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phys anthro final

QuestionAnswer
Date: 6mya Site: Tungen Hills, Kenya Person: Brigitte Senut & Mark Pickford Characteristics: "Millenium Man" Possible Ancestor Orrorin tugenensis
Date: 6-7 mya Site: Chad Person: Brunet Characteristics: Orthognathic (derived) Primitive chimp sized brain Robust Skull Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Date: 5.8mya Site: Middle Awash Region Person: Yohannes Hailie-Selassie Characteristics: "Ground ape" Ardipithecus kadaaba
4.4mya Middle Awash Region: Aramis Tim White "Ardy" Thin molar enamel Diverg. Hallux Intermediate prognathism - derived Reduced canines no shearing complex Arboreal climber - primitive Long arms/hands Elevated shoulder joints Ardipithecus ramidus
Date: 4.2mya Site: Kanapoi & Allia Bay Person: Meave Leakey Characteristics: Primitive jaws, teeth Elbow, knee, tibia all derived Australopithecus anamensis
Date: 3.9mya Site: Hadar Person: Donald Johanson Characteristics: "Lucy" Habitual biped Apelike face/skull Prognathic slightly divergent hallux Long upper limbs Australopithecus afarensis
Date: 2-3mya Site: Taung ("Taung Child"), Sterkfontein ("Mrs. Pleis") Person: Raymond Dart (Taung), Robert Bloom (Pleis) Scavenger-foragers candidate for ancestor of Homo and robust 1st fossil found in Africa Australopithecus africanus
Characteristics: Mixed woodland long upper limbs with curved digits High sexual dimorphism Divergent hallux Encephalization, molarization and smaller canines - derived Crude stone tools (no evidence of manufacture) Gracile Australopithecus africanus
Date: 3.5mya Site: West Lake Turkana Person: Meave Leakey Characteristics: Less prognathic Small molars Kenyanthropus platyops
Date: 2mya Site: Malapa, S. Africa Person: --- Characteristics: Human-like hands Australopithecus sediba
Hominid Trends Decrease in anterior dentition Molarization (after robust forms): decrease in craniofacial and tooth robusticity Encephalization increase in cranial height Increase in cerebral cortex Decrease in arm length Increase in leg length More meat, tech +
Date: >2.5mya Site: West Lake Turkana Person: Alan Walker & Richard Leaky Characteristics: Phylogeny: A. afarensis "Black skull" A./Paranthropus aethiopicus
Date: 2.2 -1.5mya Site: Olduvai E. Africa Person: Mary Leakey Characteristics: "Nutcracker man" Hyper robust Contemporary with homo species Higher encephalization quotient High degree of sexual dimorphism Paranthropus boisei
Date: 1.8-1mya Site: S. Africa, Swartkrans and Kromdraai Person: Robert Broom and taphonomist C.K. Brain Characteristics: derived characteristics = boisei Higher encephalization quotient Stone tool manufacture Assemblages of cobbles Digging s Paranthropus robustus
Homo habilis & Homo rudolfensis 2mya
Homo habilis & Homo rudolfensis East and South Africa (Olduvai), Sterkfontein, Koobi fora (East Lake Turkana)
Homo habilis 1.85-1.6mya Olduvai Gorge Louis Leakey Skull, face, dentition becoming more gracile Larger brain Big toe parallel with others
Homo rudolfensis 1.9mya Koobi fora, Kenya Richard Leakey Same physical characteristics as Homo habilis
Homo habilis & Homo rudolfensis Culture? Early Paleolithic - early portion of old stone age, first cultural period Oldowan Technology - ~2.5-1.5mya Tool manufacture and use Simple core tools Crude choppers and scrapers Possible wood tools at Koobi fora Possible bone tools at Ol
Homo habilis & Homo rudolfensis Way of Life? Nomadic scavenger-foragers Small scale hunting
Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo georgicus, Homo antecessor 1.8mya-17?kya
Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo georgicus, Homo antecessor Asia: (erectus) - Zhoukoudian, China Trinil, Java Africa (ergaster) - North, East (Olduvai), S. Africa Europe (georgicus) - Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia Europe (antecessor)- Spain: Atapuerca
Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo georgicus, Homo antecessor Physical Characteristics? Tall, robust body High sexual dimorphism More modern morphology and body proportions Continued reduction of dentition and masticatory apparatus Large brain supraorbital and nuchal tori Postorbital waisting Sagittal keel - distinctive
Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo georgicus, Homo antecessor Culture? Pleistocene epoch - "Ice age" Derived from early homo Oldowan --> Acheulian tool technology (1.4mya) Watercraft Clothes fire controversy Possibly language, not articulate speech Archeulian Industry - hand axes, more refined and e
Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo georgicus, Homo antecessor Way of Life? Nomadic scavenger-foragers Diet - whatever! more premanent home bases? Long term seasonal use camps? Life span was short (50-60 years?) High infant/juvenile mortality (~40% <14yr)
Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis Dates? >= 400kya aka. early archaic Homo Sapiens
Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis Location? Africa: Zambia: Broken Hill, s./e. African sites Asia: Java, China, India Europe: Germany: Steinheim, France, Spain
Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis Physical Characteristics? from H. antecessor/egaster Europe: later material neandertal like H. erectus like big brain, big parietal breadth More vertical, less pentagonal walls Decreased body/craniofacial/dental robust. no angulation-occipital region
Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis Culture? Some evidence of fire Built free-standing shelters Furniture! - Seaweed bed in Lazaret, France. Used stone surfaces @ various sites Tools: Levallois technique
Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis Way of Life? Similar to H. erectus First evidence of fishing in S. France Hearths, therefore fire
Homo neanderthalensis Dates? 130kya
Homo neanderthalensis Locations? Europe: Germany - Neander Valley France - La Chapelle aux Saints Spain, Italy Asia: Iraq - Shanidar Israel - amud Uzbekistan - Teshik tash?
Homo neanderthalensis Physical Characteristics? Cold adapted Post cranially robust Robust short limbs/digits Large protruding noses Occipital bun Larger brains than modern
Homo neanderthalensis Culture? Mousterian Tech: Spears, + wooden tools More permanent bases shelters: caves, rock shelters, free standing Fire, hearths rare Big game hunters Clothes b/c cold Cannibalism- ev. of butchering Speech - hyoid bone, complex of culture Intentional bu
Homo sapiens sapiens Dates? 130-10kya
Homo sapiens sapiens Locations? Africa: E./S. Africa, e.g. Border Cave Asia: Zhoukoudian, Mongolia, etc. Europe: France, Cro Magnon
Created by: 100002129914228
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