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small animal med 2

DENTAL; RADS ARE USEFUL TO DETECT ROOT RESORPTION, CARIES, PERIAPICAL RADIOLUNCY, PERIODONTAL BONE LOSS, RETAINED ROOT TIPS, UNERUPTED TEETH, OSTEOMYELITIS, NEOPLASIA, ROOT/JAW FX, FBS AND DZ ON THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
WHAT IS PERIAPICAL RADIOLUNCNY TOOTH ROOT ABSCESS
TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT IS ALSO KNOWN AS TMJ
TO COMPLETE A DENTAL RADIOGRAPH YOU MUST FIRST SEDATE THE PATINET
DENTAL RADIOGRAPH EQUIPMENT MAY BE WALL MOUNTED OR STAND ON WHEELS
WHAT ARE THE 3 PARTS OF DENTAL RADIOGRAPH EQUIPMENT CONTROL PANEL, A LONG ARM THAT EXTENDS FROM CONTROL PANEL (72-86"), TUBE AT THE END OF THE ARM
DENTAL RADS SAFETY WEAR LEAD GEAR IF IN ROOM WITH PT, DO NOT HOLD FILM, HAVE THE MACHINE INSPECTED REGULARLY FOR LEAKS
DENTAL RADS- FILM PROCESSING MANUAL DEVELOPING - CHAIR SIDE, DEVELOPER, RINSE, FIXER, WASH, DRY-CHEMICALS NEED TO STAY AT 68f
DENTAL RADS-DIGITAL QUALITY IS VERY GOOD,
3 PARTS OF DIGITAL RADS EQUIPMENT ELECTRONIC INTRAORAL SENSOR, COMPUTER, XRAY
WHAT ARE THE 3 TECHNIQUES USED FOR DENTAL RAD PARALLELING TECHNIQUE, BISECTING ANGEL, OCCLUSAL
FILM PLACED ON PARALLEL TO THE LONG AXIS OF TOOTH; BEAM AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THE FILM AND TEETH, ONLY USE ON MANDIBULAR TEETH CAUDAL TO SECOND PREMOLARS PARALLELING TECHNIQUE
SYMPHYSIS AT THE ROSTRAL PORTION OF THE MANDIBLE AND THE FLAT PALATE OF THE MAXILLA; BEAN IS PROJECTED AT A RIGHT ANGLE TO AN IMAGINARY LINE THAT CUTS IN HALF THE ANGLE FORMED BY THE PLANE OF THE FILM AND THE LONG AXIS OF THE TOOTH BISECTING ANGLE TECHNIQUE
FILM ON THE OCCLUSAL PLANE AND DIRECTS BEAN AT A RIGHT ANGLE TO THE FILM; LARGER VIEWS OCCLUSAL TECHNIQUE
RADIOPAQUE CEMENTUM, DENTIN, AND BONE BLOCK-ABSORB XRAYS- LOOK WHITE
RADIOLUCENT SOFT TISSUE AND PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT SPACE- LOOK DARK OR BLACK
DENTAL HOME CARE INCLUDES DEMONSTRATE BRUSHING, RECOMMEND DIETS AND PRODUCTS, REDUCTION OF BACTERIA IN MOUTH-BRUSHING DIETS, TOYS
DAILY; BEST METHOD OF PLAQUE CONTROL; BRUSHING TEETH DAILY
DASS TECHNIQUE BRISTLES ALONG THE GINGIVAL MARGIN AND IN THE SULCUS= 45 DEGREE ANGLE
BRUSH TEETH WITH THE MOUTH CLOSED AND LIPS UP
HOME CARE SHOULD START AS A PUPPY OR KITTEN, GUM MASSAGE THEN TOOTHBRUSH
SOFT FOODS DIETS CAN INCREASE THE AMT OF PLAQUE
DIETS WORK MECHANICAL OR CHEMICAL
LONG FIBERS WITHIN LARGE KIBBLE MANUAL
HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE CHEMICAL, BREAKS DOWN PLAQUE OR KEEPS IT FORM ADHERING TO THE TEETH
AKA FORLS OR FELINE ORAL RESORPTIVE LESIONS
TOOTH RESORPTION IS COMMON IN CATS; RARE IN DOGS
TX FOR TOOTH RESORPTION IS EXTRACTION
OTHER PROBLEMS WITH TOOTH RESORPTION BREAK OFF= TOOTH ROOT INFECTIONS
CLINICAL SIGNS OF TOOTH RESORPTION RELUCTANCE TO EAT, CHEWING ON ONLY ONE SIDE OF THE MOUTH, BLOOD FROM THE MOUTH, PAWING AT THE MOUTH
DX OF TOOTH RESORPTION LOOK IN THE MOUTH, CAN USUALLY SEE A LESION AT THE CERVICAL PORTION OF THE TOOTH- WHERE THE CROWN MEETS THE ROOTS, USUALLY SEEN RIGHT AT THE GUMLINE. WILL USUALLY BLEED WHEN TOUCHED OR CAT WITH CHATTER IF TOUCHED WITH A QTIP
GRADED IN CLASS 1-4 MALOCCLUSIONS
COMMON NAMES: OVERBITE, UNDERBITE, WRY MOUTH MALOCCLUSIONS
WRY MOUTH IS WHEN ONE SIDE OF THE MANDIBLE OR MAXILLA IS MONGER THAN THE OTHER
INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS AKA PULLING RETAINED DECIDUOUS TEETH
INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS IS COMMONLY DONE AT TIME OF SPAY/NEUTER
WHY IS INTERCEPTIVE ORTHODONTICS COMMON IN SMALL DOGS IF LEFT IN MOUTH, DECEREASES THE NORMAL AMT OF SPACE THEY SHOULD HAVE FOR ADULT TEETH;
IF THE ADULT TEETH DONT COME IN ADULT TEETH WILL BE DEFORMED, MORE TARTER BUILD UP FROM TEETH THAT ARE TOO CLOSE, CROWDING
WEAR AND TEAR IS CONSIDERED DENTAL TRAUMA
UNCOMPLICATED TOOTH FX DENTAL TRAUMA
NO PULP EXPOSED, UNCOMPLICATED TOOTH FX
PULP EXPOSED COMPLICATED TOOTH FX
AGGRESSIVE ORAL NEOPLASIA
ORAL NEOPLASIA PX DEPENDS ON EARLY DETECTION
SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA ORAL NEOPLASIA
ORAL NEOPLASIA TX MANDIBULECTOMY OR MAXILLECTOMY
EPULIS OR EPULIDES MOSTLY BENIGN COMMON TUMOR IN DOGS
INFLAMMATION OF ENTIRE ORAL CAVITY STOMATITIS
COMMON IN CATS, RARE IN DOGS STOMATITIS
ETIOLOGY OF STOMATITIS CAUSTIC SUBSTANCE, UREMIA, VIRAL, PLANT FB, ALLERGIC RESPONSE, IMMUNE MEDIATED RXN (FIV)
TX OF STOMATITIS ANTIBIOTICS AND NSAIDS FIRST, THEN FULL MOUTH EXTRACTIONS
PX OF STOMATITIS EXCELLENT
IMMUNE MEDIATED DZ THAT AFFECTS ONLY CHEWING MUSCLES MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS
ACUTE VS CHRONICA MASTICATORY MUSBLE MYOSITIS
DX MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS SERUM AND MUSCLE BIOPSIES- NEED TO DX EARLY
ACUTE PHASE ONLY- LONG SLOW TAPER OF ORAL STEROIDS TX FOR MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS
DON'T WANT TO OPEN MOUTH, DECREASED APPETITE, DROP FOOD, SWELLING OF TEMPORAL, MASSETER MUSCLES; PAINFUL ACUTE MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS
SEVERE TEMPORAL AND MASSETER MUSCLE ATROPHY DUE TO SCARRING AND BREAK DOWN OF THE MUSCLE, INABILITY TO OPEN THEIR MOUTH CHRONIC MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS
HBC #1; SYMPHYSEAL SEPERATION JAW FX
CERCLAGE WIRE AND TAPE MUZZLE; PLATES, PINS, SCREWS. K9 TEETH EXTRACTIONS IN CATS JAW FX
TOTAL VOLUME OF FLUID IS APPROX TO REHYDRATE THE PT, VOLUME OF FLUID NEEDED FOR MAINTENANCE, AND VOLUME TO CORRECT ONGOING LOSSES
SENSIBLE FLUID LOSSES URINE
WATER IN FECES AND PANTING IS INSENSIBLE FLUID LOSSES
VOMITING/DIARRHEA ARE CONTEMPORARY LOSSES
HOW DO WE CHECK HYDRATION STATUS SKIN TURGOR, DRYNESS OF THE MM, CRT, DEGREE OF SINKAGE OF EYES INTO THE BONY ORBIT, HCT, TP DETERMINATION, SG
LB OF BODY WEIGHT IS EQUIVALENT TO 1PT OR 480ML OF FLUID
BODY WT CHANGES OVER SHORT PERIODS OF TIME ARE FLUID LOSS AND NOT MASS
5-5 % DEHYDRATED SKIN IS SLIGHTLY DOUGHY, INELASTIC CONSISTENCY
SKIN IS DEFINITELY INELASTIC; EYES VERY SLIGHTLY SUNKEN IN ORBITS 6-8% DEHYDRATED
INCREASED SKIN TURGOR; EYES SUNKEN IN ORBITS, PROLONGED CRT, DRY MM 10-12% DEHYDRATED
SHOCK AND IMMINENT DEATH 12-15% DEHYDRATED
DEHYDRATED IS MULTIPLIED BY THE BODY WT IN KGS THEN BY 1000= ML TO REHYDRATE PT
FLUID THERAPY MAINTENANCE OF 30ML/LB/24/HR
ROUTES OF FLUID ADMINISTRATION ORAL; SQ;IV, IP
EASY IF ONLY SMALL AMTS OF FLUIDS ARE NEEDED, RELATIVELY SAFE ORAL
WHEN IS ORAL FLUIDS CONTRAINDICATED WHEN VOMITING AND SEVERE LIFE THREATENING FLUID IMBALANCES THAT REQUIRE IMMEDIATE CORRECTION
WARMED TO BODY TEMP; ISOTONIC WITH EXTRACELLULAR FLUID; SQ
DEX CONCENTRATIONS OF 2.5% NEVER SQ- TISSUE NECROSIS
ABSORPTION OVER 6-8 HOURS; SAFE; EASY SQ
WHEN ARE SQ FLUIDS CONTRAINDICATED WHEN SEVERE FLUID IMBALANCE CORRECTION IS NEEDED
SEVERELY COMPROMISED WITH DEHYDRATION, HYPOVOLEMIA, ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCES, HYPOGLYCEMIA, MOST COMMON WAY TO GIVE FLUID INT EH HOSPIATAL IV
ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE TO PLACE IV
CHANGE IV CATH EVERY 72 HOURS
NOT ROUTINE BC OF PERITONITIS AND INTRAABDOMINAL ABSCESSES, RATE ABSORPTION SIMILAR TO SQ; NOT GOOD WHEN IMMEDIATE CORRECTION NEEDED. MAY BE VERY EFFECTIVE IN NEONATES IP FLUID
SIGNS OF FLUID VOLUME OVERLOAD DECREASED CARDIAC FUNCTION OR PLASMA PROTEIN CAN PREDISPOSE
RESTLESSNESS; HYPERPNEA; SEROUS NASAL DISCHARGE; CHEMOSIS; PITTING EDEMA SIGNS OF FLUID VOLUME OVERLOAD
USEFUL AID IN EVALUATING THE FLUID STATUS OF A PT; REDUCES LIKELIHOOD OF EXCESSIVE FLUID ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE
INDWELLING IV CATH IS PLACED IN TEH CRANIAL VENA CAVA VIA EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN; STERILE 3 WAY STOP COCK ATTACHED; PT IN LATERAL RECUMBENCY CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE
SHOULD MEASURE AT ZERO WITH FLUIDS IN IT AT STERNUM LEVEL/ O-5 IS NORMAL. 8-10 IS SIGN OF FLUID OVERLOAD CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE
ASEPTIC SITE ESTABLISHED-JUGULAR VEIN; +/- SEDATION; SINGLE PUNCTURE, RAPID AND NO INTERRUPTIONS BLOOD TRANSFUSION OF DONOR CAT/DOG
IF USING ACID CITRATE DEXTROSE (ACD)THEN A SEPARATE COLLECTION SET SHOULD BE USED; BLOOD TRANSFUSION COLLECTION
WHY SHOULD GLASS BOTTLE COLLECTION BE AVOIDED BLOOD EXPOSED TO AIR; AND PLT INACTIVATION/CLUMPING UPON CONTACT WITH GLASS
IN CATS 19G BUTTERFLY CATH WITH LG SYRINGE CONTAINING AN ANTICOAGULANT WILL WORK BLOOD TRANSFUSION COLLECTION
HEPARIN OR SODIUM CITRATE HAS TO BE USED WITHIN-24-48 HRS
LACK OF RBC PRESERVATIVE = MAJOR INCREASE IN PH AND DECREASE OF RBC ATP; CELLS ARE DEFORMED AND RAPIDLY REMOVED FROM RECIPIENTS CIRCULATION
BLOOD TO BE STORED 48+ ACD OR CPD ANTICOAGULANT AND THEN STORED AT 1-6C
IF BLOOD WARMS TO 10C IT MUST BE USED IMMEDIATELY OR THROWN OUT
ACD HAS A SHELF LIFE OF 14 DAYS
CPS HAS A SHELF LIFE OF 21 DAYS
CPDA-1 HAS A SHELF LIFE OF 35-48 DAYS BC OF RBC PRESERVATIVE ADENOSINE
BLOOD SHOULD BE GRADUALLY WARMED TO 37C OR ROOM TEMP BEFORE ADMIN
EXCESSIVE BLOOD WARMING= HEMOLYSIS
PLASMA TO BE STORED IN FRIDGE OVER 24 HOURS MUST BE IN A CLOSED STERILE SYSTEM
PLASMA FROZEN AT -208C HAS A SHELF LIFE OF 1 YR
MAJOR INDICATION FOR TRANSFUSION IS DECREASED O2 CARRY ABILITY THEN PT SHOULD RECEIVE PACKED RED CELLS; CAN ADMIN RAPIDLY WITHOUT RISK OF OVERLOAD; DECREASES RISK OF TRANSFUSION RXNS BE PLASMA IS NOT PRESENT
PLASMA TRANSFUSIONS ARE TO EXPAND THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOL
FRESH FROZEN PLASMA IS A SOURCE OF COAGULATION FACTORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF WARFARIN TOXICITY, DIC, AND INHERITED COAGULATION FACTOR DEFICIENCIES
ALTERNATIVE TO PACKED RBCS IS BOVINE HEMOGLOBIN SOLUTION AKA ACELLULAR OXYGEN-CARRYING REPLACEMENT FLUID
BLOOD TRANSFUSION COMPLICATIONS EITHER IMMUNOLOGIC AND NONIMMUNOLOGIC IN ORGIN
IMMUNOLOGIC RXN TRANSFUSION OF INCOMPATIBLE BLOOD
IMCOMPATIBLE RBCS ARE DESTROYED 7-10 DAYS POST TRANSFUSION
CLINICAL SIGNS OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTION TACHYCARDIA., HYPOTENSION, VOMITING, SALIVATION AND MUSCLE TREMORS
LAB CHANGES WITH BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTION HEMOGLOBINEMIA, HEMOGLOBINURIA, POSSIBLE ACQUIRED COAGULATION DISORDERS
DELAYED HEMOLYTIC RXNS CAN OCCUR AFTER MULTIOPLE TRANSFUSIONS SHOULD SUSPECT IF DCV DROPS UNEXPECTEDLY 2-21 DAYS POST TRANSFUSION
RXNS BETWEEN ANTIBODIES AND ANTIGENS TREMBLING, VOMITING AND URTICARIA= ANTIHISTAMINES 30 MIN PRIOR
TRANSFUSION INDUCED FEVER= RESPONSE TO DONOR TO FOREIGN PROTEINS
TO CONTROL IMMUNOLOGIC RXNS SLOW RATE OF TRANSFUSION, IF NO CHANGE, THEN DISCONTINUE TRANSFUSION
BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION= FEVER
NONIMMUNOLOGIC RXNS PRINCIPALLY DUE TO VASCULAR OVERLOAD
CLINICAL SIGNS OF NONIMMUNOLOGIC RXNS COUGHING, INCREASED RESPIRATORY RATE, RESPIRATORY DISTRESS, AND VOMITING
EVIDENCE OF CARDIAC PROBLES, RATE SHOULD BE 1ML/KG/HR
VOMITING IS A SIDE EFFECT, NPO NONIMMUNOLOGIC RXNS
PRIMARY INDICATION FOR OXYGEN THERAPY HYPOXIA
TISSUE HYPOXIA REDUCTION IN PERFUSION(REDUCED BLOOD FLOW); REDUCTION IN 02 CONTENT OF THE BLOOD
CLINICAL SIGNS OF HYPOXIA MAY NOT SEE IN RESTING PETS, TACHYCARDIA OR ARRHYTHMIAS, INCREASED RR, OPEN-MOUTH BREATHING, DYSPNEA
IF HYPOXIA IS SEVERE CNS SIGNS PRESENT: DROWSINESS, ALTERED MOTOR ABILITIES, INCREASED EXCITABILITY
SEVER HYPOXIA COLD EXTREMITIES OR CYANOSIS; CAN RESULT IN LUNG DZ, DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT OR SEVERE ANEMIA
02 THERAPY USED WHEN PULMONARY EDEMA; SEVERE BRONCHOPNEUMONIA; UPPER AIRWAY DZ IN BRACHYCEPHALIC BREEDS; PULMONARY TRAUMA; COLLAPSE OF LUNG LOBE; SHOCK
MEASUREMENT OF HEMOGLOBIN SATURATION= PULSE OX- APPLY CLIP TO NON PIGMENTED SKIN OR MM: LIP TONGUE, PINNAE, VULVA, PREPUCE
MORE INVASIVE OXYGEN THERAPY ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES
ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES ARE TAKEN FROM FEMORAL ARTERY; NO AIR BUBBLES; READ IMMEDIATELY
OXYGEN THERAPY-02 CAGE CONTROL 02 SATURATION; TEMP/HUMIDITY; EXPENSIVE
02 CAGE OXYGEN THERAPY CONSUME LARGE AMOUNTS OF 02
WANT 30-40% 02 SATURATION IN THE CAGE;
TOO MUCH OXYGEN- 02 TOXICITY= RETINAL CHANGES IN PUPPIES
VARIETY OF SIZES AND SHAPES; NEED HIGH FLOW RATE OF 02 TO PREVENT EXCESSIVE C02 BUILD UP MASK INDUCTION; OXYGEN THERAPY
SHORT PERIODS OF TIME; SELECT PTS- MAKE IT WORSE IN SOME MASK INDUCTION OXYGEN THERAPY
INTRATRACHEAL CATHETER INDUCTON INEXPENSIVE; EFFECTIVE; CRITICALLY ILL PTS
SKIN ASEPTICALLY PREPPED; LOCAL ANESTHETIC OVER TRACHEA; MID CERVICAL INTRATRACHEAL CATHETER INDUCTION
14-18 GAUGE IV CATH INSERTED AND ADVANCED TO BIFURCATION OF TRACHEA; 02 DELIVERED SHOULD BE HUMIDIFIED AND ADMINISTERED AT A FLOW RATE OF 0.5-4L/MIN
BRIEF PERIODS IN SEVERELY DEPRESSED PTS; 5-8 FRENCH RED RUBBER CATHETER INSERTED THRU THE EXTERNAL NARES TO LEVEL OF THE CAUDAL NASOPHARYNX NASAL CATHETER
COATED WITH TOPICAL ANESTHETIC CREAM OR TOPICAL ANESTHETIC DROPS CAN BE DISTILLED IN NOSTRIL NASAL CATHETER
TAPE ATTACHED TO CATH, THEN CATH SUTURED TO THE FOREHEAD NASAL CATHETER
USEFUL TO TX DZ AND TO PREVENT DZ RESPIRATORY PHYSICAL THERAPY
SECONDARY BRONCHOPNEUMONIA IS COMMON IN PTS WITH LUNG LOBE COLLAPSE
STIMULATION OF COUGHING BY PUSHING ON TRACHEA CAUSES LUNGS TO MAXIMALLY EXPAND AND HELPS PREVENT LUNG COLLAPSE
TURNING OF RECUMBENT PTS WILL ENHANCE DRAINAGE AND CIRCULATION AND PREVENT HYPOSTATIC CONGESTION
PERCUSSION (COUPAGE) TECHNIQUES OF STRIKING THE ANIMALS CHEST TO LOOSEN BRONCHIAL SECRETION AND THUS FACILIATING DRAINAGE;
COUPAGE CHEST STRUCK WITH CUPPED HAND, BOTH HANDS, RAPID, MOVE VENTRAL TO DORSAL
SHOULD MAINTAIN IN STERNAL RECUMBENCY; SLING OR SUPPORT THEN TO KEEP POSTURE; ROTATE PT EVERY 2 HOURS RESPIRATORY PHYSICAL THERAPY
INITIATOR OF THE REPRO CYCLE BRAIN
PROESTRUS THE TIME LEADING TO ESTRUS
ESTRUS THE TIME OF MATING
DIESTRUS THE TIME WHEN PREGNANCY IS ESTABLISHED
ANESTRUS THE TIME WHEN THE ANIMAL IS NOT UNDERGOING ANY REPRODUCTIVE EVENTS- PREGNANCY
HYPOTHALAMUS RELEASES GnRH
GnRH GONADOTROPIN- RELEASING HORMONE
ANTERIOR PITUITARY RELEASES FSH
FSH FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
TRAVELS THRU THE BLOODSTREAM TO THE OVARIES WHERE IT INITIATES FOLLICLE STIMULATING ACTION, CAUSING GROWTH OF OVARIAN FOLLICLES WHICH CONTAIN THE EGG OR OOCYST FSH
GROWING FOLLICLE RELEASES ESTROGEN
SEXUAL BEHAVIORS EXHIBITED BY THE FEMALE ESTROGEN
ESTROGEN SURGE BY FOLLICLE STIMULATES RELEASE OF GnRH FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS WHICH RELEASES LH
LUTENIZING HORMONE CAUSES THE MATURE FOLLICLE TO OVULATE-OVULATION IS THE RELEASE OF THE OOXYTE FROM THE OVARY INTO THE OVADUCT LH
AFTER OVULATION FOLLICLE TURNS INTO CL MAKES PROGESTERONE
INFUNDIBULUM CATCHES TEH RELEASED EGG AND PULLS IT INOT THE AMPULLA PART OF THE OVADUCT
AT THE JUNCTION OF THE AMPULLA AND ISTHMUS IS WHERE FERTILIZATION OCCURS AND STAYS HERE FOR SEVERAL DAYS
IF NO PREGNANCY PROSTAGLANDIN IS RELEASED LYSING THE CORPUS LUTEUM, HEAT CYCLE REPEATS
IF PREGNANCY IS PRESENT PROGESTERONE CONTINUES
EMBRYONIC DISK TO FETUS ONCE ORGANS ARE PRESENT
PLACENTA DEVELOPS FROM SPECIAL CELLS ESTRUS CYCLE
ESTRUS CYCLE AMNION; CHORION AND ALLANTOIS-CHORIOALLANTOIS
AMNION IS THE FLUID FILLED SAC DIRECTLY AROUND THE BABY
CHORIOALLANTOIS SECOND FLUID FILLED SAC AROUND THE BABY-CHORION ATTACHES TO THE UTERUS AND FUNCTIONS TO TRANSPORT NUTRIENTS FROM THE UTERUS TO THE FETUS
PLACENTOMES RUMINANTS
ZONE DOGS/CATS
DIFFUSE HORSES/PIGS
DISK HUMAN/PRIMATES
FETAL HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY MATURE ENOUGH TO RELEASE CORTISOL
ESTRUS CYCLE CAUSES RELEASE OF PROSTAGLANDINS FROM UTERUS=CERVICAL DIALATION AND CONTRACTION OF UTERUS ; PARTURITION
PROESTRUS ATTRACTIVE TO MALE DOGS BUT WILL NOT LET THEM MATE. VULVA IS SWOLLEN AND A SEROSANGUINEOUS DISCHARGE IS PRESENT
PROESTRUS LASTS 9-10 DAYS
ESTRUS LASTS 9-10 DAYS
DIESTRUS LASTS 57-58 DAYS
ANESTRUS LASTS 2-5 MONTHS
WILL ALLOW MALE DOGS TO MATE WITH HER, SWELLING OF VULVA DECREASES SLIGHTLY, BLOODY DISCHARGE CHANGES TO A STRAW COLOR ESTRUS
TO GET PEAK OVULATION YOU NEED TO DO BLOOD TESTS; CAN NOT JUST RELY ON VAGINAL SMEARS
VAGINITIS; POSTPARTURIENT DISCHARGE; VAGINAL CULTURES
DISCHARGES DURING PREGNANCY; POSTABORTION DISCHARGE; PREBREEDING OR INFERTILE VAGINAL CULTURES
PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS ABDOMINAL PALP' HORMONE ASSAY; ULTRASOUND; RADIOGRAPH
RADS CANNOT BE DONE UNTIL 45 DAYS OF PREGNANCY DUE TO CALCIFICATION OF THE BABIES SKELETONS
CANINE REPRODUCTION STAGE 1 LASTS 6-12 HOURS OR AS LONG AS 36
CANINE REPRODUCTION STAGE 2 LASTS 3-6 HOURS BUT AS LONG AS 24
CANINE REPRODUCTION STAGE 3 COMES OUT WITH EACH PUPPY
DYSTOCIA CONTRACTIONS FOR 30 MIN WITH NO PROGRSS; WEAK, INFREQUENT CONTRACTIONS FOR 2 HRS WITH NO PROGRESS; PROLONGED INTERVAL BETWEEN PUPPIES
STAGE 1 PARTURITION RESTLESS, NESTING, NERVOUS, PANTS, TREMBLE OR SHIVER, BODY TEMP DROPS TO 99 ABOUT 24 HOURS BEFORE STAGE 2
STAGE 2 PARTURITION BLACKISH GREEN DISCHARGE IS NORMAL DURING DELIVERY
CANINE POSTPARTUM PROBLEMS NORMAL TO HAVE NONODOROUS BLOODY DISCHARGE FOR 8-10 WEEKS
POSTPARTUM PROBLEMS 12 WEEKS SUBINVOLUTION OF THE PLACENTAL SITES (SIPS)
SIPS MEDICAL TX, SURGICAL TX, OR CONSERVATIVE
METRITIS; RETAINED PLACENTA; MASTITIS; ECLAMPSIA POSTPARTUM PROBLEMS
METRITIS FOUL SMELLING VAGINAL DISCHARGE
RETAINED PLACENTA GREEN DISCHARGE
MASTITIS FEVER, LETHARGY, SWOLLEN MAMMARY GLANDS, DISCOLORATION OF GLANDS
ECLAMPSIA HYPOCALCEMIA; TREMORS, EXCITATION-TRUE EMERGENCY; HYPOTHERMIA, AND CONVULSIONS CAN OCCUR WHICH REQUIRE SEDATION AND CA
FALSE PREGNANCY; MAMMARY DEVELOPMENT; LACTATION; MATERNAL BEHAVIOR; PSEUDOPREGNANCY
PYOMETRA PSEUDOPREGNANCY
USUALLY OCCURS DURING DIESTRUS; COMMON TO SEE AFTER A FALSE PREGNANCY; CAN BE OPEN VS CLOSED; LETHARGIC, DEPRESSED, FEBRILE., POLYURIA, POLYDIPSIA, LEUKOCYTOSIS, PALPATION, US, RADS, SPAY IS RECOMMENDED PYOMETRA
DOG ACCIDENTALLY BRED, O WANTS AND ABORTION MISMATING
PROSTAGLANDINS FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS, CARDIOVASCULAR COLLAPSE
CHARACTERIZED WITH ABORTION AND INFERTILITY; VENERAL BUT ALSO SPREAD ORONASAL; DIFFICULT TO TX, NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE TO CURE BRUCELLOSIS
TX FOR BRUCELLOSIS EUTH FOR BREEDING ANIMALS
TESTING IS NOT REALLY EFFECTIVE, LOTS OF FALSE POSITIVES BRUCELLOSIS
INDUCED OVULATORS; SEASONAL BREEDERS-PREFER SPRING; ARTIFICIAL LIGHT CAN INCREASE CYCLE LENGTH FELINE REPRODUCTION
NEED MATING TO OCCUR TO RELEASE EGG FELINE REPRODUCTION
FELINE PROESTRUS LASTS 1-3 DAYS
FELINE ESTRUS LASTS 8-10 DAYS-OUTWARD SIGNS SHOWN
FELINE DIESTRUS LASTS 63-66 DAYS
FELINE ANESTRUS LASTS 2-6 WEEKS
FELINE PALPATION CAN BE DONE 16-30 DAYS
SIGNS OF ESTRUS ROLLING, EXAGGERATED LORDOSIS WHEN PETTED, SCREAMING, YOWLING
MATING HAS TO OCCUR IN FELINES AFTER THE 3RD DAY OF ESTRUS AND MULTIPLE TIMES AT LEAST 2-3 HOURS APART TO INDUCE OVULATION
INFERTILITY PROBLEMS ARE RARE IN FELINES
NEONATE COMPREHENSIVE HX INCLUDES HX OF MOM, DAD, LITTER MATES, RELATIVES, # OF ILL ANIMALS, HOW THEY ARE RAISED, BEHAVIOR, NORMAL ENVIRONMENT, BODY WT CURVES, DURATION, SIGNS, MEDS GIVEN,MOM; VX DATES, ESTRUS CYCLE, BREEDING PRACTICE, MEDS/SUPPLEMENTS DURING PREGNANCY, PROBLEMS WITH PREG
PE OF NEONATE DISTRACTED, POOR COOPERATION, 2CM BELL STETHOSCOPE, 84F THER, HYDRATION
NEONATE VENTRAL ABDOMEN HAIRLESS
PE OF NEONATE CHECK PATENCY OF URETHRA AND ANUS; SYMMETRY AND CONFORMATION OF LIMBS; OPEN FONTANELLES; BULGING EYELIDS; NORMAL NOSE/EARS; FLAT CHEST
SWIMMERS SYNDROME; FLAT CHEST PECTUS EXCAVATUM
BULGES IN NECK GAS IN ESOPHAGUS; ECTOPIC HEART; GOITER
PUPPIES = PUDGY
KITTENS = LEAN
FIRST 2 WEEK OF NEONATE THEY CANNONT REGULATE BODY TEMP
HYDRATION ORAL MM
VENTRAL ABDOMEN NORMAL HAIRLESS
DARK PINK VENTRAL ABDOMEN NORMAL
BLUISH OR RED VENTRAL ABDOMEN DISTRESS
OPEN FONTANELLES= SOFT SPOT IN THE TOP OF THEIR HEADS, COMMON IN SMALL BREED DOGS, ESP CHIHUAHUAS., SHOULD CLOSE UP BY TIME THEY ARE 6-8 WEEKS OLD
PRESENT AT BIRTH SUCKLING REFLEX
PRESS HEAD AGAINST A BOWED HAND PRESSING REFLEX, PRESENT AT BIRTH
HOLD BY HEAD, ROLL UP INTO A BALL; PRESENT UNTIL 3-4 DAYS OF AGE FLEXOR TONE
HOLD BY HEAD, STRETCH IT BACK AND HIND LEGS; PRESENT AFTER 4 DAYS EXTENSOR TONE
DORSAL RECUMBENCY, PINCH TOE OF HIND LIMB, NORMAL ABDUCTION OF LEG EXTENSOR REFLEX
DORSAL RECUMBENCY, BEND HEAD TO ONE SIDE AND IT WILL STRETCH THOSE LEGS ON THAT SIDE AND BEND THE OTHERS MAGNUS REFLEX
HELD BY THORAX, NECK BENT TO ONE SIDE SHOULD STRETCH LIMBS ON THAT SIDE, HEAD BENT DORSALLY THEN LEGS STRETCH AND HIND LIMBS ABDUCT TONIC NECK REFLEXES
HOPPING REFLEX PRESENT AT 2-4 DAYS OF AGE
ANOGENITAL REFLEX LESS THAT 3-4 WEEKS OF AGE; STIMULATE TO URINATE OR DEFECATE
PALPEBRAL AND CORNEAL REFLEXES PRESENT AS SOON AS EYES ARE OPEN
MENACE REFLEX CAN BE PRESENT AS EARLY AS 2 WEEKS BUT USUALLY 10-14 WKS
WEEK 1 NEONATES SLEEP 80% OF DAY; EAT 2-4 HRS; MOTOR REFLEXES; CRAWLING, SUCKLING, DISTRESS VOCALIZATION,
WEEK 1 NEONATES RESPOND TO ODOR, TOUCH, PAIN
WEEK 1 MOM INITIATES URINATION/ DEFECATION
DAY 3 NEONATES LIFT HEADS
DAY 7 NEONATES COORDINATED CRAWL
BODY TEMP AT BIRTH 94.5-97.3
BODY TEMP DAY 7 94.7-100.1
DAY 2-3 UMBILICAL CORD FALLS OFF
DAY 4 FLEXOR TONE SWITCHES TO EXTENSOR TONE
OPEN EYES AT 7-12 DAYS
NEONATE IRIS BLUE-GREY COLOR
CORNEA NEONATE SLIGHTLY CLOUDY
WEEK 2 NEONATES CRAWLING, BODY TEMP RISES, DOUBLE THEIR BIRTH WT,
EXTERNAL EAR CANALS OPEN AT 14-16 DAYS
END OF WEEK 3 ABLE TO STAND,GOOD POSTURAL REFLEXES
NEONATES DIAGNOSTICS JUGULAR VEIN, NO MORE THAN 10% OF CIRCULATING BLOOD IN 1 WEEK; VERY SMALL EDTA TUBE-0.5ML
CYSTO IN NEONATES NOT A GOOD IDEA BC SKIN IS TOO FRAGILE
HYPOTHERMIA VIRTUALLY NO SQ FAT=NO INSULATION
SHIVERING AND VASOCONSTRICTION MECHANISMS BEGIN AT 6-8 DAYS
AT 6 WEEKS NEONATES CAN REGULATE OWN BODY TEMP
GI MOTILITY SLOWS WITH DECREASED BODY TEMP ILEUS
IF HYPOTHERMIC AND TUBE FEEDING WILL REGURGITATE FOOD AND POSSIBLE ASPIRATE IT = PNEUMONIA
FOOD MY FEMENT BLOAT
CAUSES PRESSURES IN THORAX= LABORED BREATHING= SWALLOWING OF AIR= DOWNWARD SPIRAL AND ULTIMATELY COLLAPSE AND DEATH
BODY TEMP ABOVE 88 DEGREES RESTLESSNESS, CONTINUOUS CRYING, RED MM, SKIN THAT IS COOL TO THE TOUCH, GOOD MUSCLE TONE, RR AND HR STILL OK
BODY TEMP BETWEEN 75-85 LETHARGIC, UNCOORDINATED, BUT RESPONSIVE, MOISTURE AROUND CORNERS OF LIPS, HR LOW, RR LOW, NO ABDOMINAL SOUNDS, METABOLISM IS IMPAIRED= HYPOGLYCEMIA
BODY TEMP BELOW 70 APPEAR TO BE DEAD- VIGOROUS STIMULATION MAY HELP
CHECK MM, NOT SKIN TURGOR TO ASSESS HYDRATION IN NEONATES
FLUIDS MUST BE WARM 98
IP OR SQ 2-3 BOLUSES
HYPOGLYCEMIA LITTLE GLYCOGEN STORES AND POOR GLUCONEOGENESIS IN LIVER
HEALTHY NEONATE CAN MAINTAIN FOR 24 HRS WITH NO NURSING
CLINICAL SIGNS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA SERUM GLUCOSE <30, TREMORS, CRYING, IRRITABILITY, INCREASED APPETITE, DULLNESS, LETHARGY, COMA, STUPOR, AND SEIZURES
TX FOR HYPOGLYCEMIA IV DEX SLOWLY IV OR IO AT 0.5-1G/KG PART OF A 5-10% DEX IN SALINE, SUGAR SOLUTION DIRECTLY TO GUMS
NO DEX SOLUTION SQ EVER
NEONATAL ISOERYTHROLYSIS IN KITTENS CATS WITH BLOOD TYPE A HAVE LOW TITERS AGAINST BLOOD TYPE B
CATS WITH BLOOD TYPE B HAVE HIGH TITERS AGAINST BLOOD TYPE A
MILK REPLACERS, MALNUTRITION
IF ONLY 3 FEEDING A DAY, THEN ADD IN SQ FLUIDS MALNUTRITION
OVERFEEDING OR HIGH LACTOSE MILK= DIARRHEA
STIMULATE TO URINATE AFTER EACH FEEDING
WEIGH DAILY UP TO 3 WEEKS
TUBE FEEDING NO IF BODY TEMP IS LOW, MEASURE TUBE FROM TIP OF NOSE TO END OF THE CHEST, INSERT TUBE, NEGATIVE PRESSURE, THEN PUSH FOOD, 5 FRENCH FEEDING TUBE. APPROX 5ML OF MILK REPLACER PER 160 G
ANOREXIA, LETHARGY, DEATH, AND BIRTH DEFECTS FADING PUPPY OR KITTEN SYNDROME
STILLBORN OR BORN SMALL, WEAK, AND UNABLE TO NURSE, RESULTING IN DEHYDRATION, HYPOTHERMA, HYPOGLYCEMIA, AND DEATH WITHIN THE FIRST FEW DAYS OF LIFE THE FADING PUPPY OR KITTEN SYNDROME
FADING PUPPY OR KITTEN SYNDEOME CAUSES OF DEATH
CAUSES OF DEATH POOR MANAGEMENT, MALNUTRITION, INAPPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT, CONGENITAL/GENETIC DEFECTS, INFECTIONS, POOR HYGEINE, INAPPROP TEMP AND HUMIDITY, OVERCROWDING, FREQUENT INTO TO NEW ANIMALS, INAPPROP USE OF MEDS, EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL TOXINS
TIME CONSUMING, WARM, CLEAN BEDDING, MILK BOTTLES, FEEDING TUBES, SYRINGES, A GRAM SCALE, COTTON BALLS, HAND SANITIZERS, CLIPPERS, KEEP WARM AT ALL TIMES, FEED OFTEN THEN STIMULATE TO URINATE/DEFECATE AFTER EACH TIME ORPHAN CARE
FIRST STAGE OF WOUND HEALING INFLAMMATORY
STAGE 2 OF WOUND HEALING DEBRIDEMENT
STAGE 3 OF WOUND HEALING REPAIR
STAGE 4 OF WOUND HEALING MATURATION
THE PROCESS OF HEALING STARTS IMMEDIATELY AFTER INJURY
STAGES OF HEALING CAN HAPPEN SIMULTANEOUSLY
WHEN AN INJURY HAPPENS BLOOD RISES TO THE SURFACE OF THE WOUND AND CLEANS THE SURFACE
THE BLOOD CONTAINS PLATELETS
PLATELETS ARE CIRCULATING IN YOUR BLOOD AT ALL TIMES; PLATELETS HELP CONTROL BLEEDING
BLOOD VESSELS BEGIN TO CONSTRICT TO STOP THE BLEEDING
A INITIALLY BLEEDING OCCURS
B VASOCONSTRICTION(WE HAVE TO STOP THE BLEEDING LAST 5-10 MIN ONCE BLEEDING IS CONTROLLED- THE VESSEL DILATES
C DILATING THE VESSEL ALLOWS FOR CLOTTING MECHANISMS TO GET TO THE WOUND
D CLOT DRIES, SCAB FORMATION, PROTECTS FROM FURTHER BLEEDING, ALLOWS HEALING TO CONTINUE UNDER SKIN, SCAB DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY STRENGTH TO THE WOUND
HEMOSTASIS STOPPING THE HEMORRHAGE WHILE MAINTAINING BLOOD FLOW
PRIMARY HEMOSTASIS PLATELETS ARRIVE AND FORM AN UNSTABLE PLUG
SECONDARY HEMOSTASIS PLASMA COAGULATION FACTORS FORMED IN LIVER GET ACTIVATED IN CIRCULATION
FIBRIN THEN CREATES A MESHWORK OVER THE PLATELET FILLED INJURY FORMING A STABLE CLOT
VITAMIN K HELPS MAKE SOME OF THE COAGULATION FACTORS IN THE LIVER
IN THE SECOND PHASE FIBRINOGEN IS CONVERTED TO FIBRIN WHICH RESULTS IN THE FORMATION OF A GEL LIKE MESHWORK AT THE SITE
FIBRINOGEN A COAFULATION PROTEIN MADE BY THE LIVER IS VONVERTED TO FIBRIN
STAGE 2 OF WOUND HEALING DEBRIDEMENT STAGE - OR CLEAN UP
STAGE 2 OF WOUND HEALING STARTS APPROX 6 HOURS AFTER INJURY
WBC'S (NEUTROPHILS AND MONOCYTES)REMOVE NECROTIC TISSUE, BACTERIA, FOREIGN MATERIAL FROM THE INJURY
THESE CELLS AND FLUID MIX ARE TERMED EXUDATES
EXUDATE IS CLOUDY FLUID THAT SEEPS OUT OF BLOOD VESSELS TO SURROUNDING TISSUES AS A RESULT OF INFLAMMATION AND INJURY
TRANSUDATE IS EXTRAVASCULAR FLUID WITH LOW PROTEIN CONTENT AND A LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY VERY FEW CELLS
INFLAMMATORY AND DEBRIDEMENT HAPPEN VERY EARLY ON IN THE STAGES OF HEALING, THESE STAGES ARE ALSO TERMED LAG PHASE
STAGE 3 WOUND HEALING REPAIR STAGE
STARTS AFTER THE INFLAMMATORY AND DEBRIDEMENT HAVE OCCURRED REPAIR STAGE
USUALLY DURING THE FIRST 2-5 DAYS REPAIR STAGE
DURING REPAIR FIBROBLASTS ARRIVE AT THE INJURY
FIBROBLAST PRODUCES COLLAGEN- THIS MATURES INTO FIBROUS SCAR TISSUE
WOUND STRENGTH INCREASES AT THIS POINT REPAIR STAGE
CAPILLARIES APPEAR ALONG WITH THE FIBROBLATS, FIBROUS TISSUE AND THE INJURED AREA TURNS RED
GRANULATION TISSUE FILLS THE AREA-BENEATH THE SCAB
1. FILLS TISSUE DEFECT, PROTECTS THE WOUND, BARRIER FOR INFECTION GRANULATION TISSUE PURPOSES
EPITHELIALIZATION HAPPENS IN THE REPAIR STAGE-ONCE GRANULATION TISSUE PROVIDES A GOOD BED FOR IT- USUALLY 4-5 DAY
GRANULATION TISSUE PURPOSES PROVIDES SURFACE FOR MYOFIBROBLASTS-WHICH HELP THE WOUND TO CONTRACT (CONTRACTION PULLS SKIN EDGES TOGETHER)
GRANULATION TISSUE PURPOSES CONTRACTION OCCURS AFTER ABOUT 5-9 DAYS
STAGE 4 WOUND HEALING MATURATION
FINAL STAGE IN WOULD HEALING MATURATION
STRENGTH INCREASES TO THE MAXIMUM IT WILL BE; REMOLDING OF THE COLLAGEN FIBERS IN THE FIBROUS TISSUE-MORE CROSSLINKIN=IMPROVED STRENGTH MATURATION
CAPILLARIES DECREASE LEAVING A WHITE SCAR
MAY CONTINUE TO MATURE FOR YEARS. WOUND NEVER HAS THE SAME STRENGTH AS NORMAL TISSUE MATURATION
HOST FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HEALING AGE. MALNOURISHMENT, HEALTH, CORTICOSTEROIDS
AGE THE OLDER YOU ARE THE SLOWER YOU HEAL-PLUS CHANCES OF YOU HAVING SOME HEALTH ISSUES ALREADY, IE CUSHINGS, KIDNEY DZ
CORTICOSTEROID VIA USAGE OR FROM DX- STEROIDS DELAY ALL PHASES OF HEALING
FOREIGN MATERIAL IN WOUND CAUSES INFLAMMATION- SUTURES, SURGICAL IMPLANTS, DRAINS, ETC
SOIL PARTICLES CONTAIN BACTERIA AND OTHER INFECTION-ENHANCING FACTORS
EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT SLOW HEALING DRUGS; CORTICOSTEROIDS, ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS, PROLONGED ASPRIN THERAPY-ASPRIN AND OTHER ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS SUPPRESS EARLY INFLAMMATION AND CAN DELAY CLOTTING, CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS, RADIATION THERAPY
IMMEDIATE WOUND CARE TECHNIQUES (WHAT THE TECH CAN DO RIGHT AWAY COVER WITH CLEAN, DRY BANDAGE, WATER-SOLUBLE ANTIBIOTIC OINTMENTS, NO ANTIBIOTIC CREAMS AND POWDERS, SUGAR AND HONEY= OK, HAIR REMOVAL FROM AROUND WOUND
COVERING WITH BANDAGE REDUCES FURTHER CONTAMINATION AND HEMORRHAGE
KEEP BANDAGE IN PLACE UNTIL DEFINITIVE TREATMENT CAN BE STARTED
OINTMENTS WILL KEEP WOUND MOIST AND DECREASE MICROORGANISMS
ANTIBIOTIC CREAMS ACT AS FOREIGN BODIES AND DELAY WOUND HEALING
SUGAR AND HONEY ARE HYPERTONIC AND BACTERICIDAL;PROMOTE NATURAL DEBRIDEMENT
WOUND LAVAGE TO REMOVE DEBRIS AND LOOSE PARTICLES; REDUCE BACTERIA
TISSUE SHOULD BE CULTURED BEFORE LAVAGE
LARGE VOLUMES OF WARM, STERRILE, BALANCED ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS ARE PREFERRD
ADDED ANTIBIOTICS WILL DAMAGE TISSUE
MECHANICAL ACTION OF THE LAVAGE IS MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR SUCCESSFUL LAVAGE
WHY IS WOUND DEBRIDEMENT DOEN REMOVE CONTAMINATED, DEVITALIZED, OR NECROTIC TISSUE, REMOVE FOREIGN MATERIAL
HOW IS WOUND DEBRIDEMENT DONE SURGICAL EXCISION OF AFFECTED TISSUE, ENZYMATIC DEBRIDEMENT(TRYPSIN PRODUCTS) HYPERTONIC SOLUTIONS (HONEY, SUGAR)
SURGICAL EXCISION DONE IN LAYERS STARTING AT THE SURFACE AND PROGRESSING INTO THE DEPTHS
ENTIRE WOUND EXCISED IF THERE IS ENOUGH HEALTHY TISSUE AROUND IT TO CLOSE WOUND PROPERLY
ENZYMATIC DEBRIDEMENT USES COMMERCIAL SOLUTION CONTAINING TRYPSIN; TAKES LONGER AND MAY DAMAGE NORMAL TISSUE
HYPERTONIC SOLUTIONS SUCH AS HONEY AND SUGAR ARE GOOD FOR CONTAMINATED AND INFECTED WOUNDS, DUE TO THEIR BACTERICIDAL PROPERTIES
SLOUGHING TISSUE NEEDS TO BE REMOVED
PRIMARY CLOSURE FIRST INTENTION HEALING- SUTURED WOUND OR GRAFTING SHORTLY AFTER INJURY, FRESH WOUNDS ONLY, MINIMAL TRAUMA-CLEAN-MINIMAL CONTAMINATES
DELAYED PRIMARY CLOSURE 1-3 DAYS POST INJURY-PRIOR TO GRANULATION TISSUE APPERANCE
FOR MILDLY CONTAMINATED-MINIMALLY TRAUMATIZED WOUNDS THAT REQUIRE CLEANSING/DEBRIDEMENT DELAYED PRIMARY CLOSURE
6-8 HOURS POST INJURY= GOLDEN PERIOD
SECOND INTENTION (CONTRACTION AND EPITHELIALIZATION) WOUND CLOSES AS RESULT OF CONTRACTION AND EPITHELIALIZATION
USED IN DIRTY, CONTAMINATED, TRAUMATIZED WOUNDS; CLEANSING AND DEBRIDEMENT NECESSARY; WOUND CLOSURE MAY BE DIFFICULT DUE TO SIZE OR LOCATION OF WOUND SECOND INTENTION HEALING
THIRD INTENTION HEALING WOUND SUTURED AT LEAST 3-5 DAYS AFTER INJURY. GRANULATION TISSUE PRESENT;
WOUND IS SEVERELY CONTAMINATED, WOUND IS SEVERELY TRAUMATIZED, EPITHLIALIZATION AND CONTRACTION WILL NOT COMPLETELY CLOSE WOUND THIRD INTENTION HEALING (SECONDARY CLOSURE)
WOUND CLOSURE CONSIDERATIONS TIME LAPSE SINCE INJURY; DEGREE OF CONTAMINATION; AMOUNT OF TISSUE DAMAGE; THOROUGHNESS OF DEBRIDEMENT; BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE WOUND; ANIMALS HEALTH; CLOSURE WITHOUT TENSION OR DEAD SPACE; LOCATION OF THE WOUND
AWE PAPPI ABSORBS WARMTH EDEMA PROTECTS ACID PREVENTS PROMOTES HEALING IMMOBILIZATION
WHAT DO BANDAGES DO PROTECTS WOUND,PROMOTE HEALING, PREVENT ADDITIONAL TRAUMA
EACH SHIFT OF TECHS SHOULD ENSURE THAT EVERYTHING IS IN PROPER WORKING ORDER AND IN ADEQUATE SUPPLY
WHAT SHOULD BE IN EMG TREATMENT AREA OXYGEN SOURCE(OTHER THAN ANESTH MACHINE) SUCTION AND VARIOUS TIPS,LIGHTING, AMBU BAG
AIRWAY IS ALWAYS FIRST UNLESS YOU HAVE A PUMPER ARTERIAL BLEED
EQUIPMENT FOR EMERGENCY PULSE OX- FRASIER SUCTION OR OTHER TIPS-SUCTION MACHINE-PORTABLE LIGHTING- AMBU BAG
CRASH CART BASIC SUPPLIES TRACH TUBES/LARYNGOSCOPE, STYLETS, TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE, TIES (GAUZE) CUFF SYRINGE, IV CATHETERS, TAPE, FLUSH,
CRASH CART BASIC SUPPLIES EMERGENCY DRUGS-EPINEPHRINE, ATROPINE, ,LASIX, LIDOCAINE, DOSING CHART, BATTERIES FOR EQUIPMENT, CK DRUGS OFTEN FOR EXPIRATION, SYRINGES, NEEDLES FLUIDS
WHAT IF YOU CANT HIT THE VEIN? HOW CAN YOU GET FLUIDS TO THE SHOCK PT 18-20 GA BONE MARROW CATHETERS OR SPINAL NEEDLES CAN BE USED FOR INTRAMEDULLARY CATH
TRIAGE MULTIPLE SYSTEM TRAUMA USUALLY GETS THROUGH THE TREATMENT DOOR FIRST. LIKE A HBC WITH BLOOD GUSHING OUT AN ARTERY FROM A MISSING LIMB ALONG WITH BLUE TO WHITE MM DUE TO HEMOTHORAX AND OF COURSE TACHYCARDIA DUE TO HYPOTENSION
TRIAGE TAKES INTO ACCOUNT WHICH PT IS IN THE MOST DIRE NEED OF LIFE SAVING TECHNIQUES AT THE SECOND IT ARRIVES AT THE CLINIC
BLOATED, BLEEDING, BLOCKED, AND BLUE, AND SOMETIMES WHITE EMERGENCY!!
ATROPINE GIVE TO SPEED UP A SLOW HEARTBEAT
DOBUTAMINE MYOCARDIAL FAILURE
DOPAMINE DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT
EPINEPHRINE V FIB- ASYSTOLE
LIDOCAINE VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS
Created by: JODY84