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What are the 4 things that you need to be wearing at all times when taking radiographs? Dosimeter Badge, Thyroid shield, lead gown, lead gloves
what is the maximum amount of Sieverts a person over 18 in our profession can receive in one year? 0.05
is the anode positive or negatively charged Positive
what is the measurement toll called that we use on our patients Caliper
What does the Focal Film distance always need to stay between? 36-40 inches
If a Patient measures under 10cm they are a? Table Top
if a patient measures 11cm or higher they are a? Bucky
What are the 3 types of radiation monitoring equipment we can wear? ionization chamber Flim badge dosimeter badge
What is the filament made up of in the tube head? Tungsten
Why do we use Tungsten in the filament It has a high melting point
When is the fetus most sensitive to radiation? 6 weeks and under
Where is the actual Focal spot located inside the tube head on the tungsten target
Define Exposure Time the length of time it actually takes to the the radiograph after compressing the pedal
What are 2 reasons that shorter exposure time is better Less exposure to patient and staff less chance of movement
what is the formula for Sante's Rule? Measurement (cm) X 2 + 40=kVp
What color does gas show up on a radiograph as? Black
What is Whiter? bone or metal Metal
if you have an overall black appearance to a film is your kVp or mAs too high? mAs (too many x-rays penetrating subject)
if a film has an overall "soot" or Whitewash appearance, which is too low? kVp or mAs? kVp (x-rays are reflecting back off of patient)
Where are grids placed? between patient and cassette
what side of cassette always faces up? and where does the metal label area always go? black, upper left hand corner
when x-raying a limb do you normally take a photo of both limbs for comparison? yes!
Define penumbra the normal gray shadow around a patient
What are the 3 exposure factors mA, s, kVp
What does mA stand for Milliamperage
What does kVp stand for kilovoltage peak
if there is repeated overload to the x-ray tube what will happen to the anode? it will crack
during tube saturation, metal deposits form on the inner lining of the glass envelope, these deposits attract electrons and act as a secondary anode, this is called? arcing
What does Collimating mean? making the x-ray size the smallest possible for the view you need
What does collimating do Decreases scatter radiation, decreases or increases the size of the primary beam to just the area of interest
how thick should all your lead lined equipment be? 0.5 mm
when doing large animal x-rays, do you hold the cassette with your hands ever? NO
how often should you radiograph your gloves? every 6 months
how often should you radiograph your gown and thyroid shield? once a year
what is the black and white portion of the x-ray? mAs
what is the gray scale portion? kVp
what happens if you have your mA set too high Burn out
what happens if the mA is too low? White wash
what happens if the kVp is too low? foggy/grayish
What does CdCr stand for? Caudal to Crainal
what does AP stand for Anterior to Posterior
what does DP stand for dorsal to Palmer
when do we commonly take 3 views of the chest? when looking for heart problems
what is an osteosarcoma and why is it bad? mass on bone, it eats away at bone and progresses quickly, very hard to remove entire mass
what degree should the elbow be at when taking a lateral 45 degree
what type of dog is appropriate for making a technique chart? 40-50lb, medium build dog.
what are the 3 chemicals in the processor in the correct order? developer fixer water
Do x-rays have a shorter or longer wavelength than visible light shorter
What is tube overload using too high of exposure factors causing the anode to crack
What is the back of the cassette made of? lead
what are the 4 layers of an x-ray screen in order? Base reflective phosphor protective
when using green light sensitive films what color safe light is required? RED
when using Blue light sensitive films what color safe light is required? amber
what is the latent image? the invisible image on the film before developing
what are the 3 types of film speed? slow medium fast
how does a direct safelight work? it shines directly down on work area
how does indirect safelight work? it shines upward and then bounces off ceiling into workspace
why should we never mix chemicals in darkroom? cannot see what you are doing fumes can become too strong slip and fall cause damage to eyes
what temperature do we want chemicals to be at for manual processing 68 degrees F
what type of radiograph labeling is not to be used and will not hold up in court? Sharpie!
When looking at a lateral radiograph the head should always be facing your? left
when looking at VD or DV radiographs how should the patient be facing? the pt's right side should be facing the viewers left.. as if they are going to shake hands
As x-rays pass through materials, they have the ability to cause some substances to fluoresce or emit visible light completely remove an electron from an atom, leaving atom positively charged cause chemical changes that can kill cells
Electrons travel in what direction? cathode to anode
in x-ray tubes, the majority of energy produced by the movement of electrons is in the form of? heat
A higher kVp setting allows for ______ mAs and ________ exposure time Lower, Lower
The walls in the darkroom should be white or cream colored because? more reflection of the safelight is produced, providing a more visible work enviromentt
The most effective types of darkroom doors include? revolving door system double door system
the degree of blackness on a radiograph is contrast
density is determined primarily by mAs
radiographic contrast is determined primarily by kVp
Correct medical terminology for Right lateral shoulder? Right Lateral scapulohumeral joint
correct medical terminology for Right Lateral elbow? Right Lateral humeralradial joint
a Crease in the film after exposure but before processing will likely appear as a? black crescent mark
Scatter radiation on a film is more noticeable if there is? higher kVp, thicker patient, larger field size
to get more density on a film, you should do what to the kVp and mAs? increase
Medical terminology for Shoulder? Scapulohumeral joint
Medical Terminology for elbow? humeroradial joint
Medical Terminology for Carpus? radiocarpal joint
medical terminology for the metatarsals/carpalsm distal phalanx
Medical Terminology for Stifle? Femorotibial joint
What is the advantages to slow screen speed? high definition, ultra detailed... used for dentals
must the screen speed and film speed match? yes!
If film is too light? increase kVp or mAs
if film is too dark? it is overexposed and need to decrease kVp or mAs
If you have good penetration what can you see? the outlines of the different structures
if a film is too light but you CAN see the different anatomic structures then you increase? mAs
if a film is too light and you CANNOT see the different anatomic structures they you increase? kVp
when you have alot of gray youre kVp is? too high
if bone looks white but all else is too darks mAs are? too high
can you use scotch tape or cloth tape on a bird? NO!!
can you xray a fish? yes!
why do we want to stress birds as little as possible and preferably sedate them for x-rays? Because Birds Die.
Created by: tumatoh



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