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vet 2505

various crap

when inseminating a cow you must use sterile OB sleeves (true/false) false
retained placentas are rarely associated with complications in the mare (true/false) false
how often does a normal foal nurse up to 7 times an hour
why is it better for a bull to have a slightly higher than normal BCS before breeding tend to lose weight during breeding season
which species can you not use an electroejaculator to collect semen equine
when should a bull breeding soundness exam be performed 30-60 days prior to breeding season
when evaluating semen what percentage must motility be greater than to pass 30%
when evaluating semen what percentage must morphology be greater than to pass 70%
normal bovine gestation length 283 days
what species as an infant has the highest risk of becoming hypothermic pigs
during stage 3 of paturition what happens placenta is expelled
bovine have what type of placental attachment codeyldonary
foals are very susceptible to what neonatal bacterial septicemia
what is the average length of gestation in a mare ~330 days
if a client tells you her mare is experiencing "red bag" you as an RVT know that means the mare has premature separation of the placenta
in terms of paturition P,P, and P stand for presentation, posture, and position
the most commonly used drug for local anesthesia is lidocaine
what local anesthesia block would you most likely do to prepare a cow for a paralumbar celiotomy inverted "L"
doing an epidural as a local anesthetic block works on what areas of the body tail and perinal area
the substance that is used in semen tanks to keep them cold is liquid nitrogen
what is the best place to obtain a pulse from an equine patient listen to the heart, or arteries
what is a hog snare used for catching/restrain of pigs
a normal fear response of a horse is to kick (true/false) true
regurgitation is common in ruminants (true/false) true
a filly is considered a female horse between the ages of 1-2 years old (true/false) false
when an animal is restrained in a head catch, there is no danger of being struck by the animals head (true/false) false
what are the 4 quadrants of the bovine stomach rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum
what type of wood can not be found in wood shavings for equine bedding walnut
what is the normal heart rate of an adult bovine 40-80
the most common route for collecting a venous blood sample in sheep is jugular vein
the proper location for an IM injection in a bovine lateral cervical
the easiest way to move a pig is with a hurdle
what will make a pig stand still snare
what is the normal temperature for swine 101.0-103.5
what method of blood collection is best used for small amounts of blood in swine lateral aurical vein
where did camelids originally come from south america
what type of ovulators are camelids induced
how many cria will camelids usually have per pregnancy one
what is the most common defense mechanism camelids use spit
what is a neonatal camelid called cria
the pulse rate for camelids ranges between 60-80
if administering Xylazine to cattle, you should use how much of the dose used for equine 1/10
what type of instruments are used for open castrations newberry emasculator, whites emasculator, serra emasculator
when castrating using elastrator bands, it is most important to do what make sure both testicles are in the scrotum
what are examples of an official form of ID for a pig ear tag, tattoo, ear notch
the dehorning tool you should use for older animals with up to 4 inches of horn growth is barnes dehorner
what parasite is commonly found in sheep and goats haemonchus contortus
what anthelmintics can be given to equine patients ivermectin, fenbenzadole, praziquantel
the FAMACHA system can be used to help do what determine an animals level of anemia, determine which animals need to be treated with anthelmintics
what is thrush an infection of the frog
what causes thrush a bacterial infection caused by fusobacterium necrophorum
what do you call a female horse that has had an offspring mare
what do you call a young female horse filly
what do you call a mare that is used strictly for breeding brood mare
what do you call a male horse that is a stud stallion
what do you call a young male horse colt
what do you call a castrated male horse gelding
what do you call a young male or female horse foal
what do you call the breed of horse that is under 14.2 hands pony
what do you call the breed of horse that is above 14.2 hands and 800-1200 lbs light horse
what do you call the breed of horse that is above 14 hands and 1100-2500 lbs draft horse
when speaking of horse height a "hand" is equal to how many inches 4
the foal life stage of a horse is how long birth - 4 months
the weanling life stage of a horse is how long 4-12 months
the yearling life stage of a horse is how long 1-2 years old
plant materials classified as legumes or grasses, found in pastures or in hay forages
a plant in the family fabacea, this inclues alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, and peanuts legumes
calcification of injured, degenerating, or dead tissue dystrophic mineralization
starter feed given to foals while they are still nursing creep feed
inflammation and destruction of muscle cells rhabdmyolysis
inflammation of the sensitive lamaina of the hoof laminitis
abdominal pain in a horse is commonly called colic
seizures during lactation resulting from hypocalcemia eclampsia
what is osteoarthritis of the hock joint in a horse bone spavin
what is the term used for disease associated with compression of the spinal cord in the horse wobblers
what bacteria causes tetanus clostridium tetani
the distal phalanx which is completeley enclosed within the hoof coffin bone
sesmoid bone that lies behind the coffin bone and under the pastern bone, also the middle phalanx navicular bone
triangular structure that extends forwards across about two thirds of the sole frog
fluid filled sac located between a bone and a tendon bursa
lack of exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen asphyxiation
weakness of all four limbs tetraparesis
surgical transection of a nerve neurectomy
vascular tissue that connects or holds the hoof wall to the leg in a horse sensitive laminia
hoof wall insensitive laminia
fusion of a joint ankylosis
this is the neurotransmitter that inhibits nerve conduction GABA
exercising a horse in a circle with a long lead rope lunging
diagnostic technique used for localizing pain in horses nerve block
what is the rudimentary 1st upper premolar in the horse wolf tooth
filing down the teeth in the horse floating
dropping food while eating quidding
severe abdominal pain in the horse colic
abnormal position of gastrointestinal organs resulting in blockage of that organ entrapement
increased blood flow to the sclera causing redness injected sclera
dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast probiotics
chewing on non-food items pica
abnormal behavior in which horse grasps onto something with their teeth and then sucks in the air cribbing
mucous exudates catarrhal
spread of Strep. equi and subsequent abscess formation in the tissues beyond the head bastard strangles
chemical added to penicillin to increase its duration of activity procaine
ration of sick to well animals in a population morbidity
lack of appetite inappetence
diagnostic technique involving flusing small amounts of fluid down the trachea and then immediately suctioning it back out transtracheal wash (TTW)
plasma obtained from an animal that has recently been vaccinated against a specific pathogen hyperimmune plasma
purulent discharge in a natural body cavity empyema
inflammation of a lymph node lymphadenitis
difficulty swallowing dysphagia
visible "line: delineating hypertrophy of the external abdominal oblique muscles heave line
diagnostic technique involving passing of endoscope down into the bronchi, flushing fluid in and then immediately suctioning it back out brachoalveolar lavage (BAL)
loss of myelin from the nerve sheath demyelination
paralysis of one side of the body hemiplegia
this horse breed originated in the U.S. from horses brought from Spain, they are white all over hips and loins with dark spots, or sometimes they are white all over Appaloosa
what horse breed originated from horses brought to the new world by spanish, originally came from north africa, used for show and pleasure, may be any color american mustang
what horse breed originated from arabia, they are small 850-1100 lbs, used for pleasure, showing, and as a stock horse, colors are bay, gray, chestnut, and a few are black arabian
what horse breed originated from belgium, draft horse, 1900-2200 lbs, colors are bay, chestnut, and roan belgian
what horse breed originated in US from spanish stock, is a color breed, used for pleasure or as stock horse, colors are buckskin, dun and red dun buckskin
what horse breed originated from scotland, used as a draft horse, 1700-1900 lbs, colors are bay and brown with white markings clydesdale
what horse breed originated in england, 800-1200 lbs, used as a harness or carriage horse, colors are bay, brown, or chestnut with white markings hackney
what horse breed originated in france, draft horse, 1900-200 lbs, colors are bay, brown, chestnut and roan percheron
what horse breed originated in the new england states, used for pleasure and as stock horse, foundation breed for many breeds in the US, colors are bay, black, brown and chestnut morgan
what horse breed originated in the US from spanish stock, used for pleasure, stock, harness, and parade, colors are gold, color does not breed true in crosses, mane and tail are lighter in color palomino
what horse breed originated in the US, preferred color is 1/2 white and 1/2 colored, legs are usually white, 4 types are stock, pleasure, hunter, and saddle pinto
what horse breed originated in the US, has color patterns of the appaloosa, used for pleasure and show, from 11-13 hands high pony of the americas
what horse breed originated in the US, first used as a race horse, "quarter miler" comes in most colors, used for pleasure, racing, show, and stock quarter horse
what horse breed originated in shetland islands, may be any color, has 2 sizes, 10-3 hands or 11-1 hands, used for pleasure riding by children, showing, or racing shetland pony
what horse breed originated in the US, colors are bay, black, brown, and chestnut, developed as a harness racing horse standardbred
what horse breed originated in the US, colors include sorrel, chestnut, black, bay, brown, white and golden, noted for its running walk gait, used for pleasure riding and showing tennessee walking horse
what horse breed originated in england, development as a race horse began in the 17th century, colors include bay, brown, and chestnut, used as a race horse thoroughbred
what is the rear feet kicking range of a horse 6-8 feet
what is the normal fecal output of a horse 8-10 times daily
what type of fermenteres are horses hindgut
what is the primary site of fermentation in the horse cecum
what is the secondary site of fermentation in the horse large intestines
where do horses get their protein from plants
where do horses get their carbohydrates from grains, forages, supplements
what is not a big part of a horses diet in nature fats
how many grains of NaCl are lost with every pound of perspiration in the horse 30
an excess and deficiency of this micromineral can cause serious fetal abnormalities in the foal, and deficiency causes a goiter or thyroid hypertrophy in the horse iodine
this micromineral is important in the horse for cartilage, bone, and pigment formation copper
this micromineral is important in the horse for the formation of hemoglobin iron
this mircromineral in excess causes bone problems and in deficiency causes hair loss and poor wound healing in the horse zinc
a deficiency of these macrominerals results in weak, abnormal bones, excess can result in dystrophic mineralization in the horse calcium and phosphorous
what is the most important nutrient for a foal colostrum
a foal must have colostrum prior to what age 24 hours
at peak lactation mares need what percentage more energy than base needs 75%
during late pregnancy mares need about how much more energy 20%-30%
mares have their highest energy requirements during what time lactation
this nutritional disease is when the foal does not get colostrum failure of passive transfer (FPT)
this nutritional disease is associated with consumption of excess grain, lush pasture, or water, affects the feet and ungulates, best known in horses and cattle, symptoms include lameness and increased temp in the hooves laminitis
this nutritional disease is often associated with inadequate water or over eating, causes very bad abdominal pain colic
this syndrome is caused by the pulley system of the navicular bone and deep digital flexor tendon not working properly, caused by nutrition, trauma, or breed predilection (quarter horse, thoroughbred, warmbloods) navicular syndrome
treatment of this syndrome involves therapeutic shoes, trimming hoof, phenylbutazone, rest vs limited exercise, surgery- palmar digital neurectomy navicular syndrome
navicular syndrome can be prevented or slowed down by what proper hoof trimming
this is caused by overgrazing on lush pasture, grain overload, contralateral limb lameness, septic metritis, enteritis, black walnuts, or high levels of corticosteroids laminitis
the clinical signs of this in its acute form are bounding pulses in palmar digital arteries, heat in foot/feet, "sawhorse" stance, pain over toe with hoof testers laminitis
clinical signs of this in the chronic form are abnormal hoof confirmation laminitis
another term for laminitis is founder
treatment of this involves treating the underlying cause, use of antinflammatories, or therapeutic shoes that have frog support bandaging, and deep bedding laminitis
prevention of this involves nutritional management, verify placenta is fully passes, monitor blood flow within the hoof laminitis
this is osteoarthritis of the hock joint bone spavin
the most common cause of this is strains/stress associated with performance, on a PE the horse will be lame after flexion test, is diagnosed by nerve blocks and radiographs, treatment is associated with decreasing the inflammation in the joint bone spavin
the clinical signs of this are muscles are stiff and have spasms, increased sensitivity to noise and touch, progresses to rigid paralysis, death within 10 days of asphyxiation, transmission through wound contamination tetanus
the treatment of this involves muscle relaxation, providing good footing, eliminating infection, neutralizing toxin, maintain hydration and nutrition, establish active antitoxic immunity tetanus
prevention of this involves vaccinations and proper wound hygiene tetanus
this type of dental abnormality in the horse is often referred to as "parrot mouth' brachygnathism
this type of dental abnormality in the horse is often referred to as "monkey, sow, or bulldog mouth" prognathism
this is partial or total obstruction of the esophagus, caused by expansion of pelleted feed and decreased smooth muscle motility due to trauma, inflammation, scar tissue, or neoplasia choke
clinical signs of this include difficult swallowing, excessive salivation, swollen throat, discharge of food from nostrils, neck extension choke
diagnosis of this is by inability to pass an NG tube, esophogeal palpation, no mode of transmission choke
treatment of this includes sedation to relax the esophagus, lavage with water via NG tube, antibiotics, NSAIDs choke
prevention of this involves soaking dry feed, avoiding whole fruits and veggies, and no food for 4 hours post sedation choke
this can cause the development of gastric ulcers in the horse because it reduces the blood flow of the mucosa exercise
this is abdominal pain caused by impaction, grain overload, entrapment, inflammation, or intestinal parasites colic
clinical signs of this include pawing, roling, lying down more than usual, sweating, kicking/looking at the abdomen, tachycardia colic
treatment of this may be medical and include walking, analgesia, fluids, or surgical colic
prevention of this includes increasing forages, increasing pasture time, and regular deworming colic
how long is the estrus cycle of a horse 21 days
this stage of paturition in a horse includes initation of uterine contractions, last 1-6 hours stage 1
this stage of paturition in a horse includes time from rupture of the sac to fetal delivery and is normally only 20 mins stage 2
this stage of paturition in a horse includes delivery of the placenta and should not last longer than 3 hours stage 3
produce on mature ovum per cycle uniparous
produce multiple mature ovum per cycle multiparious
breeding must take place before ovulation will occur induce ovulator
cycle continuously throughout the year polyestrous
cycle continuously at certain times of the year seasonally polyestrous
have two cycles per year one in the spring and one in the fall diestrous
have only one cycle per year monoestrous
this result of a breeding soundness exam is when the bull passed all 3 criteria and should be good for breeding satisfactory
this result of a breeding soundness exam is when the bull did not pass all criteria, but should be reevaluted because the problem may resolve over time deferred
this breeding soundness exam result is when the bull does not pass all criteria and has a non-resolvable problem unsatisfactory
this is the period of follicular development proesterus
this is the period when estrogen level has reached its peak, receptive to the male, ovulation is soon after estrus
this period is when the CL begins to develope metestrus
this period is the active, luteal stage, where the CL has reached max size and max effect diestrus
this period is ovarian inactivity anestrus
how long is the gestational period of a bovine 278 days
how long is the gestational period of a equine 330 days
how long is the gestational period of a ovine/caprine 150 days
how long is the gestational period of a porcine 3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days
how long is the gestational period of a camelid 350 days
what is the most common amount of bovine offspring single
what is the most common amount of equine offspring single
what is the most common amount of ovine/caprine offspring twins most common
what is the most common amount of porcine offspring 8-10
what is the most common amount of camelid offspring single
what type of placenta has nearly the whole surface of the allantochorion forming in the placenta diffuse
which large animals have a diffuse placental type horse and pigs
what type of placenta has multiple areas of attachment, fetal portion is the cotyledon, maternal portion are the carnucles cotyledonary
what large animal has a cotyledonary placental type ruminants
how long can waxing in the equine occur before paturition 12-48 hours typically
how long should stage 1 of paturition last in the equine 30 mins to 4 hours
how long should stage 2 of paturition last in the equine 20-30 mins
how long should stage 3 of paturition last in the equine 30 mins to 3 hours
udder development will occur how long into paturition in the bovine 30-45 days
how long should stage 1 of paturition last in the bovine 2-8 hours
how long should stage 2 of paturition last in the bovine 30 mins to 4 hours
how often should progress occur in the bovine during stage 2 of paturition every hour
how long should stage 3 of paturition last in the bovine 30 mins to 12 hours
how long should stage 1 of paturition last in the ovine/caprine 1-4 hours
how long should stage 2 of paturition last in the ovine/caprine max of 2 hours
how long should stage 3 of paturition last in the ovine/caprine within 8 hours
udder development will occur how long into paturition in the porcine 30 days
a porcine will stream milk how soon before birth 12 hours
how long should stage 1 of paturition in the porcine last 12-24 hours
how long should stage 2 of paturition in the porcine last 1-5 hours
what is the average length of time that should occur between the birth of each piglet 10-20 mins
how long should stage 3 of paturition in the porcine last 1-12 hours
a retained placenta in the porcine could indicate what more piglets
how long should stage 1 of paturition in the camelid last 2-6 hourse
how long should stage 2 of paturition in the camelid last 30-45 mins
how long should stage 3 of paturition in the camelid last within 2 hours
this is caused by blood being shunted away from non-vital organs to vital organs, once blood o2 levels return to normal reperfusion of tissues causes release of free radicals which can damage tissue, caused by hypoxia in foals neonatal maladjustment syndrome
clinical signs of this include loss of dam recognition after 24-48 hours, loss of suckle reflex, aimless wandering, head pressing, lethargy, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, oliguria, lleus, colic, diarrhea neonatal maladjustment syndrome
diagnosis of this includes a PE, history, IgG levels, CBC/Chem, thoracic radiographs, advanced neuro diagnostics neonatal maladjustment syndrome
treatment of this includes anticonvulsants, DMSO, mannitol, o2 supplementation, theophylline, dopamine/dobutamine, furosemine, digoxin, IV fluids, erythromycin, metoclopramide, colostrum, and basic nutrition neonatal maladjustment syndrome
what is another term for neonatal maladjustment syndrome dummy foals
this is defined as metritis or endometritis and is caused by bacteria, contagious equine metritis, or fungus uterine infections
clinical signs of this include infertility, vaginal discharge, vaginitis, or fluid accumulation in the uterus uterine infections
diagnosis of this includes ultrasound, culture and sensitivity, endometrial cytology, endometrial biopsy, and CBC uterine infections
this can be transmitted via breeding, paturition, due to an anatomical defect, or iatrogenic, treatment includes uterine lavage, intrauterine antibiotic therapy, or systemic antibiotics uterine infections
prevention of this includes avoiding multiple breedings, caslicks surgery, sanitation during paturition, asepsis during vaginal exams uterine infections
this is caused by acepromazine, especially in stallions and recently castrated geldings, equine herpes virus 1, trauma, or nerve damage penile paralysis (paraphimosis)
clinical signs of this include a swollen, dried penis, distal end of the penis is cool to the touch, diagnosed by clinical signs and history penile paralysis (paraphimosis)
transmission of this is N/A, treatment is aimed at reducing swelling, improving blood supply, controlling pain, and preventing infections, amputation may be necessary penile paralysis (paraphimosis)
treatment of this may include cold hydrotherapy, abdominal wraps, anti-inflammatories, diuretics, systemic antibiotics, benztropine, or amputation penile paralysis (paraphimosis)
this problem can cause loss of full erection abiility, or loss of ability to ejaculation, prevention includes avoiding acepromazine in stallions and new geldings, vaccine for equine herpes-1 penile paralysis (paraphimosis)
what is the medical term for penile paralysis paraphimosis
abnormal fetal presentation at the time of paturition, breech presentation malpresentation
abnormal position of fetus at time of paturition, foal presented with feet first and then head, but is upside down malposition
contraction of the neck muscles causing the head to be turned to one side with the chin elevated torticollis
congenital defect of the limbs caused by multiple joint contractures and is characterized by muscle weakness and fibrosis arthrogryposis
inflammation of the uterus metritis
inflammation of the inside lining of the uterus endometritis
surgical partial closing of the vulvular folds to prevent uterine infections caslicks surgery
cutting apart of non-viable fetus to enable removal from the uterus fetotomy
penile paralysis with the penis extruded from the prepuce paraphimosis
caused by steptococcus equi, colonization of the submandibular, submaxillary, and retropharyngeal lymph nodes leading to abscess formation, +/- rupturing of the lymph nodes, pneumonia strangles
clinical signs include swollen lymph nodes, fever, cattarhal to mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnea, "bastard strangles" strangles
transmission of this is direct contact by discharge, fomites, shedding of bacteria post recovery strangles
diagnosis of this includes +/- culture & sensitivity, treatment is to lance the abscesses, +/- procaine penicillin G, prevention includes isolation of infected horse, and vaccination strangles
Created by: chop



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