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Ms lew test 3

Test 3

QuestionAnswer
What is the otitis externa? "Swimmers ear" inflammation of the outter ear or ear canal.
Some causes of the otitis externa? Dogs with floppy ears means no air flow, warm, moist environment, bacteria, fungus, and ear mites.
What instrument is used to evaluate the external ear? Otoscope
Name two reasons fluorescein dye might be used in evaluating the eye. To see if there are any abrasions, scratches, ulcerations, or lacerations
What is a tonometer used for? to measure eye pressure
How would you evaluate an animal thought to have keratoconjunctivitis? You would evaluate their tear production (Schirmer's tear test)
What are endocrine glands? And what do they do? Pituitary, ovaries, testes, thyroid, adrenal. They secrete hormones into the blood stream without using a duct.
What are some exocrine glands? And what's their job? Sweat glands, salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver. Secretes using a duct.
The pancreas secretes the following digestive enzymes:____A____ that breaks down lipids, ___B___ that breaks down protein, and ___C___ that breaks down carbohydrates. A. Lipase B. Trypsin C. Amylase
List 6 nutrients essential for life. Which three can provide energy? Carbs, proteins, fat, vitamins, minerals, and water. First three provide energy.
List several functions of saliva in an animal. Breaks down food, lubricates food for swallowing, keeps mouth somewhat clean by flushing away food.
What is the term used for chewing? Masticating
What is anorexia? Loss of appetite
What is postprandial? After a meal
What is peristalsis? Where does it occur? Muscle contractions and it occurs in GI tract
What are the three sections of the small intestine in order? Duodenum, jujunum, ileum
What does enteric refer to? the intestines
What is an intussusception? telescoping a tublar organ
What is the major organ of digestion in a monogastric animal? Then in horses Duodenum. In horses it's the cecum and colon
The primary function of the large intestine in most domestic animals is ______ storage
What is bile? Where's it at? Where does it function? What does it do there? Substance produced by liver which helps emulsify secreted into duodenum from liver and breaks down fat droplets
List secretions from stomach and explain their importance in digestion. Hydrochloric acid-accounts for stomachs ph can tightly control acid producing process. Pepsinogen- precurser for the enzyme pepcin.
List two sphincter muscles of the stomach and describe their location. Pyloric- proximal end of duodenum between the small intestine and pylorus. Esophageal- proximal end of stomach.
What is chyme? Partially digested food that leaves stomach and enters duodenum.
What is chyle? milky lymph from the intestines consisting primarily of small molecules of absorbed fats.
What is the forestomach in a ruminent animal? compartments of differing sizes and functions that swallowed material must pass through before reaching the abomasum.
Describe location of the rumen. First chamber in the alimentary system of ruminant animals.
Which part of rumen most closely resembles a monogastric stomach? Abomasum
Fermentation in the rumen normally generates lots of ________? Gas
List the sections of the large intestine in order? Cecum, ascending colon, descending colon, rectum, anus
What's the cecum? Blind pouch leading off from where the ileum meets the colon; in non ruminant herbivores it can be well developed.
What's colitis? Inflammation of the large intestine
Explain the differences between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus their deficiencies of what hormones? And from what gland? Insipidus is when the pituitary is not releasing enough Antiduretic hormone (tasteless pee) Mellitus deficiency in insulin, high glucose levels in blood. Pancreatic gland.
What two hormones control blood levels of calcium? What gland produces each? Parathyroid hormone from parathyroid gland and calcitonin from thyroid gland.
What is the major steroid producing gland in the body? Adrenel gland
Where is insulin and glycagen produced? What effect do they have on the body? Pancreatic gland for both. Insulin lowers blood glucose level. Glucagon raises blood glucose levels.
ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH, are hormones produced by the______ Pituitary
The endocrine gland that greatly affects the body's metabolic rate is______ Anteritor Pituitary
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced in what gland? Adrenal medulla
what is the peripheral nervous system (LMN) efferent pathways of the peripheral nervous system containing the nerves off of the brain and spinal cord
what is the central nervous system (UMN) ultimately control lower motor neuron activity, having the "upper hand" which contains the brain and spinal cord
sensory neural pathway afferent pathway; carry impulses from the peripheral nervous system towards the central nervous system
motor neural pathway efferent pathway; carry impulses away from the central nervous system
function and location of the axon located on one end of a nerve fiver which carry impulses away from the cell body
function and location of the dendrite located on the opposite end of a nerve fiber and receives and relays impulses towards the cell body
function and location of the cell body located at the midpoint between the axon and dendrite; controls the nerve fiber
function and location of the myelin sheath located around the nerve fiber and provides for insulation
what are neuroglial cells they support the neural tissue
what is responsible for skeletal muscle control? cerebellum
what is the larges part of the brain, divided into 2 hemispheres? cerebrum
the connective tissue covering over the brain and spinal cord is called the? meninges
what are the three levels of the meninges superficial to deep? dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
a spinal block used for local anesthesia is injected into the what? subarachnoid space
what prevents the movement of potentially harmful substances into the brain blood-brain barrier
the cushion of fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord is called cerebrospinal fluid
where is cerebrospinal fluid produced and located produced in the ventricles of the brain by specialized clusters of capillaries fro the pia mater where it is located
a radiographic procedure in which radiopaque dye is injected into a meningeal pace to detect abnormalities in the vertebral canal is called myelogram
caudal equina is found where, what does it look like, and what is its purpose? found in the lumbar/lumbosacral area, branched ou like a horse's tail, and prevents the cord from flopping and bumping against the bones canal
what is a reflex action involuntary movement made from a reaction to a stimuli
sympathetic system and what it secretes provides for flight of fight responses and secretes nonrepinephrine, at the synapse
parasympathetic system and what it secretes counter effect of sumpathetic system, rest and repose action and secrete acetylcholine
what is catecholamine a group containing the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine
which neurotransmitters are involved in the nervous system and what gland produce these chemicals norepinephrine and epinephrine; adrenal
what is gray matter and where is it located composed of cell bodies used for data processing and storage, located in a thin layer over hte surfaces of all the cerebral gyri and sulci and spinal cord
what is white matter and where is it located myelinated fibers that provides all of the telecommunication links for rapid transfer of info between the processing centers in the gray matter, found in the bulk of cerebrum and superficial part of spinal cord
spinal nerves and 2 examples branch at the cord into dorsal and ventral roots; dorsal ramus & meningal branches
cranial nerves and 2 examples are a special set of 12 nerve pairs in the peripheral nervous system that originate directly from the brain; olfactory & optic
what is plexas? what is the plexas of the forelimb and rearlimb bundle of spinal nerves; brachial plexas & lumbosacral plexas
what nerve is commonly damaged in animal that have been tramatized in the forelimb and show signs of dragging their dorsal forelimb on the ground radial
what nerve is a very long parasympathetic cranial nerve that influences many organs vagus
what is ataxia incoordination
what is anesthesia state with no sensation
analgesia state with no pain
paraplegia paralysis of the back legs
paralysis complete loss of the ability to move
paresis partial loss of motor function
encephalomyelitis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
meningitis inflammation of the menix
zoonosis disease that can be transmitted from animal to human
explain what is meant by the term proprioception(muscle sense) you can tell where your muscles are without actually looking at them
describe the location of the olfactory region proximal region of the rostral part of the face
what are commonly called the ear bone? and where is it located otic ossicle, the middle ear
the external ear consists of the what? ear pinnae and external acoustic meatus
what functions to equalize pressure between the middle and external ear eustachian tube
the nonvascular, transparent, protective membrane of the eye that aids in light refraction is what? cornea
what is the blind spot and is the area where the optic nerves and blood vessels leave the eye; there are no rods and cones there optic disc
what contains the rods and cones retina
cornea protects the eye covering over the pupil
retina helps to produce and image
optic disc location where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve
what is the fovea centralis( macula lutea) where is it & why is it important small depression that holds a dense accumulation of cones that only humans and primates have located in the center of the retina and helps with focusing so we can see more sharply than animals
the muscular, pigmented portion of the eye that regulates pupil size is the retina
Created by: 1361786960