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Basic Arrhythmia

Waves & Measurment - Chpt.2

Electrical patterns of the heart can be detected from the surface of the skin by Attaching an electrode and connecting it to an electrocardiograph
An abnormal heart rhythm is called an Arrhythmia or Dysrhythmia
Electrocardiography The study of arrhythmia or dysrhythmia
EKG (ECG) refers to an Electrocardiograph (EKG) machine or record
Electrocardiograph will display electrical patterns of the heart on a monitor or graph paper
Electrical activity is displayed best if you can assure good contact between the skin and electrode
Good contact between the skin and electrode can be achieved by 1.Abrading the skin w/alcohol pad 2.Removing obstacles (dirt/hair)
Morphology The study of shapes
The writing point on an EKG is an Atylus
When the EKG is turned on (but not yet connected to the patient) it will produce a straight line called an isoelectric line
An upright wave on an EKG is called A positive
A downward wave onan EKG is called A negative
Electricity flowing toward 'POSITIVE' electrode produce an 'UPRIGHT' pattern
Electricity flowing toward 'NEGATIVE' electrode produce an 'INVERTED' pattern
Different electrical views of the heart can be seen by 1.Rearranging the electrode 2.Diverting the direction of the electrical impulse by turning a knob on the electrocardiograph
Each electrical view is called a Lead
Vertical lines | on the EKC/ECG graph paper represent Time
Horizontal lines __ on the EKG/ECG graph paper represent Voltage / amplitude
Each small square on the EKG/ECG graph paper represents 0.04 sec
Each dark 'block' of squares on the EKG/ECG graph paper represent 0.20 sec = (0.04x5sq)
Every (3) three seconds on the EKG/ECG graph paper is represented by a TIC mark at the top of the graph paper
A cardiac cycle is made up of a PQRST
The first wave usually seen on a cardiac cycle is the P wave
P wave represents Atrial depolarization AKA Atrial discharge state
The second wave usually seen on a cardiac cycle is the QRS Complex
QRS complex represents Ventricular depolarization AKA Ventricular discharge state
A normal QRS complex is how long? 0.12 sec or less (less then 3 small squares)
The last wave usually seen on a cardiac cycle is the T wave
T wave represents Ventricular REpolarization AKA ventricular recovery time
The PRI (PR interval) begins where the P wave leaves the 'isoelectric line' and ends where the QRS complex begins
A normal PRI - PR interval) is how long? 0.12 - 0.20 seconds (3-5 small squares)
Electrical interference sometimes seen on the EKG display is called Artifact
Artifact can be caused by 1.Muscle tremors 2.Patient movement 3.Loose electrodes 4.60 cycle interference
60 cycle interference can be caused by Electrical interference from other electrical machinery such as cellular phones, electric shavers, radio, floor buffer, video games, i-pods, etc