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Focus on Health # 2

Chapter 5-8 Vocabulary

Amino Acids The buidling blocks of protein;can be made by the body or obtained from dietary sources.
Antioxidants Substances that may prevent cancer by interacting with and stabilizing unstable molecules known as free radicals.
calorie Unit of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.
carbohydrates The body's primary source of energy for all body functions; chemical compounds including sugar, starches, and dietary fibers.
cholesterol A primary form of fat found in the blood; lipid material made within the body from dietary sources.
cruciferous vegetables vegetables, such as broccoli, whose plants have flowers with four leaves in the pattern of a cross.
dehydration Abnormal depletion of fluids from the body; severe dehydration can be fatal.
enzymes Organic substances that control the rate of physiological reactions, but are not altered in the process.
fiber Plant material that cannot be digested; found in cereal, fruits, and vegetables.
functional foods Foods capable of contributing to the improvement/prevention of specific health problems.
nutrient-dense foods Foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and comparably few calories.
nutrients Elements in foods that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes.
ovolactovegetarian diet A diet that excludes all meat but does include the consumption of eggs and dairy products.
pesco-vegetarian diet A vegetarian diet that includes fish, dairy products, and eggs along with plant foods.
phytochemicals Physiologically active components of foods believed to deactivate carcinogens and to function as antioxidants.
probiotics Living bugs (good bugs) that help prevent disease and strengthen the immune system.
proteins compounds composed of chains of amino acids; primary building blocks of muscle and connective tissue.
satiety a feeling of not being hungry; being full.
saturated fats Fats that promote cholesterol formation; solid at room temperature; primarily animal fat.
vegan diet A vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy products.
vitamins Organic compounds that facilitate the action of enzymes.
adaptive thermogenesis The physiological response of the body to adjust its metabolic rate to the presence of food.
anorexia nervosa An eating disorder in which the individual wieghs less than 85% of the expected weight for his or her age, gender, and height; has an intense fear of gaining weight.
Basal metabolic rate The amount of energy, expressed in calories, that the body requires to maintain basic functions.
Bigorexia An obsession with getting bigger and more muscular
Body dismorphic disorder A secret preoccupation with an imagined or slight flaw in one's appearance
caloric balance Caloric intake and expenditure are equal and body weight remains constant.
catabolism The metabolic process of breaking down tissue for the purpose of converting it to energy.
hypothyroidism A condition in which the thyroid gland produces an insufficient amount ot he hormone thyroxin.
Obesity A condition in which a person's body weight is 20% or more above desirable weight by height/weight charts.
Overweight A condition in which a person's body weight exceeds desirable weight by 1-19 percent.
set point A gentically programmed range of body weight, beyond which a person finds it difficult to gain or lose additional weight.
Thermic effect of food The amount of energy our bodies require for the digestion, absorption, and transportation of food.
absorption The passage of nutrients or alcohol through the walls of the stomach or the intestinal tract into the bloodstream.
Abuse Any use of a drug in a way that is detrimental to health.
additive effect The combined (but not exaggerated) effect produced by the concurrent use of two or more drugs.
amotivational syndrome Behavioral pattern characterized by lack of interest in productive activities.
antagonistic effect Effect produced when one drug reduces or offsets the effects of a second drug
Axon The portion of a neuron that conducts electrical impulses to the dendrites of adjacent neurons.
cross-tolerance Transfer of tolerance from one drug to another within the same general category
dependence A physical or psychological need to continue using a drug.
dose-response curve The size of the effect of a drug on the body related to the amount of the drug administered.
FDA schedule A list of drugs that have a high potential for abuse, but no medical use.
fetal alcohol syndrome Characteristic birth defects noted in the children of some women who consume alcohol during pregnancy.
habituation The development of psychological dependence on a drug after a period of use
misuse Inappropriate use of drugs intended to be medications
narcolepsy A sleep disorder in which a person has a recurrent, overwhelming, and uncontrollable desire to sleep.
oxidation The process that removes alcohol from the bloodstream
potentiated effect The use of one drug intensifies the effect of a second drug.
process addictions Engagement in activities such as gambling, shopping, gaming, or sexual activity that has a negative effect on the person's life.
psychoactive drug Any substance capable of altering feelings, moods, or perceptions.
synapse The location where an electrical impulse from one neuron is transmitted to an adjacent neuron.
synergistic effect Heightened, exaggerated effect produced by the concurrent use of two or more drugs.
threshhold dose The least amount of a drug to have an obsevable effect on the body.
tolerance An acquired reaction to a drug; continued intake of the same dose has diminished effect.
alveoli Thin, sacklike terminal ends of the airways; where gases are exchanged between the blood and lungs.
angina pectoris Chest pains that results from impaired blood supply to the heart muscle.
beta endorphins Mood-enhancing, pain-reducing, opiatelike chemicals produced within the smoker's body in response to the presence of nicotine.
carbon monoxide A chemical compound that can "inactivate" red blood cells.
cilia Small, hairlike structures that extend from cells that line the air passages.
eptopic (tubal) pregnancy Pregnancy resulting from the implantation of the fertilized ovum within the inner wall of the fallopian tube.
embolism A potentially fatal condition in which a circulating blood clot lodges in a smaller blood vessel.
gaseous phase The portion of the tobacco smoke containing carbon monoxide and many other active gaseous compounds.
hypoxia Oxygenation deprivation at the cellular level.
mainstream smoke Smoke inhaled and then exhaled by a smoker.
nicotine A physiologically active, dependence-producing drug found in tobacco.
Particulate phase The portion of the tobacco smoke composed of small suspended particles.
Pulmonary emphysema An irreversible disease in which the alveoli are destroyed.
Sidestream smoke Smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar.
titration The particular level of a drug within the body; adjusting the level of nicotine by adjusting the rate of smoking.
Created by: smmck