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NASM CPT: Ch.5 2013

Human Movement Science

What is biomechanics? The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these factors.
Superior means? Positioned above a point of reference.
Inferior Means? Positioned below a point of reference.
Proximal means? Positioned nearest the center of the body or point of reference.
Distal means? Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
Anterior (or Ventral)means? On the front of the body.
Posterior means? On the back of the body.
Medial Means? Positioned near the middle of the body.
Lateral Means? Positioned toward the outside of the body.
contralateral Means? Positioned on the opposing side of the body.
Ipsilateral Means? Positioned on the same side of the body.
The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. Anatomic Position
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right? saggital plane
A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases. Flexion
A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases. Extension
Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit or range of motion Hyperextension
An imaginary bisector that divides the body to front and back halves. frontal
A movement in the frontal plane away form the midline of the body is? Abduction
A movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body is? Adduction
An imaginary plane that divides the body into two halves. Transverse Plane
Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body? Internal Rotation
Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body? External Rotation
Depression is a . .. downward motion
Elevation is a . . . . upward motion
What is toward the midline? Retraction when its the scapula
What is move away from the midline? Scapular Protraction
When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed in it leading to no visible change in the muscle length Isometric
The LIFTING phase of lifting a muscle is known as the _________ phase? Concentric
The muscle action known as a negative or deceleration phase is the ______ phase. Eccentric phase
When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion. Isokinetic phase
An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object Force
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length. Length Tension Relationship
Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint! Force Couple
Which levers have a fulcrum in the middle, like a seesaw? 1st class, i.e. nodding the head
Which levers have resistance in the middle, with the fulcrum and effort on either side? Second Class, like a wheel barrel - full body push-up or calf raise.
Which levers have Which levers have the effort placed between the resistance and the fulcrum? Third class. i.e. most limbs are these. teh forearm. The fulcrum is the elbow, the effort is applied by the biceps, and the load is in the hand such as a dumbbell when performing a biceps curl.
What is movement of the bones around the joints? Rotary Motion
What is a force that produces rotation. common unit of torque is the newton-meter or Nm Torque
What is the response to internal and external environmental stimuli Motor Behavior
What is how the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response. Motor Control
What is integration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements? Motor Learning
The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan Motor Development
Groups of muscles that are recruited by central nervous system to provide movement Muscle Synergies
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movements. Proprioception
The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement. Sensory Motor Integration
The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning Feedback
The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the enviornment Internal Feedback
Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal enviornment External Feedback