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equine clinical pro

equine clinical procedures

QuestionAnswer
DIAGNOSTIC SAMPLING OBTAINING SAMPLES OF BODY FLUIDS OR TISSUES FOR PURPOSES OF ANALYSIS
VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLING COLLECT FROM ARTERIES OR VEINS
VEINS ARE EASIER TO ACCESS AND LESS PRONE TO HEMATOMAS
VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLING LOCATIONS JUGULAR, CEPHALIC, LATERAL THORACIC, SAPHENOUS, COCCYGEAL,
PT NEEDS TO BE SEDATED TO OBTAIN BLOOD FROM ARTERIES IN THE FACE
TO COLLECT A VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLE YOU MAY USE NEEDLE AND SYRINGE, OR VACUTAINER
BLOOD GAS SAMPLING IS USED TO ASSESS PT WITH RESPIRATORY DZ AND MONITOR PTS UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA
ARTERIAL BLOOD IS NEEDED TO CHECK BLOOD GAS SAMPLE
NO CLOTS AND NO ATMOSPHERIC AIR BLOOD GAS SAMPLE
BLOOD GAS SAMPLES PLACE ON ICE AND ANALYZE ASAP
URINE COLLECTION- CYSTO IS NOT DONE ON LA
URINE COLLECTION HAVE TO CATCH A VOIDED SAMPLE OR CATHETERIZE
GIVE DIURETICS TO SPEED UP URINATION WILL CHANGE DRUG SG
URINE COLLECTION IN RACE HORSES GO ON COMMAND
CATHETERIZATION MALES NEED TO TRANQUILIZE TO RELAX AND EXTEND PENIS
PERSONNEL NEED TO STAND CRANIALLY SO THEY ARE NOT KICKED DURING MALE CATHETERIZATION
NEED TO CLEAN PENIS AT LEAST 3 TIMES WITH SOAP AND WATER AND THEN PASS CATHETER
FEMALE URINE COLLECTION- CATHETERIZATION TAIL IS TIED OR HELD TO THE SIDE
PERINEUM IS CLEANED AT LEAST 3 TIMES WITH SOAP AND WATER. THEN PLACE CATHTER
CATHETERIZATION-IRRITATION CAN CAUSE FREQUENT URINATION FOR 1-2 DAY
FECAL COLLECTION IS USED FOR PARASITIC EVALUATION OR MICROBIAL CULTURE
FECAL COLLECTION PICK UP OFF GROUND
USED GLOVED HAND TO REMOVE SOME FROM RECTUM FECAL COLLECTION
SAME AMT NEEDED FOR LA AND SA ANALYSIS FECAL COLLECTION
ABDOMINAL DZ, GI OR NON GI ORIGIN AND WT LOSS ABDOMINOCENTESIS- ABD TAP
SAME PROCEDURE AS IN SA ABDOMINOCENTESIS
ARTHROCENTESIS JOINT TAP
AID IN DZ OF VARIOUS JOINT DZS AND TENDON SHEATH/BRUSAL DZ ARTHROCENTESIS
ALSO TO MEDICATE JOINTS ARTHROCENTESIS
LOCAL ANESTHESIA IS USUALLY NEEDED, ESP FOR FOALS, DEEP SYNOVIAL STRUCTURES OR PTS THAT RESIST THE PROCEDURE ARTHROCENTESIS
RESTRAINT IS NECESSARY FOR ARTHROCENTESIS
ARTHROCENTESIS GENERAL ANESTHESIA USUALLY IS NOT NEEDED
NEED 1ML OF FLUID FOR ARTHROCENTESIS
BANDAGE FOR 24 HOURS ARTHROCENTESIS
FROM SUBARACHNOID SPACE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID COLLECTION
PRODUCED BY EPENDYMAL CELLS IN VENTRICLES OF BRAIN AND FLOWS TO SUBARACHNOID SPACE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID COLLECTION
DX BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD DZ CEREBROSPINAL FLUID COLLECTION
ATLANTOOCCIPITAL SPACE COLLECTION GENERAL ANESTHESIA IS NEEDED
JUST CAUDAL TO POLL ON DORSAL MIDLINE, LEVEL TO WINGS OF ATLAS ATLANTOOCCIPITAL SPACE COLLECTION
LUMBOSACRAL SPACE COLLECTION SEDATED, STANDING PTS,
TECHNICALLY MORE DIFFICULT AND VERY PAINFUL TO PT LUMBOSACRAL SPACE COLLECTION
DORSAL MIDLINE AT WINGS OF ILEUM, PLACE IN STOCKS LUMBOSACRAL SPACE COLLECTION
THORACOCENTESIS CHEST TAP
SAMPLE OF PLEURAL FLUID THORACOCENTESIS
DX DZ OF PLEURAL CAVITY, OF LUNGS, SOME CARDIAC DZ, AND SOME NEOPLASIA THORACOCENTESIS
DONT WANT TO CAUSE IATROGENIC PNEUMOTHORAX- USE 3 WAY STOP COCK THORACOCENTESIS
DX OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT DZ TRANSTRACHEAL ASPIRATION/ WASH
ENDOSCOPIC PLACE TWITCH
GOES IN NOSTRIL, DOWN TRACHEA ENDOSCOPIC
ALLOWS FOR VISUAL EXAM OF URT BUT CAN BRING IN CONTAMINANTS ENDOSCOPIC
THRU SKIN INTO TRACHEA, JUST LIKE SA PROCEDURE PERCUTANEOUS
HEAD AND NECK MUST BE STILL PERCUTANEOUS
COUGH REFLEX IS DESIRABLE WITH THIS PROCEDURE PERCUTANEOUS
LIGHT PRESSURE WRAP FOR 24 HOURS PERCUTANEOUS
COMPLICATIONS; SQ EMPHYSEMA AND INFECTION PERCUTANEOUS
BAL BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE
LOWER AIRWAY FLUID COLLECTION BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE
SIMILAR TO TRANSTRACHEAL WASH BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE
USE ENDOSCOPE, COUGHING IS NOT DESIRABLE BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE
SAMPLES ARE THOUGHT TO BE MORE ACCURATE BRONCHOALVEOLAR
MEDICATION TECHNIQUES-ORAL FEED ADDITIVES
ADD TO HORSES DRY FEED- POWDERS OR LIQUIDS ORAL MEDICATION TECHNIQUES FEED ADDITIVES
DONT ADD TABLETS TO THEIR FEED- NEED TO CRUSH UP MEDICATION TECHNIQUES-ORAL FEED ADDITIVES
PLACE IN MOLASSES, SYRUP, APPLESAUCE, PUDDING, AND PEANUT BUTTER FEED ADDITIVES- ORAL MEDICATION TECHNIQUES
ADDING MEDS TO FOOD IS UNRELIABLE ORAL MEDICATION TECHNIQUES
LIQUID OR PASTE MEDICATINS DOSE SYRINGES- ORAL
USE FINGERS TO OPEN HORSES LIPS, THEN INTRODUCE SYRINGE DOSE SYRINGES-ORAL
DIRECT CAUDALLY BETWEEN TEETH AND CHEEK. SQUIRT IN, LIFT HEAD, JIGGLE NECK TO INDUCE SWALLOWING MEDICATION TECHNIQUES- ORAL DOSE SYRINGES
BALLING GUN- LG TABLET- NOT ADVISED IN HORSES MEDICATION- DOSE SYRINGES
NASOGASTRIC INTUBATION NASTRIL TO PHARYNX TO ESOPHAGUS STOMACH
ADVANTAGE: RELIABLE DELIVERY OF MEDS, ALSO A DX TOOL, CAN BE LEFT IN PLACE FOR 24-48 HRS NASOGASTRIC INTUBATION
DISADVANTAGE; TRAUMA TO HORSES TURBINATES, LARYNX, AND PHARYNX WHICH CAN RESULT IN NOSEBLEEDS, ABSCESSES AND INFLAMMATION AND SWELLING, ACCIDENTALLY TUBE THE LUNGS, HORSES DON'T LIKE THIS PROCEDURE NASOGASTRIC INTUBATION
SOME BELIEVE OPEN END CAUSES BLOAT NASOGASTRIC INTUBATION
REMOVE WITH HAND OVER HAND MOTION AT 12 INCH INTERVALS, CAP OR CRIMP TUBE TO PREVENT CONTENTS FROM BEING ASPIRATED WHEN REMOVED NASOGASTRIC INTUBATION
ONCE WAS A POPULAR ROUTE, RARELY USED NOW, USED TO STIMULATE BOWEL MOVEMENTS, SAME AS SA BUT A LOT MORE FLUID (1-3 GALLONS), COMES OUT RAPIDLY- PROJECTILE,STAND TO THE SIDE ENEMAS
ROUTE DEPENDS ON USDA APPROVED ROUTE OF INJECTIONS, TRACTABILITY OF PT, CAPABILITY OF THE PERSON PERFORMING THE INJECTION, TOXICITIES OF THE MED, AND TEMPERMENT OF PT PARENTERAL MEDICATION TECHNIQUES
MOST COMMON IV, IM, SQ, AND ID MEDICATION TECHNIQUES PARENTERAL
MUST CLEAN AREAS BEFORE GIVING INJECTIONS MEDICATION TECHNIQUES- PARENTERAL
ROTATE INJECTION SITES WITH LARGE VOLUMES TO BE GIVEN OVER SEVERAL DAYS MEDICATION TECHNIQUES- PARENTERAL
18-22 GAUGE NEEDLES THAT RANGE FROM 1-1.5 IN INTRAMUSCULAR
BLEEDING FORM INJECTION SITE IS COMMON INTRAMUSCULAR
INJECTION ABSCESS IS A POTENTIAL COMPLICATION INTRAMUSCULAR
MUST MAKE SURE NOT IN A VEIN- LOTS OF LA DRUGS ARE TOXIC THAT WAY INTRAMUSCULAR
LATERAL CERVICAL OR BRACHIOCEPHALICUS OR SERRATUS VENTRALIS MUSCLE, EASY TO ACCESS, DONT DO TO FOALS, MAY BE TOO PAINFUL AND THEN THEY WILL NOT WANT TO NURSE, TRIANGLE AREA ON NECK INTTRAMUSCULAR
VERY BACK OF LEG, INSERT NEEDLE THEN ATTACH SYRINGE SEMITENDINOSUS MUSCLE (INTRAMUSCULAR)
PECTORAL MUSCLE SMALL INJECTIONS
USED WHEN ALL OTHER SITES ARE EXHAUSTED, USE SHOULD BE AVOIDED TRICEPS MUSCLE
RUMP AREA, SKIN IS THICK AND TIGHT-HARDER TO PENETRATE WITH NEEDLE. SLAP AREA A FEW TIMES THEN INSERT NEEDLE THEN ATTACH SYRINGE WHEN HORSE IS DONE WIGGLING AROUND GLUTEAL MUSCLES
MOST IV MEDS ARE GIVEN IN JUGULAR
12-22 GAUGE NEEDLES IV INJECTION
HIGHLY RECOMMENDED TO PLACE NEEDLE FIRS, CONFIRM ENTRANCE OF NEEDLE, STABILIZE HUB, THEN ATTACH SYRINGE AND INJECT IV INJECTION
FIRMLY PINCH SKIN = NUMBING EFFECT
RIGHT BELOW SKIN IN THE JUGULAR GROOVE JUGULAR VEIN
CAREFUL BC CAROTID ARTERY AND VAGOSYMPATHETIC NERVE TRUNK LIE DEEP TO THE JUGULAR BUT RUN PARRALEL JUGULAR VEIN IV INJECTION
PROBELEM WITH CAROTID SITCK; LARGE HEMATOMA, DRUG WILL TRAVEL DIRECTLY TO BRAIN THUS RESULTING IN SEIZURES, COLLAPSE, HAVE DEMENTIA,AND EVEN DIE JUGULAR VEIN- IV INJECTION
USE CRANIAL PORTION OF JUGULAR; PLACE NEEDLE FIRST, IF JUST NORMAL FLOW OF BLOOD= JUGULAR; IF PULSING AND SQUIRTING MULTIPLE FEET= ARTERY JUGULAR VEIN- IV INJECTION
LATERAL THORACIC VEIN, CEPHALIC VEIN, SAPHENOUS VEIN, COCCYGEAL VEIN ONLY USED WHEN JUGULAR CANNONT
THORACIC VEIN RUNS VENTROLATERAL ACCROSS CHEST
CEPHALIC/SAPHENOUS VEIN DIFFICULT IN STANDING HORSES, USUALLY NEED SEDATION
COCCYGEAL VEIN VENTRAL MIDLINE OF TAIL, ADJACENT TO COCCYGEAL ARTERY, BEST ACCESS IS AT BASE OF TAIL, ENTIRE TAIL MAY SLOUGH IF OCCLUSION OCCURS
RARELY FOR MEDS, DX TESTING IN LA FOR TUBERVULOSIS (CATTLE) AND SKIN ALLERGY TESTIN ID INJECTIONS
EASY TO PREFORM IN FLESHY AREAS, MOST COMMON AREA; LATERAL ASPECT OF NECK SQ INJECTION
LONG IVC ARE 5-6 IN
SHORT IVC ARE 2-3 IN
COMMON DIAMETER OF IV CATHETER ARE 10,12,14 GAUGES
WANT TO USE SMALLEST, SHORTEST IVC IN HORSES TO GET JOB DONE TO PREVENT THROMBOPHLEBITIS
USE JUGULAR VEIN THEN LATERAL THORACIC FOR IV CATH
POLYPROPYLENE CATHS HAVE LARGEST DIAMETER BUT MOST REACTIVE 24 HOUR USE ONLY
TEFLON AND POLYURETHANE CAN BE USED FOR 7 DAYS
SILICON HAVE THE SMALLEST DIAMETER AND CAN BE USED FOR 4 WEEKS
IV CATH SUTURE HUB TO SKIN, BUTTERFLY SUTURE TO SKIN, SUPERGLUE TO SKIN
ANTIBIOTIC OINTMENT ON SKIN ALL AROUND IVC AND THEN FURTHER DRESSING DEPENDS ON PT BASIS
SHOD SHOE REMOVAL
SHOES ARE USED TO SUPPORT AND PROTECT HOOVES
EVERY 5-8 WEEKS SHOES MUST BE REMOVED, HOOVES TRIMMED, AND NEW ONE PLACE BACK ON
A PERSON WHO SHOES HORSES FOR A LIVING FARRIERS
CONSULT OWNER BEFORE REMOVING A SHOE BC YOU ARE CREATING THEM ANOTHER BILL
SAVE SHOES BC THEY CAN BE RESET
SHOES ARE REMOVED BC OF OVERGROWN HOOVES, INJURED HOOVES, LAMENESS EXAM, HOOF RADIOGRAPHS, PREP FOR SX, RECOVERY FROM GEN AN, LOOSE OR TWISTED SHOES
COUNT # OF NAIL HEADS; FILE OFF WITH METAL FILE OR HOOF RASP; STRAIGHTEN AND HAMMER BACK OUT CLINCH REMOVAL
PULL NAIL OUT BY HEAD; CREASE NAIL PULLERS; USUALLY PULLIN OFF SHOE WILL PULL OUT NAILS NAIL REMOVAL
SHOES PULLERS OR PULL OFFS
LOOK SIMILAR TO HOOF TRIMMERS (NIPPERS); ELEVATE BRANCHES (HEELS) OR THE SHOE AND PROCEED TOWARDS TOES SHOE REMOVAL
EXTERNAL COAPTATION PADDING IS ESSENTIAL TO BANDAGING HORSES; BONY PROTRUSIONS ARE PRONE TO ULCERATION
PROVIDE ADDITIONAL SUPPORT OR PROTECTION DURING ACTIVITY; WRAP DEPENDS ON JOB/SPORT EXERCISE BANDAGES/WRAPS
WHEN TRANSPORTED THEY ARE SUBJECT TO QUICK STOPS AND STARTS; WRAP CARPUS/TARSUS TO HOOF INCLUDING CORONARY BAND SHIPPING BANDAGES
GENERALLY USED TO COVER OPEN SX OR TRAUMATIC HOOF WOUNDS; PREVENTS CHIPPING OF HOOVES, NEEDS TO BE DONE IN A VERY CLEAN AREA, WATERPROOF AND DURABLE, DUCT TAPE HOOF BANDAGES
MOST COMMON USED IN MEDICAL PROCEDURES; CAN BE USED FOR SUPPORT; MAIN PURPOSE IS TO LIMIT SWELLNG; APPLY TYPICAL WOUND DRESSING FIRST THEN BANDAGE; NEED DISTAL BANDAGE BEFORE APPLYING FULL LIMB BANDAGE DISTAL LIMB BANDAGES
FOR IMMOBILIZATION; TEMP OR LONG TERM; ROBERT JONES; USE DUCT TAPE AS SECURING LAYER; MADE OF STUTS, WOODEN POLES, BROOM STICK, METAL RODS, POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PIPE, CASTING TAPE. FULL WRAP PLACED FIRST THEN SPLINT; DO HAVE COMMERCIALLY MADE METAL SPLINTS LIMB SPLINTS
BETTER THAN SPLINTS; DONE UNDER GEN ANESTHESIA, HORSES IN CASTS SHOULD NOT BE MADE TO MOVE UNLESS NECESSARY ; CAN GET SORES FROM CASTS; TAKE RADS AFTER CAST IS REMOVED LIMB CASTS
Created by: JODY84