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midterm crap

a positively charged electrode anode
a negatively charged electrode cathode
the ability of a substance to emit visible light fluorescence
a bundle of radiant energy quanta
a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of shorter wavelength xrays
the area of the focal spot consisting of a coiled wire that is perpendicular to the surface of the target actual focal spot
a phenomenon in which metal deposits on the inner wall of the envelope act as a secondary anode, thereby attracting electrons from the cathode arching
a restricting device used to control the size of the primary xray beam collimator
the control panel of the xray machine console
the area of the focal spot that is visible through the xray tube window and directed toward the xray film effective focal spot
part of a low energy circuit in the cathode that when heated releases electron from orbit filament
a recessed area where the filament lies, directing the electrons toward the anode focusing cup
a glass vacuum tube that contains the anode and cathode of the xray tube glass envelope
a decrease of xray intensity on the anode side of the xray beam caused by the anode target angle heel effect
the amount of electrical energy being applied to the anode and cathode to accelerate the electrons from the cathode to the anode kilovoltage
the peak energy of the xrays which determines the quality, penetrating power, of the xray beam kilovoltage peak
the effect of making the actual focal spot size appear smaller when viewed from the position of the film because of the angle of the target to the electron stream line focus principle
the amount of electrical energy being applied to the filament, this describes the number of xrays produced during the exposure milliamperage
partial outer shadow of an object imaged by illumination penumbra
process of changing alternating current to direct current rectification
an anode that turns on an axis to increase xray production while dissipating heat rotating anode
a non moving anode usually found in dental and small portable radiography units stationary anode
target anode
controls the length of exposure timer switch
a common metal used in the filament of a cathode tungsten
allow the flow of electrons in one direction only, commonly called self-rectifiers valve tube
a mechanism consisting of an anode and a cathode in a vacuum that produces a controlled xray beam xray tube
filaments located in an xray tube are found in the anode
the anodes target is composed of tungsten, usually has a copper base, reaches temperatures in excess of 1000 c during xray production
what would be the limitations of the stationary anode it is unable to withstand large amounts of heat
how can the technician help to prolong the life of the filament in the xray tube always leave the xray unit in the standby mode
what is a possible effect of excessive heat within an xray tube roughened target surface
a small amount of air within the glass envelope is beneficial because it helps dissipate heat (true/false) false
veterinary patients have a tendency to move while being positioned for radiographs to be taken, the radiographer should help to safely prevent artifacts of movement by using the shortest exposure time possible
what is recommended to reduce unnecessary irradiation of the patient or persons restraining the patient and to decrease scatter radiation adjustment of the collimator so that the smallest field size possible is used
xray tube ratings are based on target angle, focal spot size, electrical current and its alloy composition
the quantity of energy imparted by ionizing radiations to matter absorbed dose
the quantity obtained by multiplying the absorbed dose in tissue by the quality factor dose equivalent
a device used to measure radiation exposure to personnel dosimeter
various methods used to measure radiation exposure to personnel dosimetry
a method of dosimetry consisting of a plastic holder with a radiation sensitive film in a light proof package film badge
a special radiographic diagnostic method in which a live view of the internal anatomy is possible fluoroscopy
effects of radiation that occur to the genes of reproductive cells genetic damage
the unit of absorbed dose imparted by ionizing radiations to matter gray (Gy)
anatomic areas where red blood cells are produced hemopoietic
anatomic areas where white blood cells are produced leukopoietic
the maximum dose of radiation a person may receive in a given time period maximum permissible dose
a method of dosimetry consisting of a charged ion chamber and electrometer which can be read immediately to determine the amount of exposure pocket ionization chamber
the path that the xrays follow as they leave the tube primary beam
commonly called scatter radiation it is caused by interaction of the primary beam with objects in its path secondary radiation
the dose of radiation equivalent to the absorbed dose in tissue sivert (Sv)
damage to the body induced by radiation that becomes manifest within the lifetime of the recipient somatic damage
a method of dosimetry consisting of a chamber containing special compounds that become electrically altered by ionizing radiation thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
what are some examples of somatic damage cancer, cataracts, aplastic anemia, sterility
what would an example of genetic damage be gene mutation
genetic damage is not detectable until future generations are produced (true/false) true
the body's cells are all approximately equally sensitive to radiation (true/false) false
ionizing radiation only damages chromosomal material (DNA) within reproductive cells (true/false) false
chemical restraint of veterinary patients is prohibited by NCRP in the united states (true/false) false
what is the upper limit of exposure that an occupationally exposed individual may receive according to state and federal regulations 0.05 Sv/year
animals cells are not as susceptible to damage from irradiation as human cells (true/false) false
radiation can affect the body's ability to produce red and white blood cells (true/false) true
exposure to radiation can affect the lens by causing cataracts (true/false) true
individuals younger than 18 years of age may not assist with animal restrain while radiographs are taken (true/false) true
what type of dosimeter can be stored for years, maintains its information, and can be reused thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
veterinary personnel who restrain animals for radiographs are often exposed to the primary beam (true/false) false
scatter radiation can be reduced by the collimator (true/fals) true
aluminum filtration helps to increase soft less penetrating xrays thus increasing the quality of the radiograph (true/false) false
scatter radiation is produced by the primary beam interacting with the anode (true/false) false
scatter radiation depends on beam intensity, compositive of the structure being radiographed, kVp level
the most conclusive method used to inspect lead lined gloves and aprons for cracks and defects is to take a radiograph of it
what is the thickness of the lead impregnated rubber lining protective apparel in veterinary radiography 0.5 mm
a device used to measure the thickness of anatomic parts caliper
the measurable difference between two adjacent densities contrast
the degree of blackness on a radiograph density
the period of time during which xrays are permitted to leave the xray tube exposure time
the intensity of the raidation varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source inverse square law
the energy related to motion kinetic energy
the number of xrays produced over a given period, calculated by multiplying the millamperage by the time milliamperage-seconds (mAs)
a method of estimating kilovoltage in relation to the area of thickness santes rule
the formula for santes rule (2 X thickness) + 40 = kVp
the distance between the source of xrays and the image receptor or film source image distance
the process of releasing electrons from their atomic orbits by heat thermionic emission
a way to decrease the number of personnel in the radiology suite can include sedating patients
ways to increase penetrating power of xrays include increasing kVp
the milliamperage-seconds (mAs) for 1000 mA and 1/10 second is 100 mAs
according to santes rule if a cats abomen measure 12 cm kVp is 64
the source image distance must be considered each time the control panel is set
one percent of energy produce at the anode is in the form of xrays
the temperature of the filament within the cathode is controlled by mA setting
the total number of xrays produced is determined by the kVp (true/false) false
longer wavelengths have more penetrating power (true/false) false
the intensity of xrays increase as the source image distance increases (true/false) true
xrays diverge from a light source (true/false) false
the potential difference between the anode and cathode is measured in kilovolts
a higher kVp setting allows for a _____ mAs and _____ exposure time lower;lower
process of scattering or reflecting radiation in the opposite direction from that intended, radiation that is reflected from behind the image plane back to the image backscatter
two parallel or two focused grids that are set at right angles also called crisscross grid crossed grid
distortion of anatomic structures so that the image appears longer than actual size, owing to the xray beam not being directed perpendicular to the film surface elongation
a grid with parallel center lead strip and inclined strips on either side that radiate at progressively greater angles focused grid
distortion of anatomic structures when the image appears shorter than actual size due to the plane of interest not being parallel to the film surface foreshortening
variation in normal size and shape of anatomic structures due to their position in relation to the xray source and film geometric distortion
loss of detail due to geometric distortion geometric unsharpness
a device made of lead strips embedded in a spacing material, placed between the patient and the film, designed to absorb non image forming radiation grid
a progressive decrease in transmitted xray intensity caused by absorption of primary xrays by the grid lines grid cutoff
the ability of a grid to absorb non image forming radiation in the production of a quality radiograph grid efficiency
the amount of exposure needs to be increased to compensate for the grids absorption of a portion of the primary beam grid factor
the distance between the source of xrays and the grid in which the grid is effective without grid cutoff grid focus
the relation of the height of the lead strips to the distance between them grid ratio
grid in which the lead strips are parallel linear grid
the number of lead strips per centimeter area of a grid lines per centimeter
distortion of anatomic structures when the image appears larger than actual size magnification
a mechanical device that consists of a focused grid within diaphragm which moves the grid across the cray beam during an exposure potter bucky diaphragm
a grid with parallel lead strips that are progressively reduced in height toward the edges of the grid pseudofocused grid
the definition of the edge of an anatomic structure on a radiograph radiographic detail
non image forming radiation that is scattered in all directions because of objects in the path of the xray beam scatter radiation
the difference in density and mass of two adjacent anatomic structures subject contrast
a grid with lead strips that are parallel and at right angles to the film also called a parallel grid unfocused grid
what increases radiographic density increased mAs
what type of radiograph would have the shortest scale one of a femur
high subject contrast ___ radio0graphic contrast increases
where is the tungsten filament located in the cathode
where is the tungsten target located on the anode
soft xrays can penetrate the patient and increase exposure, however they are beneficial to the finished radiograph (true/false) false
what is one disadvantage of a small focal spot less heat dissipation
when is a grid utilized when the area being xrayed is > 10cm
what is the heel effect unequal distribution of xray beam intensity
what should be done to take advantage of the heel effect put the thickest part of the patient closer to the cathode
what is the most common cause of tube failure filament evaporation
the higher the kVp the lower the overall contrast (true/false) true
the thicker the tissues the greater the subject density and more xray absorption with more absorption the whiter the radiograph will appear (true/false) true
the potter buckey diaphragm is used to decrease the amount of weak xray beams leaving the xray tube (true/false) true
the type of film can affect the scale of contrast (true/false) true
because of the inverse square law, if the FFD is double then the mAs must be decreased four times to maintain the same radiographic density (true/false) false
the lower the kVp the more scatter radiation will be produced (true/false) false
the air gap technique decreased the amount of scatter produced (true/false) true
what type of radiograph should have the shortest scale of contrast femur
high subject contrast ____ radiographic contrast increases
if kVp is too low for an abdominal radiograph which of the following will be evident on a radiograph no distinct difference exists among anatomic organs, penetrating power is weak and xrays cant penetrate the patient, radiograph will have a "soot and white washed" apperance
what do grids contain that controls scatter radiation lead
where is the grid located between the patient and the cassette
to prevent magnification and distortion of an object being radiographed the patient must be as parallel to the film as posssible, be as close to the film as possible
if a dog is being radiographed for hip dysplasia what phenomenon will occur if the femurs are not parallel to the film foreshortening
the walls of the darkroom should be white or cream colored because more reflection of the safelight is produced providing a more visible working environment
what is true reguarding safelights they must be at least 4 feet from the work area
what is not a permanent type of film label sharpie
unexposed silver halide crystals remaining on the film are removed at what stage fixing
a higher grid ratio (more strips) mean that more scatter radiation is absorbed
foreshortening is most often seen with what type of bones long
the most efficient beam limiting device to reduce scatter is collimator
how can you prevent false narrowing make several exposures of the vertebral column centering over the different areas, center the primary beam over the joint of interest
what happens when the OFD is increased increases penumbra on a radiograph
why do you not want film fogging to appear on a radiograph non-diagnostic film, not crisp edges
what is the minimal information needed to label a film properly patient first, last name, owner name, clinic name, date
what are two advantages of the potter bucky mechanism lowers amount of scatter radiation, provides more crisp images
if the FFD is increased from 32" to 72" the mAs must be ____ to maintain the same radiographic density increased
If the FFS is increased radiographic detail will be decreased
what are the cranial thoraic landmarks manubrium sterni
what are the caudal thoraic landmarks 1/2 way between the xyphoid process and last rib
what do you center over for a thoraic radiograph the heart
what are the cranial abdominal landmarks 3 rib space cranial to xyphoid process
what are the caudal abdominal landmarks greater trochanter
what do you center over for an abdominal radiograph over the last rib
what is the proper order for manual processing of films develop, rinse, fix, wash, dry
what is the total time film should be placed in the fixer two times the developing time
how does kvp affect scatter radiation as kvp increases scatter radiation increases
what is the minimum distance in feet that a safelight in the darkroom should be away from the work site 4
the main purpose of the xray developer is to convert the exposed silver halide crystals into black metalic silver
the main purpose of the xray fixer is to clear away the unexposed, undeveloped silver halide crystals
a sievert (SV) is the unit of radiation dose equivalent to the absorbed dose in tissue
when taking radiographs you should whenever possible use decreased exposure time, increased distance from radiation sources and increased shielding
scatter radiation on a film is more noticeable if there is higher kvp, thicker patient, and larger field size
a grid is indicated when a body part exceeds what thickness 10 cm
what type of dosimeter can be stored for years, maintains its information, and can be reused thermoluminescent dosimeter
low kvp produces a short scale of contrast
the annual maximum permissible dose stand of radiation for anyone working with radiographs is 5 rem
dosimetery badges should be worm on a collar outside the apron
when taking a lateral thoracic radiograph you should make sure the spine and sternum are equidistant (parallel) on the table
tube saturation can occur with a to low kvp reading
what absorbs the most xrays metal
what direction should a grid move in relation to the grid lines in order to blur the lines perpendicular to the grid lines
if the focal film distance is increased by a factor of 2, how must the ma be adjusted to maintain density increased by a factor of 4
what factor does not affect the amount of penumbra on a radiographic film and does not contribute to the pneumbra kvp
how do low grade light leaks in the darkroom affect film quality they decrease film quality by increasing overall fog of the film
what is the total time the film should be placed in the fixer two times the developing time
what would happen if exposed film were accidentally placed in the fixer before being placed in the developer the radiographic film becomes clear
foreshortening occurs when radiographing a long bone and the bone is not parallel to the cassette
when radiographing a joint why is it important to center the primary beam on the joint to maximize joint space and minimize false narrowing
the degree of blackness on a radiograph is contrast
if a radiograph includes many shades of gray, what is also true regarding the image low contrast, low kvp
when viewing a radiograph of a laterally positioned animal the head should face the viewers left with the spine at the top
an overexposed film appears____; to correct this____ to dark; decrease mas or kvp
what action is taken if it is difficult to see anatomic silhouettes on an abdominal film and the film is to light increase kvp by 10% to 15%; shorten wavelength; increase penetrating power
a thoracic film is too dark; the bone tissue is relatively white; what is the next step decrease mas by 50%
grid cuttoff can be best described as incorrect use of the grid, so that the grid absorbs more radiation than it should
for proper radiograph exposure, a radiograph should be taken during the maximum expiration for the abdomen, inspiration for the thorax
elongation and foreshortening of anatomic structure are associated with geometric distortion
if the ma is set at 300, and the time is set at 1/60 the mas is 5
the ideal temperature of the chemicals for manual radiograph processing is 68 F
if a radiograph is too light, and the image appears under penetrated, you should increase kvp by 10% to 15%
if a radiograph is to dark and image appears over penetrated you should decrease kvp by 10% to 15%
the workplace program that has been developed to ensure radiation exposure are kept as low as possible is ALARA
a radiograph with appropriate density and contrast appears to have a black tree pattern; what is the most likely cause of this improper film handeling
what would most likely cause generalized heavy lines on a radiograph grid problems, roller marks from the processor
where should the marker be placed for a limb radiographed in lateral recumbency cranial to the limb
how often are radiation monitoring film badge reports usually submitted monthly
a film is too dark with minimal contrast; what is the most appropriate adjustment decrease kvp
the tungsten plate (target) is located where on the xray machine anode
the distance between the xray tube and the film is the focal film distance
when creating a technique chart, you should have a patient that weighs approximately___, is not overweight, and measure between___ 40lbs, 10-20cms
the limb closest to the cassette should be pulled slightly cranial for a lateral pelvic view (true/false) true
any rvt may perform a pennhip radiograph for certification, as long as you are a registered veterianry technician (true/false) false
the center landmark for an extended pelvic view is the sacroiliac region (true/false) true
barium and iodine are examples of what type of contrast media positive
type of anode found in dental units stationary
regulates the voltage difference between the anode and the cathode kvp
determines the number of electrons produced inside the xray tube mas
films ability to convert absorbed xrays into visible light screen speed
the degree of sharpness that defines the edge of an anatomic structure detail
the amount of blackness on a film density
opacity/density difference between two areas on an xray contrast
range of different opacities on a radiograph latitude
measure of radiation exposure or xray machine output roentgen
unit equal to the absorbed dose multiplied by a qualifying factor rem
usually located between the patient and the image receptor; absorbs scatter radiation grid
converts xrays into fluorescent light allowing for a lower ma setting intensifying screen
lower energy xray photons that have undergone a change in direction after interacting with structures in the patients body scattered radiation
decrease in energy of the xray photons as they pass through matter rotating
brightness mode ultrasound image display b mode
a structure on the ultrasound image that appears bright or white compared with adjacent structures hyperechoic
attenuation of energy of the ultrasound beam as it passes through different tissues acoustic impedance
time motion ultrasound imaging mode where the motion of the body is observed by scanning a thing slice of it over time m mode
the energy of the returning energy is shown as an amplitude spike at each tissue interface when the ultrasound is in this mode a mode
a structure on the ultrasound image that is of equal echogenicity to another structure isoechoic
a structure in the ultrasound image that does not produce echoes and appears black anechoic
Created by: chop



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