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NASM CPT: Ch.4 2013

Exercise Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
The role of energy metabolism is how to create? ATP
The study of energy in the human body is? Biogenetics
All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. It is the process in which nutrients are acquired transported, used and disposed of by the body. Metabolism
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts. Substrate
Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy are: Carbohydrates
The ultimate source of energy is the: sun
A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel. Glucose
The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When Carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells. Glycogen
This helps the body use some vitamins and keep skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of these, saturated and unsaturated Fat
The chemical or substrate form inwhich most fat exists in food as well as in the body is called Triglycerides
Amino Acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds is called? Protein
The formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids, which means protein (from muscle) Gluconeogenesis (in starvation only does the body use protein as an energy source)
Where is Glycogen stored? In the liver and the muscles
What is the energy storage transfer unit called? (when the chemical bonds are broken, energy is released). ATP
The body continues to try and restore ADT from this high energy compound occurring in all cells from which ATP is formed. ADP
How many ATP are needed for one cycle of cross-bridge actin filament? 2
Two factors determine the energy system needed. They are: intensity and duration
What is the percentage of energy used? 40%, the remainder is released through heat
Adding a Pi to ADP is called? Phosphorylation
There are 5 metabolic pathways to generate ATP: 2 are anaerobic and 3 are aerobic. They are: ATP-PC, Glycolysis, Aerobic glycolysis, The Krebs Cycle, The Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
The process of creating ATP from phosphocreatine is called? ATP-PC System and is anaerobic
What is the simplest and fastest system for making ATP? ATP-PC System and is anaerobic
A way of making ATP that includes the breakdown of glucose is? Anaerobic Glycolosis
Which system is limited to a 30 - 50 second duration? Aerobic and Anaerobic glycolosis
Glycolosis does not begin until glucose or glycogen is broken down into . . . ? Glucose-6-phosphate
If Glycolosis occurs with oxygen, the end product is aerobic = pyruvic acid
If glycolosis occurs without oxygen, the end product is ? anaerobic = lactic acid
How much energy is produced through glycolosis from glycogen? 2 ATP
How much energy is produced through glycolosis from glycogen? 3 ATP
What are the 3 aerobic (or oxidation systems from creating ATP)? 1. Aerobic Glycolosis, 2. Krebs Cycle, and 3. The electron transport system
The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Kreb cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP. Beta-oxidation
After oxidative glycolosis leaves pyruvic acid, it is converted into Actyl-CoA, which is used to create ATP. This is called the ? Krebs Cycle
The complete metabolism o fa single glucose molecule produces how much ATP? Between 35 - 40
What is the first step in the oxidation of fat? Beta oxidation, which is the breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called FFA or free fatty acids.
What produces more ATP? Carb or Fat? Fats! But they need oxygen to use Krebs Fats -> Triglycertide -> Acyl-CoA -> Krebs Cycle
The most important factor regulating energy are: intensity and duration
Which energy source is unlimited!? APT -> phosocreatine -> Carbohydrate -> Fats
After, how many minutes will the muscle glycogen be used? 90 minutes
Excess Postexercise oxygen Consumption is . . . EPOC - The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise. (burning calories to get back to homeostasis)
How would you measure which energy source is being used? Amount of CO2 expired/amount of O2 consumed measured during steady state.