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Anthro Midterm 2

Adaptive Radiation An evolutionary event, where a lineage rapidly diversifies with the newly formed lineages evolving different adaptions. A large number of new species form, evolving different adaptations. An example is apes during the Miocene
Carpolestes Simpsoni A potential primate ancestor from the Paleocene era. It had grasping hands and feet with a nail on the big toe, but eyes on its side; it had no binocular vision. Was a frugivore
Adapids Not a specific species but instead a family, they dwelled in North America and Europe, had boney ridge orbits, and lemur-like ears; however, they had no tooth comb. They are believed to be the ancestor of strepsirrhines
Proconsul An East African ape of the early Miocene era. It had a narrow thorax, a flexible, extended long lumbar area, and an intermembral index of .83. They were monkeys with several ape characteristics Between old world monkeys and apes on a clade
Sivapithecus Possible Miocene ancestor to the Orangutan
Choroapithecus Possible ancestor to gorillas
Morotopithecus An early Miocene ape of East Africa. Had a stuff lumbar spine, and a orthograde post-cranial complex. Would be with other apes on a clade
Probable Hominids A hominin is a bipedal ape; called ‘probable’ because they are believed, not known, to be bipedal
Sahelanthropis Tchadensis Lived between Sahara and rainforests in mid-Africa. Earliest biped; fossils from roughly 7 mya, still late Miocene. Earliest probably hominin
Orrorin Southeast Africa (Tungen Hills, Kenya). ‘Original man’ in Tugen language. Had wide and broad femur, ball joints, valgus angle for neck
Ardipithecus: Lived in East Africa. Two species: A. kadabba (5.8–5.2 mya) and a. ramidus (4.4–4.2 mya). Probably hominin; had honing canine–premolar complex, but its toe bone looks bipedal. Smaller canines and teeth, thick enamel
Ardipithecus Ramidus Cranial capacity 300–350 cc. Short broad pelvis; primitive foot with some bipedal features; abductable big toe, but used as a stabilizer in bipedal locomotion. Its intermembral index is close to 1.0, making its inclusion in this category problematic.
Ape Traits - Suspensory adaptations of their shoulders, and arms longer than their legs - Lack of tails Flexible wrists - Short, stiff lumbar region - Broad thorax, which allows them to maintain a more upright posture
Bipedal Traits - Vertebra must increase in size from neck to pelvis, and became ‘s’-shaped, - The pelvis must shorten, broaden, and became bowl-shaped - Broad femoro-tibial (knee) joint - The ankles need to become restricted to flexion extension - Double-arched fee
Continental Drift The occurrence in which the terrestrial plates that make up continents of Earth drift away due to seismic changes
Deep Sea Sediments Deep-sea sediments occur when microscopic shells of Foraminifera settle in sediment. They incorporate oxygen from the sea water to make their calcareous shells
Cenozoic Era Began 65.5 mya with the extinction of the dinosaurs and ascendancy of primates.
Paleogene Epoch Ran from 65.5 mya to 23 mya
Paleocene Epoch Started at 65.5 mya and ended at 55.8 mya. Its warm environment allowed for an abundance of flowers, insects, and fruits
Eocene Epoch Ran from 55.8 mya to 33.9 mya. Primates with modern features would begin to appear in this era. There were roughly 200 species of the prosimian grade during this epoch; they had grasping hands and feet with nails, opposable big toes, shorter snouts
Oligocene Ran from 34 mya to 23 mya, it was marked by a global cooling, and distinct seasonal weather. Primates gained monkey-like traits, such as fused mandibles and post-orbital closure. Some groups of haplorrhines evolved from strepsirrhines during this period
Neogene Era Ran from 23 mya to the present
Miocene Ran 23 mya to 5 mya. It was characterized by warm, wet forests until the end of the era. There were over a 100 species of ape spread across Asia, Africa, and Europe; by the end, most were extinct and monkeys were more abundant
Dental Adaptations For Herbivores - Procumbent incisors - High-cusped molars - Prognathic (forward) faces
Fossil bone whose organic components have been replaced by minerals, preserving them for potentially millions of years. They must be buried in sediment to be preserved
Hominoidea A ‘superfamily’ of apes; it consists of the Hylobates (gibbon), pongo (orangutan), gorilla, pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), pan paniscs (bonobos), and homo sapiens (humans)
Hominids/Hominins Word used for split between last common ancestor of pan and homo. Hominoids share anatomical traits that have evolved since the split with the old world monkeys
Milankovitch Cycles Describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth’s movements upon its climates. The greater the tilting of the Earth, the greater the seasonality will be
Mosaic Evolution The term used to describe the fact that different traits evolve at different times in creatures
Principles of Stratigraphy - Sediment gets laid down horizontally - Younger layers are laid down on top of older layers - A layer that cuts across another is younger than the layer it cuts through
Savanna Hypothesis Hypothesis of why apes became bipedal. A changing environment with fewer trees would make bipedalism more useful ; without trees, no need to climb, lack of food. May be bunk: All probable hominids found close to bodies of water
Taphony Study of fossil, from its ‘origins’ as a living thing to its mineralized state
Hominini A branch of Hominoidea that branched off at 7 mya. They were • Forest frugivores • Could probably use tools • Might have had fission-fusion societies (permanent, cohesive social groups) • Group hunters • Coalitionary killing
Created by: 565081056