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AR Biological Animal

Arkansas Biological Animal Science

animal science the science of animals; applied zoology
biological science the study of living organisms
zoology the branch of biology that deals with animal life
animal restraint holding or confining animals so that management practices may be applied
laboratory accident an accident occurring in a laboratory environment
occupational safety promoting safety in the workplace
personal safety promoting the protection of individuals from injury
safety preventing loss or injury
zoonos a disease communicable from animals to humans under natural conditions; also is know as zoonotic disease
conclusion a specific statement about the relationship between variables
control group in a scientific experiment, a group of animals, plants, etc., that do not receive the treatment under study
data factual information; information in numerical form
dependent variable the variable that is measured to determine the effects of the independent variable
experiment a set of procedures used to gather information
findings actual data generated from an experiment
hypothesis a tentatively accepted theory that explains the relationship between two variables
independent variable the variable in an experiment that is manipulated
manipulation management of the independent variable in an experiment
procedure a detailed and complete description of how the experiment is or was conducted
recommendation suggestions on how results should be used; suggestions for further experimentation
replication exact duplication of an experiment
research investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts
treatment the manipulation of an independent variable
abstract a summary or short version of a piece of writing
background information that reveals key knowledge about an item or theory that can be used to support ideas or give guidance for further investigation
bibliography a list of references presented in a manner that the sources can be found again for verification or further studies
conclusion specific statements about the relationships between variables
finding actual data generated from an experiment
hypothesis a tentatively accepted theory that explains the relationship between two variables
procedure method of carrying out an experiment so it can be replicated again by other individuals
recommendation a suggestion on how results should be used or for further experimentation
allele matching genes on homologous chromosomes
chromosome that part of a cell that contains information about genetic makeup and transmits that information to offspring
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; forms the basic material in the chromosomes of the cell nucleus
dominant relating to one of a pair of allelic hereditary factors that dominates the other and appears in the organism
gamete the sex cell; either an egg or a sperm
gene a unit of inheritance that is composed of DNA
genetics the study of heredity in plants and animals
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism; allele composition
heterozygous having different alleles for a single trait, and, therefore, producing two or more different kinds of gametes
homozygous having identical alleles at one or more loci, and, therefore, producing identical gametes
phenotype the physical appearance of an organism
recessive an allele that is not expressed phenotypically when present in the heterozygous condition
copulation the mating of a male and female
corpus luteum a reddish-yellow mass that forms in a ruptured follicle in the ovary of mammals; the hormone progesterone is released by the corpus luteum
embryo transfer moving an embryo from one female animal to another of the same species
estrogen a hormone produced by the ovaries
estrous cycle the time between periods of estrus
estrus the time during which the female will accept the male for copulation; also referred to as being “in heat”
follicle a small blister-like development on the surface of the ovary that contains the developing ovum
follicle stimulating hormone a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that promotes growth of ovarian follicles in the female and sperm in the male
gestation the time during which the animal is pregnant
hormone an organic material given off by a body gland that helps to regulate body functions
hybridization the production of hybrids by natural crossing or by manipulated crossing
inbreeding the mating of closely related animals
ovulation the release of the egg from the ovary
oxytocin a hormone that causes contractions of the uterus during breeding and parturition and causes milk letdown
parturition the act of giving birth
progesterone a hormone produced by the ovaries that maintains pregnancy in the animal
selective breeding the breeding of selected animals chosen because of certain desirable qualities or fitness
super ovulation the stimulation of more than the usual number of ovulations during a single estrous cycle due to the injection of certain hormones
testosterone a male hormone that controls the traits of the male animal
zygote a cell formed by the union of two gametes
anthelmintic a chemical compound used for treating internal worms in animals
antimicrobial a substance that can destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms
carbohydrates organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
cud in ruminants, a ball-like mass of feed that is brought up from the stomach to be re-chewed
finishing the increased feeding of an animal just prior to butchering that results in rapid gains and increased carcass quality
lactation the period of milk secretion
lipids fats and oils made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
maintenance ration the amount of feed needed to support an animal when it is not doing work, yielding no product, and gaining no weight
mineral an inorganic substance needed in small amount for proper nutrition
monogastric refers to an animal that only has one stomach or stomach compartment
nonruminant an animal that has a simple, one-compartment stomach
nutrient a chemical element or compound that aids in the support of life
protein an organic compound made up of amino acids and containing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
ration the total amount of feed that an animal is allowed during a 24-hour period
regurgitation to return undigested food from the stomach to the mouth as with ruminants
ruminant an animal that has a stomach divided into several compartments
rumination the process of digestion in cattle whereby food is swallowed to the first stomach (the rumen) and then regurgitated into the mouth and chewed over again to be swallowed for further processing by the second, third, and fourth stomachs
vitamin an organic compound needed in small amounts for nutrition
active immunity the type of immunity in an animal that is permanent
antibiotic a chemical agent that prevents the growth of a germ or bacteria
bacteria one-celled microorganisms; many species
colostrum the milk produced the first few days after parturition
disinfectant a chemical that destroys microbes by breaking down cell proteins
infectious disease a disease that is contagious; a disease that is transmitted from one animal to another
intradermal injections placed in the skin tissue
intramammary injections placed in the mammary glands
intramuscular injections placed in the muscle tissue
intrarumenally injections placed in the rumen
intravenous injections placed in the vein
isolation confining an animal away from other animals to prevent breeding or spread of disease
mastitis an inflammation of the mammary gland that is usually associated with infection
noninfectious disease a disease that cannot be transmitted from one animal to another
oral taken by mouth
passive immunity immunity that is temporary
pathogen a living, microscopic, disease-producing agent, such as a bacterium or a virus
protozoa a one-celled animal
sanitation the development and practical application of measures designed to maintain or restore healthful conditions
stress a strain, or straining condition, that may be physical, chemical, or psychological and cannot be adjusted to satisfactorily
subcutaneous an injection placed just under the skin but above muscle tissue
topical medicine that is applied to the surface of the skin
vaccine a substance that contains live, modified, or dead organisms or their products that is injected into an animal in an attempt to protect the host from disease caused by that particular organism
virus a self-reproducing agent that is considerably smaller than a bacterium and can multiple only within the living cells of a suitable host
biological engineering an advanced form of biotechnology; techniques involve gene splicing, replication, and transfer of genes to other organisms
biotechnology the management of biological systems for the benefit of humanity
E. coli bacteria that are commonly used to deliver new or altered genetic material in an organism; normally inhabit human colon
gene splicing the process of adding new genetic material within the DNA sequence of an organism
particle gun a device used to insert new genetic material into an organism
aerobic bacteria organisms that grow only in the presence of oxygen
anaerobic bacteria organisms that grow without the presence of oxygen
California Mastitis Test (CMT) a field test that estimates the extent of mastitis infection
canning placing food in a container and heating it to kill all microorganisms
casein a phosphoprotein that is one of the main components of milk and the basis of cheese
cheese a food product made from the solids in milk
coliform bacteria a group of bacteria that usually inhabits the intestines of animals and lives in manure and on wood
curd an acid buildup created by bacteria, consisting mostly of casein and obtained from soured milk through coagulation
curing adding substances to food to prevent spoilage; salting, smoking, pickling, etc.
dehydration the removal of 95 percent or more of the water from any substance by exposure to high temperature
fermentation the processing of food by the use of selected yeasts, molds, or bacteria
irradiation the process of treating of a food or feed with ultraviolet light to increase the Vitamin D content
microbes minute plant and animal life; some cause disease; others are beneficial
mold fungi distinguished by the formation of a network of filaments or thread or by spore masses
nonfat solids the parts of a substance, no including the fat, that help it keep its form
paraffin a thin layer of waxy material that helps seal the surface of a fruit to prevent damage to the skin
pasteurization the process of heat-treating milk to kill microbes
penicillium any of a genus of imperfect fungi growing as green mold on stale bread, ripening cheese, or decaying fruit
perishable any product that is easily or quickly destroyed or made unusable or unsafe
pickling a process of food preservation that uses a solution, such as vinegar, that is too acidic for microbes to grow
putrefaction decomposition of animal or plant matter by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen
raw milk untreated milk as it comes from the cow; fresh milk
refrigeration artificial cooling that drastically reduces microbial growth of certain bacteria
rennet a coagulating extract containing the enzyme rennin; used to curdle milk, as when making cheese
salmonella a large group of bacteria, some of which cause food poisoning
salting a method of preserving food that uses salt to prevent the growth of microbes
somatic cell count a laboratory test that indicates the presence and severity of mastitis
whey the watery liquid that is separated from the curd after milk coagulation
yeast a yellowish substance composed of microscopic, unicellular fungi that induces fermentation in juice, dough, and other materials
yogurt a semisolid, fermented milk product
Created by: 20611456



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