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important concepts

vet 2505

definitionterm
plant materials classified as legumes or grasses, found in pastures or in hay forages
well know legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, and peanuts legumes
calcification of injured, degenerating, or dead tissue dystrophic mineralization
female horse up to 4-5 years of age that hasn't been bred filly
male horse up to 4-5 years of age that hasn't been bred colt
neutered male horse gelding
starter feed given to foals while still nursing creep feed
inflammation and destruction of muscle cells rhabdomyolysis
inflammation of the sensitive lamina of the hoof laminitis
abdominal pain colic
seizures during lactation resulting from hypocalcemia eclampsia
horses have what type of stomach monogastric
what is the primary cite of fermentation in the horse cecum
horses must eat what size of meals to maintain the fermentation process small
where do horses acquire protein from plant sources
what supplies 80-90% of a horses energy requirement carbohydrates
how much water does a horse have to drink for every 2 lbs of dry matter that they eat 1 gallon
what macrominerals are important for a horse to have calcium, phosphorus, and sodium chloride
what microminerals are important for a horse to have iodine, copper, iron, and zinc
the quality of these horse feed sources quality vary forages
this type of horse feed source is very high in energy alfalfa
this type of horse feed source is often broken into flakes or leaves when fed hay bales
this type of horse feed source can cause coagulation problems, or sweet clover poisoning moldy clover
this type of horse feed source can cause fescue toxicity, is caused by acremonium and causes reproductive problems moldy fescue
this type of horse feed is used to supplement energy requirements, need for them depends on life stage and life cycle grains
this type of horse feed will not be fully digested if fed prior to forages grains
how many horse life stages are there 7
what horse life stage should stand and start to nurse within 2 hours of birth foal
what horse life stage must receive colostrum within 18 hours of birth because they receive no antibodies in utero foal
foals are generally weaned between what months of age 4-6
what may be used to ease the weaning process or for added energy for foals creep feeding
where can high performance animals get the extra energy they need grains, alfalfa, or concentrates (pelleted feeds)
when do mares need extra energy late pregnancy
what percentage of extra energy do mares require during late pregnancy 20-30%
what 2 macrominerals do lactating mares require more of during lactation in order to prevent eclampsia calcium and phosphors
at peak lactation in a mare they require what percentage of more energy 75%
what are two other more common names of Rhabdomyolysis tying up or monday morning disease
this is damage to muscles generally after being worked hard after a long period of rest rhabdomyolysis
this is characterized by pain, stiffness, and myoglobinuria rhabdomyolysis
this is often associated with being fed high energy feed during the week, but not worked until the weekend rhabdomyolysis
this is associated with feeding excess grain, water, or pasture lush laminitis
this can be associated with inadequate water or over eating colic
over eating to cause this condition may occur because to much food is being offered by the owner or being turned out on to a new pasture colic
rudimentary 1st upper premolar in the horse wolf tooth
filing down of teeth floating teeth
dropping of food while eating quidding
severe abdominal pain colic
abnormal position of gastrointestinal organ resulting in blockage of that organ entrapment
increased blood flow to the sclera causing redness injected sclera
dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeeasts probiotics
chewing on non food items pica
abnormal behavior in which the horse grasps onto something with their teeth and then sucks in air cribbing
teeth of this large animal species continuously erupt equine
typically only this equine sex have canine teeth males
these type of equine teeth may not be present and are often removed if they are present wolf teeth
review slides for dental abnormalities did you review the slides for dental abnormalities
poor performance, quidding, weight loss, and bit avoidance can all be cause by poor dental care
routine floating is consider to be how often every 6 months
impaction, grain overload, entrapment, inflammation, and intestinal parasites are all the numerous causes of what equine health problem colic
pawing, rolling, lying down more than usual, sweating, kicking or looking at the abdomen, and tachycardia are all clinical signs that are consistent with pain and associated with what equine health problem colic
walking which is important to prevent rolling which can lead to entrapment, NSAIDs, and fluids given via NG tube to help relieve impaction to help medically treat what equine health problem colic
surgery for this equine health problem may be indicated in severe cases, but often requires a referral to a specialty center colic
routine deworming and limiting grains by increasing pasture time can help prevent this equine health problem colic
this equine health problem can be caused by bacteria or intestinal parasites diarrhea
these two types of bacteria can cause severe diarrhea salmonella; clostridium
this type of bacteria can cause severe diarrhea in horses and is zoonotic salmonella
this type of infection in foals will often cause them to die before diarrhea presents clostridium
transmission of salmonella or clostridium is via what route fecal-oral
stress will increase susceptibility of infection for what diarrhea causing agents salmonella; clostridium
how are salmonella and clostridium infection diagnosed fecal culture
how many consecutive days must a negative result be achieved before salmonella can be ruled out 5
what type of assay can also be done to diagnose salmonella or clostridium toxin
treatment for this type of infection involves supportive care such as fluids, analgesics, anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, and diarrhea control clostridium
treatment of this type of infection involves supportive care such as fluids, analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and diarrhea control (antibiotics are controversial) salmonella
this equine health problem has multiple causes including pelleted feed (most common cause) drugs such as xylazine & detomidine decreasing smooth muscle motility, inflammation, scar tissue and neoplasia choke
the most classic symptom of this equine health problem is food coming out of nostrils choke
diagnosis of choke is made by doing what passing NG tube
this is needed to relax the esophagus in order to pass a NG tube and lavage with water sedation
drug associated choke can be prevented by avoiding feed for how long post sedation in horses 4 hours
this equine health problem has multiple causes of inflammation in the abdomen and in mild forms may have no symptoms peritonitis
this equine health problem can present as colic peritonitis
severe cases of this equine health problem may have electrolyte imbalances such as hypokalemia and hypocalcemia peritonitis
treatment of this equine health problem may involve stabilzation first involving correction of electrolyte imbalances and giving analgesics peritonitis
antibiotic use to treat this equine health problem may be based on results from culture and sensitivity acquired from samples taken from abdomenocentesis peritonitis
intestinal parasites are the major cause of this equine health problem intussuception
the results of this equine health problem are necrosis and septicemia intussuception
this equine health problem is diagnosed by rectal palpation and can present as colic intussecption
this equine health problem requires surgery to repair and requires stabilization first intussecption
inflammation of the brain and spinal cord encephalomyelitis
abnormal acuteness of sensitivity to touch, pain, or other stimuli hyperesthesia
pinpoint hemorrhages petechia
this equine infectious disease is seen primarily in yearlings to 3 yr olds and causes high fever and typical respiratory symptoms equine influenza
this equine infectious disease is seen primarily in late winter and early spring and is associated with movement and high density equine influenza
this equine infectious disease is diagnosed primarily on history and clinical signs, a CBC may or may not be done equine influenza
this equine infectious disease has a vaccine available but the duration of immunity is short equine influenza
this equine infectious disease is caused by the EIA virus equine infectious anemia
this equine infectious disease caused by a virus that replicates in tissue macrophages causing virus-antibody complex to form that attach to RBCs, decreasing their lifespan bc WBCs attack them as foreign invaders equine infectious anemia
this equine infectious disease causes petechia, edema, splenomegaly, and abortion equine infectious anemia
this equine infectious disease is transmitted by biting insects or blood contamination such as reusing syringes, etc equine infectious anemia
diagnosis of this equine infectious disease is based on a Coggins test which is required for transportation across state lines and reportable if positive equine infectious anemia
there is no effective treatment for this equine infectious disease, infected animals must either be euthanized or branded and quarantined equine infectious anemia
this equine infectious disease is caused by eastern equine encephalomyelitis and western equine encephalomyelitis equine sleeping sickness
another more commonly know name for equine infectious anemia is swamp fever
this equine infectious virus goes to lymph nodes, then to liver, spleen, & other organs and then finally to the brain equine sleeping sickness
this equine infectious disease symptoms start out vague such as fever and stiffness then progress to neurologic signs such as continual chewing movements, aggression, etc until death occurs equine sleeping sickness
diagnosis of this equine infectious disease is made on antibody titers or virus isolation from the CSF or brain tissue equine sleeping sickness
this equine infectious disease is transmitted by mosquitoes, and has a vaccine available that needs repeated yearly equine sleeping sickness
this equine infectious disease is caused by sarcocystis neurona, and is transmitted by ingestion of pasture contaminated with opossum feces equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
symptoms of this equine infectious disease vary from gait abnormalities to head tilt depending on where the lesions develop within the CNS equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
diagnosis of this equine infectious disease is made by CSF tap equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
treatment of this equine infectious disease is typically with a sulfonamide and pyrimethamine combination or ponazuril (marquist) equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
recovery from this equine infectious disease is typically incomplete and relapses are common equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
this equine infectious disease is difficult to prevent because the vaccine is not very effective and is difficult to keep opossums out of the pasture equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
occurring around the time of parturition periparturient
loss of oxygen to tissues hypoxia
molecules in the body with unpaired electrons that attack the nearest stable molecule stealing its electron free radicals
restoration of blood flow to an organ or tissue reperfusion
decreased urine production oliguria
stopping of GI motility ileus
excessive hair growth hirsutism
neurotransmitter that decreases that production of ACTH in addition to other functions dopamine
neurotransmitter that increases the production of ACTH in addition to other functions serotonin
hormone released by the pituitary that stimulates the production of cortisone ACTH
inflammation of the uvea uveitis
involuntary blinking of the eye blepharospasm
watery ocular discharge epiphora
excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well lit places photophobia
growth or formation of new blood vessels neovascularization
this foal health problem is a syndrome resulting from a periparturiant hypoxic event neonatal maladjustment syndrome
another more common name for neonatal maladjustment syndrome is dummy foals
this foal health problem is caused by damage to the tissues resulting from ischemia and free radicals produced following reperfusion neonatal maladjustment syndrome
clinical signs of this foal health problem that are seen depend on the extent and location of the tissue damage neonatal maladjustment syndrome
the most common clinical signs of this foal health problem are neurological such as loss of dam recognition and suckle reflex 24-48 hours post partum, respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, and GI neonatal maladjustment syndrome
failure of passive transfer can complicate this foal health condition, making the foal more susceptible to infection neonatal maladjustment syndrome
diagnosis of this foal health problem is made based on history and physical exam, further diagnostics may be done to determine the extent of lesions involved such as IgG levels, Chem/CBC, thoracic radiographs, CT, MRI, CSF tap neonatal maladjustment syndrome
treatment of this foal health condition is based on supportive care such as nutritional supplementation including colostrum and specific treatment that the lesions present neonatal maladjustment syndrome
this equine health condition is most commonly seen in horses over 12 yrs and may be more common in ponies cushings
typical signs of this equine health condition include hirsutism, polydipsia, chronic infections, laminitis, and neurological signs cushings
this equine health condition is diagnosed the same way as it is in dogs, with an ACTH stimulation test or low dose dexamethasone suppression test cushings
treatment of this equine health condition is aimed at decreasing ACTH levels either by mimicking dopamine (pergolide) or by suppressing serotonin (cyproheptadien) cushings
this equine health condition is caused by a bacteria, neorickettsia (ehrlichia) risicii potomac horse fever
uveitis may be primary or secondary to other infection/inflammation in the body with this equine health condition recurrent uveitis
what is another more common name for recurrent uveitis in horses moon blindness
Leptospirosis is the most common cause of this equine health condition recurrent uveitis
during flare ups of this equine health condition clinical signs include blindness, cloudy eye, blepharospasm, and epiphora recurrent uveitis
diagnosis of this equine health condition is made based on history and clinical signs, antibody titers may be done to look for lepto recurrent uveitis
treatment of this equine health condition includes topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, systemic treatment may also be necessary requiring flunixin meglumine or antibiotics recurrent uveitis
the most common cause of this equine health condition is trauma corneal ulcers
clinical signs of this equine health condition include photophobia, blepharospasm, corneal cloudiness, corneal neovascularization corneal ulcers
diagnosis of this equine health condition is based on physical exam and Fluorescein stain corneal ulcers
treatment of this equine health condition includes antibiotic drops and corticosteroid drops should never be used in an eye with this condition corneal ulcers
distal phalanx which is completely enclosed within the hoof coffin bone
sesmoid bone that lies behind the coffin bone and under the pastern bone, considerd the middle phalanx navicular bone
triangular structure that extends forwards across about two thirds of the sole frog
fluid filled sac located between a bone and tendon bursa
lack of exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen asphyxiation
weakness of all four limbs tetraparesis
surgical transection of a nerve neurectomy
vascular tissue that connects to and holds the hoof wall to the leg sensitive lamina
hoof wall insensitive lamina
fusion of a joint ankylosis
the neurotransmitter that inhibits nerve conduction GABA
exercising a horse in a circle with a long lead rope, called a lunge line lunging
a diagnostic technique for localizing pain in horses nerve block
mucous exudates catarrhal
the spread of Strep. equi and subsequent abscess formation in tissues beyond the head bastard strangles
chemical added to penicillin to increase its duration of activity procaine
ration of sick to well animals in population morbidity
lack of appetite inappetence
diagnostic technique involving flushing small amounts of fluid down the trachea and then immediately suctioning it back out transtracheal wash
plasma obtained form an animal that has recently been vaccination against a specific pathogen hyperimmune plasma
purulent discharge in a natural body cavity empyema
having multiple estrus cycles within a given season seasonally polyestrus
abnormal fetal presentation at time of parturition malpresentation
abnormal position of fetus at time of parturition malposition
contraction of the neck muscles causing the head to be turned to one side with the chin elevated torticollis
congenital defect of the limbs caused by multiple joint contractures and is characterized by muscle weakness and fibrosis arthrogryposis
inflammation of the uterus metritis
inflammation of the inside lining of uterus endometritis
surgical partial clsing of the vulvar folds to prevent uterine infections caslicks surgery
cutting apart of non-viable fetus to enable removal from the uterus fetotomy
penile paralysis with the penis extruded from the prepuce paraphimosis
these consist of legumes, grasses, and silage in ruminant nutrition roughages
this is fermented roughage in ruminant nutrition silage
the proper flow of ingest through ruminant stomachs is what reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum
cattle are often fed what as a source of non-protein nitrogen to provide base for bacteria to produce amino acids synthetic urea
dairy calves are weaned at what age 6-8 weeks
beef calves are weaned at what age 6-8 months
what time is the most likely time for nutritional diseases in cattle early lactation
what time is when the highest energy needs are required late lactation/pregnancy
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is associated with over grazing of lush pasture and consumption of finely ground grain bloat
with this ruminant gastroenterology health condition the rumen may distend so much that it presses on the diaphragm causing dyspnea bloat
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is treated by passing an orogastric tube to relieve gas and anti-foam medication (poloaxalene) to decrease foam which trapped gas in the first place or using a trocar to release gas from the rumen directly bloat
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition can be prevented by giving poloxalene prophylactically (gas-x for cows) and feeding coarse grains to slow bacterial action on grains bloat
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is caused by the ingestion of a metal object hardware disease
the seriousness of this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is determined by how deep into the reticulum wall the object penetrates hardware disease
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition can cause pericarditis if the object penetrates into the chest cavity through the diaphragm to the area around the heart hardware disease
prevention of this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is aided by feeding the cow a magnet hardware disease
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is associated with high concentrate diet (ie to much grain) and occurs most commonly post calving due to stress left displaced abomasum
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is diagnosed by percussion (hearing a ping on the left side of abdomen) or aspiration of gas with a burnt almond odor on abdomenocentesis left displaced abomasum
treatment for this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is surgery to reduce the gas and then suture the abomasum to the ventral abdominal wall left displaced abomasum
there are numerous causes for this ruminant gastroenterology health condition such as viral, bacterial, parasites, or metabolic causes bovine viral diarrhea (BVD)
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is diagnosed by histopath on tissue from an ear notch bovine viral diarrhea
with this ruminant gastroenterology health condition neonates can die in 6-12 hrs from what pathogen E. coli
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition has no effective treatment and is an infection with mycobacterium paratuberculosis Johne's disease
this ruminant gastroenterology health condition is an infection with coronavirus and requires no treatment because animals will recover on their own winter dysentery
this ruminant gastroenterology bacterial infections will often require fluid therapy in addition to antibiotics for treatment bacterial
a vaccination is available for this ruminant gastroenterology health condition that is caused by M. paratuberculosis Johne's disease
a vaccination is available for this ruminant gastroenterology health condition that is caused by an infection with coronavirus winter dysentery (coronavirus)
a vaccination is available for this ruminant gastroenterology health condition that can kill neonates within 6-12 hours E. coli
sterile female born as a co-twin to with a male bovine freemartin
leukocytes found in milk somatic cell
this bovine reproductive condition occurs in what percent of females born as a free martin to a male 90%
this bovine reproductive condition occurs because males produce hormones that pass via jointed placentas to the female, causing the male hormones to suppress development of female genitalia freemartin
this bovine reproductive condition will be treated as male a culled from the herd free martin
this bovine reproductive condition has numerous causes such as bacterial, viral, fungal, parasites, and causes loss of the fetus abortions
this bovine reproductive condition may take multiple tests including histopath of the placenta and fetus abortions
vaccinations for bovine herpesvirus, BVD, Brucellosis, and leptospirosis in or to prevent this bovine reproductive condition abortions
this bovine health condition is caused by a bacterial infection that can be asymptomatic and effects that mammary tissue of the bovine mastitis
this bovine health condition is diagnosed by the california mastitis test, somatic cell counts, and culture and sensitivity mastitis
the treatment for this bovine health condition is oxytocin, drying out (stopping lactation) or antibiotics infused directly into the mammary gland via teat duct mastitis
this bovine health condition can be prevented by better milking hygiene, or feeding cattle immediately after milking so the cow doesn't lay down which would expose teats to dirt while duct is still open mastitis
this bovine health condition is caused by rapid drop in blood calcium levels bc of the high calcium needed for lactation and inability of PTH to adequately compensate milk fever (postpartum hypocalcemia)
this bovine health condition is typically seen within 48 hours of calving and is seen in 3 stages depending on the calcium levels milk fever
this bovine health condition can be fatal if not treated milk fever
Jersey's are predisposed to this bovine health condition milk fever
the treatment for this bovine health condition is IV calcium gluconate and treatment is often initiated before a chemistry panel is run milk fever
must watch for relapse of this bovine health condition for 48 hours are treatment begins milk fever
this bovine health condition may be prevented by decresing calcium in feed during the dry period to stimulate PTH production milk fever
this bovine health condition occurs because energy demands exceed energy intake ketosis
this bovine health condition results in alter gluconogenesis pathways which results in production of ketone bodies ketosis
this bovine health condition can result in neurological signs and pica ketosis
this bovine health condition is treated by increasing energy intake via IV dextrose, propylene glycol drench, and glucocorticoids ketosis
this bovine health condition is associated with dystocia and milk fever uterine prolapse
this bovine health condition can be manually replaced after cleaning is done if the tissue is undamaged, oxytocin may be given to contract the organ uterine prolapse
with this bovine health condition it may need to be surgically corrected by removal of the organ if tissue is damaged uterine prolapse
this bovine health condition has become an increasingly important problem in cattle over the last 20 years due to more intense management, diet subclinical laminitis, and genetics lameness
this lameness causing factor is due to dairy cows spending more time on concrete, dairy cows may spend hours daily waiting to be milked more intense management
this lameness causing factor is due to not enough high quality fiber/roughage or to much grain being given diet subclinical laminitis
this lameness causing factor is due to the fact that cows are much larger than they were 20 yrs ago due to production or daily weight gain but their feet are the same size genetics
this type of cattle tend to have fewer leg problems range or pastured
lameness in cattle is mostly in the foot, what percentage of all bovine lameness is in the foot 90%
of the 90% of lameness in cattle which foot is it most commonly found in hind foot
hind foot lameness in cattle is mostly found in what portion of the foot lateral claw
how many major categories of bovine foot disease are there 2
what are the two major categories of bovine foot disease infectious foot disease, non-infectious foot disease
living on food of all kinds, upon both animal and vegetable food omnivore
having only one single stomach monogastric
left over human food that is fed to pigs slop
management technique of removing piglets from the sow at less than 18 days of age segregated early weaning (SEW)
typically few nutritional diseases are seen in high production swine farms because they are typically fed what kind of diet pelleted feeds
what do pelleted feeds for swine contain ground grains and protein concentrates
swine life stages are divided into how many categories 4
this swine neonate life stage is birth-3/4 weeks of age, requires colostrum, iron supplements at 1-3 days old to prevent anemia, and occasionally creep feed is utilized at 1 week of age suckling
this swine neonate life stage traditionally starts at 3-4 weeks of age, require feed that is high in protein starter
this swine life stage is 40-250 lbs, requires a protein source of soybean meal, meat & bone meal, or synthetic amino acids, require split sex feeding bc gilts have higher protein requirements grower/finisher
this swine life stage is the 40-110 lb weight range grower
this swine life stage is the 110-250 lb weight range finisher
this swine life stage requires weight gain, limiting feeding and will last 112-115 days breeding/gestation
this swine life stage requires weight loss, free choice of feeding, begins after paturition breeding/lactation
why should feed be limited during gestation of the sow bc she will gain weight with each subsequent pregnancy
this deficiencie can be seen in parts of the country where soil is deficient in selenium Vitamine E/selenium
what is the difference in nutritional requirements for gilts and barrows ~66 lbs
if iron is given as an injection to neonatal swine what should be given immediately prior to prevent iron toxicity vitamin E
to avoid giving vitamin E prior to an iron injection how else can iron supplements be given to neonatal piggies orally
what is colostrum so important for neonatal piggies antibodies don't cross placenta
deficiencies of what can cause skeletal muscle pallor (aka white muscle disease) or hemorrhages in the heart (mulberry heart disease) vitamin E/selenium
policies and measures taken to protect the herd from infectious organisms biosecurity
absence of milk production agalactiae
before death antemortem
this swine gastroenterology health condition is a bacterial disease caused by toxins produced by brachyspira hyodysenteriae swine dysentery
this swine gastroenterology health condition can cause sudden death, is transmitted by post recovery shedders and rodents, may require depopulation/repopulation swine dysentery
this swine gastroenterology health condition is a virus that infects cells of the small intestines causing villus atrophy resulting in GI signs, can cause agalactiae in sows and neonatal death transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
this swine gastroenterology health condition is transmitted by fomites and vectors (starlings) using a all in/all out management of farrowing and nursery facilities may help to prevent it transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
this swine gastroenterology health condition is treated in neonates by cross suckling neonates to sows with immunity, sows may also be intentionally infected 2 weeks prior to farrowing in order to provide immunity to the neonates transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
this swine gastroenterology health condition is caused by Helicobacter spp. and ascarids, stress and feeding practices also play a role gastric ulcers
this swine gastroenterology health conditionis seen as a single animal condition that may present as acute or chronic disease gastric ulcers
the acute form of this swine gastroenterology health condition occurs suddenly and will be seen with melena, weight loss, anemia, and dark hard pelleted feces gastric ulcers
with the chronic form of this swine gastroenterology health condition occurs gradually or reoccurs often and will be seen with Melena, weight loss, anemia, and dark hard pelleted feces gastric ulcers
this swine gastroenterology health condition is difficult to diagnose antemortem, but improved management practices can help to prevent this condition gastric ulcers
to prevent this swine gastroenterology health condition avoid finely ground feed, pelleted feed, low protein feed, Vit E/Selenium deficiency, rancid fats, excess copper gastric ulcers
paturition in swine farrowing
shriveling of a dead, retained fetus mummification
enzymatic digestion of cells by enzymes present within them autolyse
tank used to contain waste from cleaning (water, feces, etc) slurry pit
at what time does the pre-paturition period become detectable based on clinical signs in the swine within 6 hours
what is the average amount of time between the birth of each piglet 15-16 minutes
this is uncommon with farrowing dystocia
this swine theriogenology condition is when viruses cross the placenta at different times within the litter resulting in different presentation of neonates at parturition porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS)
how many types of presentation of neonates at parturition are there with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome 4
what are the 4 types of neonatal presentation with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome stillborn, mummified, weak but alive, or partially autolysed
if a neonate survives the first few days it will typically be unthrifty and may develop pneumonia with this swine theriogenology condition porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome
this swine theriogenology condition is transmitted through multiple avenues including direct contact, fomites, and asymptomatic carriers porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrom
with this swine theriogenology condition clinical signs are dependant on when the virus crosses the placenta and infects the fetus swine parvo virus
with this swine theriogenology condition a fetus may be born but will be weak if infected after 70 days of gestation swine parvo virus
treatment for this swine theriogenology condition requires depopulation/repopulation protocols, process of cleaning and disinfecting over a 14 day period alternating with different disinfectants; must clean & disinfect facilities and slurry pit swine parvo virus
labored, jerky breathing thumps
inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes rhinitis
recognition of a disease, but treatment is not warranted benign neglect
disease of animals which is indigenous to a certain locality enzootic
connective tissue lining the thoracic cavity and the organs within it pleura
very acute peracute
this swine respiratory condition is caused by swine influenza A virus swine influenza
this swine respiratory condition is zoonotic and causes typical respiraotry symptoms and thumps swine influenza
treatment for this swine respiratory condition is supportive care and antibiotics to prevent secondary infections swine influenza
a vaccine for this swine respiratory condition is available but it has short duration of immunity and no cross protection against different strains swine influenza
this swine respiratory condition is caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida atrophic rhinitis
clinical signs of this swine respiratory condition are epistaxis and sneezing in the mild form, but severe disease can cause shortening/distortion of the snout atrophic rhinitis
diagnosis of this swine respiratory condition is based on clinical signs atrophic rhinitis
culture and sensitivity may be done if P. multocida is suspected to be the cause of this swine respiratory condition atropic rhinitis
antibiotics can be given to treat or prevent this swine respiratory condition if P. multocida infection is suspected, but mild disease may be treated with benign neglect atropic rhinitis
a vaccine is available for this swine respiratory condition atrophic rhinitis
this swine respiratory condition is caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Pastuerella multocida (secondary invader) enzootic pneumonia
this swine respiratory condition is typically seen in starter pigs (3-10 weeks old), causes cough depression, and poor weight gain enzootic pneumonia
diagnosis of this swine respiratory condition is typically made at necropsy enzootic pneumonia
this swine respiratory condition is caused by actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and can result in sudden death pleuropneumonia
this swine respiratory condition can be chronic or acute and stress and poor ventilation will contribute to disease pleuropneumonia
this swine respiratory condition can be treated with antibiotics, but may not be effective and doesn't prevent the shedding of bacteria pleuropneumonia
a vaccine is available for this swine respiratory condition but it doesn't eliminate the carrier state and no cross protection of different strains pleuropneumonia
a toxin which, is not secreted in soluble form by live bacteria, but is a structural component in the bacteria which is released mainly when bacteria are lysed endotoxin
inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord menigitis
bony plate forming the roof of the nasal cavities cribriform plate
innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart endocardium
inflammation of blood vessels vasculitis
inflammation of multiple joints polyarthritis
special staining of histopath slides using specially labeled antibodies aginst specific antigens immunohistochemistry
this miscellaneous swine disease is typically caused by coliform bacteria porcine mastitis
with this miscellaneous swine disease endotoxins cause additional tissue damage, will cause agalactiae in all mammary glands, diagnosis is made on no clinical signs porcine mastitis
this miscellaneous swine disease can be caused by the sow lying in sternal recumbency instead of lateral recumbency or mammary changes porcine mastitis
treatment of this miscellaneous swine disease is aimed at treating infection, decreasing inflammation, and stimulating milk production porcine mastitis
prevention of this miscellaneous swine disease is aimed at improving hydiene of farrowing crate and decreasing stress on the sow porcine mastitis
this miscellaneous swine disease is caused by swine herpevirus I pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease)
this miscellaneous swine disease results in neural damage and the virus can infect pigs, ruminants, dogs, and cats pseudorabies
in pigs this miscellaneous swine disease may be asymptomatic in adults and high mortality rate in piglets pseudorabies
in ruminants this miscellaneous swine disease causes intense puritis followed by neurological symptoms and eventually death psuedorabies
in dogs and cats this miscellaneous swine disease causes sudden death psuedorabies
diagnosis of this miscellaneous swine disease is made on necropsy and Indiana is currently free of this disease because of an intense eradication program psuedorabies
this miscellaneous swine disease is commonly caused by Strep. suis bacteria and is zoonotic meningitis
with this miscellaneous swine disease bacteria can cross the blood brain barrier via the cribiform plate meningitis
clinical signs of this miscellaneous swine disease include neurological symptoms and diarrhea meningitis
diagnosis of this miscellaneous swine disease is made by clinical signs, bacterial culture, or immunohistochemistry meningitis
treatment of this miscellaneous swine disease is with antibiotics and prevention is by improved management and hygiene meningitis
this miscellaneous swine disease is caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacteria and is zoonotic Erysipelas
this miscellaneous swine disease causes vasculitis, polyarthritis, and can result in sudden death, but also can see classic diamon shaped hyperemic plaques or arthritis erysipelas
diagnosis of this miscellaneous swine disease is based on clinical signs or histopath from necropsy erysipelas
transmission of this miscellaneous swine disease is by direct contact, oronasal secretions, and fecal/oral route from environmental contamination erysipelas
the acute form of this miscellaneous swine disease can be treated with penicillin erysipelas
the chronic form of this miscellaneous swine disease does not respond well to treatment erysipelas
a vaccine is available for this miscellaneous swine disease, but the bacteria is resistant to many disinfectants therefore biosecurity is extremely important erysipelas
what percentage of emerging disease are zoonotic 75%
an individual or object from which an infection is actual acquired sources
animate or inanimate object that serves as a long term habitat and source for an infectious agent reservoir
humans, animals, and arthropods are what type of reservoir living
air, soil, dust, food, milk, water, and fomites are what type of reservoir nonliving
these types of diseases are severe diseases that develop within a very short time, are often fatal, and some causes of diarrhea in foals peracute disease
these diseases develop rapidly but last only a short time acute disease
these diseases severities and durations somewhere between acute and chronic disease such as some forms of anthrax subacute disease
these types of diseases develop slowly and are continual or recurrent, latent diseases, the pathogen remains inactive for long periods of time before becoming active such as the herpes virus chronic disease
Created by: chop