What is the motion of the joints of the body? Arthrokinematics
Nueromuscular dysfunction leading to altered joint motion. Arthrokinetic Dysfunction
Where are golgi tendon organs located? In the musculotendinous juction (or the point where the muscle and the tendon meet),
This phenomenon occurs when the neural impulses sensing tension are greater than the impulses causing muscle contraction. Autogenic Inhibition: used in flexibility training.
What is consistently repeating the same pattern of mtion, such as baseball pitching which with time places abnormal stresses on the body? Pattern Overload
What is the repair process that the body initiates when it has poor posture and repetitive movements? Cumulative injury cycle
What are the stages of the cumulative injury cycle? 1. tissue trauma, 2. inflammation, 3. muscle spasm, 4. adhesions, 5. altered neuromuscular control, 6. muscle imbalance
What law states that soft tissue models along the line of stress? Davies Law
What are the 3 types of flexibility training? Corrective, Active and Functional
Which type of flexibility training increases joint ROM? Corrective, improves muscle imbalances and altered joint motion by using myofascial release and static stretch - level one on OPT model
Which type of flexibility uses self-myofascial release by using reciprical inhibition? ACtive Flexiblity, improvesthe extensibility of soft tissue and increases neuromuscular efficiency by using self-myofascial release and active-isolated stretching - level 2,3,4 of OPT model
Which type of flexibility training uses self myofascial release and dynamic stretching? Functional- level 5
What is the fascial system of the body? The fibrous tissue that surrounds and separates muscle tissue.
What type of stretching passively takes a muscle to the point of tension and holds the stretch for a minimun of 30 seconds? Static
What type of stretch uses muscles to move the joint into a range of motion? Isolated Active stretch
What type of stretch uses the force production of a muscle and the bodys momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion? Dynamic - hip swings, medicine ball rotations
When you check the feet from the anterior view, they are turned out! What muscles are probably overactive? Soleus, Lateral gastrocnemius and Biceps Femoris (short head).
When you check the knees from the anterior view, they move inward. Which muscles are likely overactive? Adductor complex, Biceps Femoris short head, Tensor Fascia Latae, Vastus lateralis
What exercise will help with feet that are turning out? Single leg balance reach
Which exercise will help with knees that are turning inward? tube walking: side to side
You look at your client from the lateral view and there is an excessive inward lean from the hips. Which muscles are overactive? Soleus, Gastrocnemius, hip flexor complex, abdominal complex, abdominis, external obliques
You look at your client from the lateral view and his/her low back arches. Which muscles are overactive? Hip Flexor complex, Erector spinae, Latissimus dorsi
Which exercise will help with extensive forward lean (upper cross)? Quadruped arm/opposite leg raise Ball wall squats
Which exercise will help with Low back arches? Quadruped arm/opposite leg raise, and wall squats
From the lateral view, you look at the client and notice arms falling forward. Which exercise will help? Squat to row
Which exercise will help with a client who has elevated shoulders when doing the pushing and pulling assessment? Ball Cobra
Which exercise will help with a client whose head protrudes forward? Chin tuck (keep head in a neutral position during all exercises).
Which muscles are overactive as seen when the arms are falling forward? Latissimus Dorsi, Teres major, Pectoralis Major
What muscles are overactive when the shoulders are elevated? Upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae
Which muscles are overactive when the head protrudes forward? Upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae