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VET 2505 Pract W2

QuestionAnswer
What is the normal TPR for a cow? T:100-102.5; P-55-80; R:10-30
What is the normal TPR for a horse? T:99-101; P:28-40; R:10-14
What is the normal TPR for a pig? T:100.5-104; P:60-90; R:8-18
What is the normal TPR for a sheep? T:101-104; P:55-115; R:10-30
What is the normal TPR for a goat? T:101-104.5; P:70-120; R:10-30
what are common procedures? things done on routine farm calls
What are the different methods of castration? open, closed, band, surgical
what are the following used for? Newberry emasculator; white's emasculator; serra emasculator; reimer emasculator open castration
what is a burdizzo type emasculatome used for? closed castration
what is an elastrator used for? band castration
how do you perform an open castration? restraint; local anesthesia; clean scrotum; strip testicle of tunic and scrotal tissues; apply emasculator for 45 sec; cut to remove testicle; stretch skin to promote drainage
how to you perform an elastrator band closed castration? restraint; apply band above testicles; check placement
how do you perform a castration using an emasculatome? restrain; place emasculatome on one side of upper scrotum; check placement of the spermatic cord; clamp for 15-20 sec; repeat on other side
When is surgical castration most likely to be used? cryptorchids, and cosmetic purposes
complications with open castration infection and blood loss
complications with closed castrations infection, tetanus, gangrene
complications with surgical castration infection, blood loss, anesthesia/recovery, evisceration
What are some nursing considerations following a castration surgery? keep in clean/ dry area; spray fly repellant around wound; monitor wound for drainage/abnormalities and excessive swelling; watch for colic in equine patients
When is tail-docking normally performed? 3-5 days old
Where do you amputate the tail? below caudal tail folds
How do you perform a burdizzo tail docking? push skin forward; clamp burdizzo at the end of the caudal fold; use a scalpel to cut tail as close as possible to burdizzo; leave burdizzo in place for 1-2 minutes then remove
How do you perform a tail docking using an elastrator band? locate caudal folds; push skin forward; apply band behind folds
What are complications that can come with tail docking? infection; tetanus; rectal prolapse
electrothermal; barnes; scoop; hodge; saw; gigil wire; caustic paste methods of dehorning
It is best to dehorn animals when... they are young, within the first month of life
Why use electrothermal dehorning? good cosmetic results, least stressful, bloodless; young animals up to 12 weeks
How do you perform an electrothermal dehorning? heat iron; administer local anesthesia; hold and rotate hot iron on horn bud for 10-15 sec; remove iron and check for accuracy, there should be a copper ring around horn bud
When use Barnes dehorner? older animals (horn growth up to 4"), not bloodless (cauterize or pull arteries); increased chance for infection
How do you perform a barnes dehorning? restrain; administer local anesthesia; close handles of dehorner and place over horn; press onto head firmly; quickly open handles; control bleeding via cauterization or pull arteries
When use a scoop dehorner? younger calves; not bloodless; increased chance for infection
How do you perform a scoop dehorning? restrain; administer local anesthesia; select correct scoop size; place cutting edge straight down on horn; apply pressure and twist until skin is cut through. With scooping motion cut under and remove horn
Tell me about hormone implants and how you peform them. Often used by beef producers for growth hormones. Technique: restrain; insert implant gun needle SQ into middle 1/3 of back of ear; withdraw needle slightly to make room for hormone pellet; insert pellet and remove needle
Why do you perform routine trimming of feet? maintains length and shape; detect problems early
What is the frequency of routine trimming for equine, caprine/ovine, and bovine/porcine/camelid? equine: 6-8 weeks; caprine/ovine: monthly; bovine/porcine/camelid: as needed
What is thrush? deterioration of the frog resulting in lameness; foul black material in the frog
what causes thrush? anaerobic bacteria found in soil and manure. muddy stalls/pasture; overgrown hooves/lack of hoof care
how do you treat thrush? clean hooves often and keep dry; can spray with apple cider vinegar or a borax mixture
How do you diagnose, what causes, and how do you treat sole bruising? lameness; reddened tissues in the sole; caused by contact with ahrd or rocky surfaces after a trim; normally they heal on their own but progress into an abscess
How do you diagnose and what causes a hoof abscess? Infection of the sensitive hoof tissues; diagnosed by severe lameness; hoof testers; paring. Caused by puncture wounds, severe bruising and laminitis.
How are hoof abscesses treated? open and drain from sole; keep clean and dry; antibiotic ointments
How do you diagnose, what causes, and how do you treat hoof cracks? visual exam; environment, nutrition, weather/season, lack of care; treatment by stabilization
How do you diagnose laminitis? LIFE THREATENING! Diagnosed by increased digital pulses, camped out stance, lameness, heat in hoof, positive response to hoof testers
What causes laminitis? grain overload/food changes; systemic infection; metabolic disorders; and lots of other causes!
How do you treat laminitis? provide hoof support; manage diet; ice packs; confine to small area or stall; pain management; trimming; corrective shoes
What is important to remember about phenylbutazone (bute)? Never give any way other than IV or will rot the flesh away!
How do you diagnose, what causes, and how do you treat hoof rot? diagnosed by lameness/visual exam; caused by F. necrophorum/constant contact with mud/moisture; treated by zinc or copper fulfate; trim foot; keep animal in dry areas
What is a CMT? California mastitis test; a subjective measurement of the somatic cells in a milk sample indicating inflammation.
How do you peform a CMT? Clean teats; discard first bit of milk sample then fill each cup with sample; mix equal amount of reagent to milk; swirl contents gently for 10 seconds and read and record results.
CMT= N Negative. No thinkening, homogenous
CMT= T Trace. Slight thickening. Reaction disappears in 10 seconds
CMT=1 distinct thickening, no gel formation
CMT=2 thickens immediately, begins to gel, levels in the bottom of the cup
CMT=3 gel is formed, surface elevates, with a central peak above the mass
Official ID contains information that indicates official state or federal purpose, OR contains a series of numbers/letters/code that has been assigned to a specific veterinarian, person, location, by a govt agency
Non-official ID a form of ID that is useful for routine tasks; ex: ear tag
Permanent ID ID that is permanently placed on the animal and cannot be easily removed; tattoo
Temporary ID a form of ID, usually for a specific purpose, that is easily removed but must be removed by the proper authority and under approved conditions
what are ear tags? metal or plastic; official or non-official; designed to be permanent but can fall out
tattoo official or non official form of ID; permanent; may identify a procedure as well as a specific animal; usually for ear or lip
ear notches official or non-official ID; permanent; identify specific animal and/or a specific owner
Brand permanent ID; hot or freeze
Registration paper ID; official with tattoo, brant, etc. needed for specific breed or species
electronic or biometric ID microchips, nose prints, retinal scans, DNA, RFID ear tags
Pictures or drawings paper ID; usually equine or bovine (CVI or EIA charts) some registries require this
Leg bands usually poultry or other birds; bovine RFID
sale tags official, temporary, back or mane, stickers, paint-stick
seals band or button, used for trucks and/or containers, temporary, removed only by proper authority under approved conditions
Owner or clinic specific ID non-official; name, address, phone number, cage cards
How do you properly perform an ear tagging? load gun, select correct ear and placement, place ear between tag pieces and apply pressure until tag is secure
how do you properly tattoo? select ear, clean of debris, select placement, load letters/numbers into tattoo pliers, apply ink to ear, quickly squeeze pliers onto ear, remove and rub ink into tattoo
Ear notching universal; identifies pig's litter and placement in the litter. notches placed in pig's ear. right-litter number 5 places, left- pig number 3 places
What is the Board of Animal Health (BOAH)? support economy by protecting animal investments; protect public and animal health-outbreak investigations, disease prevention, regulation of care and handling, inspect facilities, abuse/neglect investigations; inspection programs; disaster relief
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) "Protect and promote food, agriculture, natural resources and related issues." APHIS protects and promotes agricultural health. regulates agricultural related activities
FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Regulates food, supplements, drugs, vaccines, medical devices, electronic products, veterinary products, tobacco products, and cosmetics.
What do the organizations have to do with RVTs? paperwork, drug administration, animal neglect and abuse; outbreak investigation; animal care standards; disaster relief
Calves under ____ age are more susceptible than older cattle. one year
What does the need to worm calves during the summer depend on? degree of contamination of pastures or lots
Worming of cattle at the time they enter the feedlot is cost effective only if..... the load of parasites they are carrying is great enough to reduce the rate of gain.
When do internal parasites have the greatest impact on rate of gain? when cattle are on low energy levels which are typical of receiving or backgrounding rations.
what is the major source of initial exposure of calves the cow herd
what will greatly reduce the subsequent contamination of pastures during the grazing season? deworming prior to the grazing season
when should pregnant cows be dewormed? in the fall
when should mature cows be dewormed? at the end of lactation to avoid discarding milk or at any time with Morantel tartrate because this product does not require discarding milk
why might it be necessary to deworm dairy calves more twice or more during warm weather? because they are confined to small lots and frequently carry heavy loads of worm parasites
available as a stable suspension or granules. effective against roundworms in the gut, larval forms in the tissues, and lungworms; withdrawal time to slaughter is 8 days Fenbendazole (Panacur)
for cattle is an effective medication against the internal worm parasites including lungworms as well as cattle grubs and sucking lice. it is available as injection or pour on formulations. withdraw time to slaughter is 35 days. ivermectin (Ivomec)
available in boluses, a paste for oral administration, as a pour on or in injectible form. effective against roundworms and lungworms. withdrawal time is orally 2 days and injected 7 days levimisole (levisol, tramisol)
comes in boluses or crumbles for oral use. it is effective against roundworms and has a 14 day withdrawal time to slaughter Morantel tartrate (rumatel)
for oral admin available in paste, boluses, suspension, crumbles. it is effective against roundworms. approved for lactating cows and has a 96 hr milk discard time. withdrawal time to slaughter 3 days Thiabendazole (omnizole, TBZ)
available in paste or suspension. effective against all intestinal worms including tapeworms, and lung worms and liver flukes. has a 27 day withdrawal time to slaughter. Should not be used in animals during first 45 days of pregnancy Albendazole (Valbazen)
new wormer effective against intestinal parasites including tapeworms. injected directly into the rumen. also available in drench form. Oxfendazole (Synonthic)
where should you avoid getting dewormer to prevent pneumonia lungs
how should boluses be given a balling gun to get them past the base of the tongue
where should deworming injections be given under the skin in the neck. not into muscle and never in the rear quarters
why use crumbles or granules the need to catch and restrain the animal is eliminated
what does the proper selection of vermicides depend on? when climatic conditions are favorable for the hatching of eggs and development of larvae of different parasites
what does good parasite control require? effective tools, good timing, and sufficient knowledge of the problem at hand if success is to be achieved
These animals are most frequently affected by intestinal parasites and less so by respiratory, musculoskeletal or CNS parasites horses
these larvae can cause extensive damage to the lining of blood vessels as they migrate and are responsible for many of the health problems associated with this infection; common symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation, diarrhea large strongyles (Strongylus spp.)
do not migrate outside of the intestinal tissues; become encysted in the large intesting; colic and diarrhea may be seen. small strongyles (Cyathostomes)
poor growth, rough hair coats, chronic URI, death, colic, coughing, diarrhea. can cause pneumonia if migrate to lungs. enter the bloodstream and end up in liver and lung where they eat their way through tissue Ascarids (Parascaris equorum)
larvae in the stomach mature into adult worms and lay eggs that pass in feces. leave lesions resulting from deposition of larvae at sites where flies sometimes feed, such as corner of the eye or in skin wound stomach worms (Habronema spp)
mites living in the horse pasture may consume eggs from feces then are swallowed by crazing horse. Causes weight loss, diarrhea, and occasionally colic or rupture of the cecum wall Tapeworms (Anoplocephala spp)
causes rubbing of the tail and perineum causing broken tail hairs an bar patches around the tail. acquired by consuming contaminated water or feed or by licking the sticky eggs off walls or fences pinworms (Oxyuris equi)
immature flies, causing irritation and interfering with digestion bots
test allows the different parasite eggs that might be present in a fecal examined at high magnification fecal flotation
test using a dilution technique to quantify the number of eggs per gram of manure fecal egg count or McMasters
test where a fresh manure sample is analyzed the day the horse is dewormed and then a second sample is analyzed 14 days after deworming Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test
An effective parasite control program tries to decrease the number of mature adults an in turn the number of eggs shed. What is the three step strategy to do this? Regular deworming, removing manure from feeding areas, evaluate effectiveness of the first two controls twice a year
a major threat to the current and future control of worm parasites of horses anthelmintic resistance
what will decrease the selection pressure on the treated organisms a decrease in unnecessary or inappropriate use of dewormers
Created by: maiken