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Parasit: ruminants 2

gongylonema pulchrum: location in host esophagus
gongylonema pulchrum: sf spiruroidea
gongylonema pulchrum: phylum nematoda
gongylonema pulchrum: common name esophageal worm, stitch worm, gullet worm
gongylonema pulchrum: eggs larvated; don't float well - sedimentaiton
gongylonema pulchrum: diagnosis raised zig-zag lesions in mucosa of esophagus/tongue (pathognomonic), nonpathogenic
gongylonema pulchrum: LC direct/indirect indirect
gongylonema pulchrum: DH swine, ruminants
gongylonema pulchrum: IH dung beetles & cockroaches
gongylonema pulchrum: what repro products passed in feces embryonated eggs
gongylonema pulchrum: LC embryonated eggs passed in feces, ingested by coprophagous beetle, ingested by DH, migration from stomach up esophageal mucosa
gongylonema pulchrum: ppp 8 weeks
rumen flukes: location in host ruminoretuculum
rumen flukes: class trematoda
rumen flukes: DH ruminants
rumen flukes: IH numerous amphibious or aquatic snails suitable for various spp
rumen flukes: genera? paramphistomum, cotylophoron
rumen flukes: LC egg hatches in water, miracidium infects snail - sporocyst, redia, cercaria - encyst on vegetation = metacercaria, ingest by DH, excyst in SI, migrate to rumenoreticulum
rumen flukes: ppp 7-8 wks to 5 mo's
rumen flukes: pathogenesis immature fluikes are plug feeders in duodenum & can cause enteritis in sheep & occ cattle (africa, asia, australia; no disease reported in N america)
ciliates: location in host rumen/reticulum; large intestine (less common)
ciliates: phylum ciliophora
ciliates: ob/fac an/aerobe ob anaerobe
ciliates: nutrition some absorb CHO & store as amylopectin or starch; others metabolize starch granules; some feed on rumen bacteria & produce H, CO2, lactic/acetic/butyric/propionic acid
ciliates: what aspects of ruminant nutrition do they provide 20% of protein; 20% of VFA's
parasitic gastroenteritis: superfamilies involved trichostrongyloidea, strongyloidea
parasitic gastroenteritis: genera involved? where? abomasum (haemonchus, ostertagia, trichostrong), SI (trichostrong, cooperia, nematodirus); LI (oesophogastomum)
parasitic gastroenteritis: LC segmented eggs passed in feces, develop to L1 & hatch, larvae aquatic - go where moisture is, L3 ingested during grazing, develop to adult in GIT
parasitic gastroenteritis: infective stage L3
parasitic gastroenteritis: repro product passed in feces segmented egg
parasitic gastroenteritis: ppp 3 wks
parasitic gastroenteritis: what determines larval devel in pasture temp, moisture; high temps - develop fast, low life expectancy; low temp - develop slow, high life expectancy; can die of desiccation/high temp/excess moisture/UV
parasitic gastroenteritis: what can larvae do to survive in adverse weather move into soil, entrapped in dung pat, hypobiosis
parasitic gastroenteritis: pathogenesis disease due to mixed infection; ec loss - failure to gain weight / produce milk at optimum rate; decreased production = primary loss; nutrition is important!
parasitic gastroenteritis: clinical signs of gastric parasitism anorexia, hypertrophy of mucosa, reduced primary digestion, decreased HCl & pepsin production - dyspepsia, loss of plasma protein, blood loss
parasitic gastroenteritis: clinical signs of intestinal parasitism lowered absorption & transport, loss of H20 & electrolytes, increased peristalsis, loss of plasma protein, malabsorption; diarrhea
parasitic gastroenteritis: physiological effects lots of diarrhea & nutrition stuff. look it up, you lazy butt. page 171.
parasitic gastroenteritis: aquired immunity retardation/inhibition of devel of larval nematodes (hypobiosis), decr est of infection, structural/metabolic changes, suppression of egg prdouction, elimination of existing infection (self-cure)
parasitic gastroenteritis: self-cure initiated by intake of infective larval parasites, usually massive exposure following pd of draught; allx response, removes all spp of worms rpesent, animals them become reinfected or are refractory to new infection
parasitic gastroenteritis: general considerations excessive use of anthelmintics interferes w/animal's ability to mount immune resp; very young animals unresponsive to most worm Ag's; some spp of helminths provoke early strong resistance to infection, others req'r repeated exposure
parasitic gastroenteritis: hypobiosis immunologial, competitive, or physiologic stimulation; L4
PPRR periparturient relaxation of resistance; prolactin increases at parturition/lactation, egg production increases; arrested larvae no longer inhibited, little resistance to new infection; young animals come in contact w/many larvae bcz of increased # of egg
parasitic gastroenteritis: immunologic exhaustion animals exposed to prolonged continuous Ag stimulation become unresponsive; if worm burden is removed they become responsive again
parasitic gastroenteritis: cool season parasites ostertagia, cooperia conchophora, trichostrongylus axei, t. colubriformis, dictyocaulus
parasitic gastroenteritis: warm season parasites haemonchus, cooperia punctata, C. pectinata
ostertagia: cool or warm season cool
cooperia onchophora: cool/warm cool
trichostrongylus axei: cool/warm cool
trichostrongylus colubriformis: cool/warm cool
dictyocaulus: cool/warm cool
haemonchus: cool/warm warm
cooperia punctata: cool/warm warm
cooperia pectinata: cool/warm warm
bioclimatograph graph avg rainfall vs avg temp for a locality; compare parameteres w/in which parasite can survive; shows when transmission is most likely
selective grazing type of herbage (new growth, stems, leaves); each spp has its preferences, vary w/time of year; little site-specific competition among cattle, sheep, goats where there is diverse forage available
grazing behavior & managemetn: key point quality of forage, not acreage, is important
raking high night, low day: sheep bed down on highest areas of pasture, graze in low areas
hefting heavily graze certain areas; areas heavily grazed are parks, long grass in between parks called roughs; hate own feces - graze away from them
owvercrowding high production; many animals on small area make it diffiuclt/impossible to graze away from fecal contaminated forage
overgrazing must eat lower to ground, less selection; lg parks, smaller roughs; more larvae closer to ground
effect of nutrition on parasitism more worms on low nutritional plane; it is possible to feed host enough to disguise effects of parasitism; protein levels important, evidence suggests that high protein intake will reduce PPRR during early lactation
parasitic gastroenteritis: most important genera in dairy/beef calves ostertagia, cooperia, haemonchus
parasitic gastroenteritis: most important genera in sheep of all ages haemonchus
parasitic gastroenteritis: most important genera in cameloids haemonchus, camelostrongylus
parasitic gastroenteritis: most important genera in replacements / stockers ostertagia, haemonchus, cooperia
parasitic gastroenteritis: most important genera in goats of all ages haemonchus, trichostrongylus
parasitic gastroenteritis: most important genera in adult cows ostertagia
parasitic gastroenteritis: most important genera in deer ostertagids, haemonchus
haemonchus spp: location in host abomasum
haemonchus spp: sf trichostrongyloidea
haemonchus spp: common names barber's pole worm, stomach worm, candy cane worm
haemonchus spp: size relative to toehr abomasal worms largest; can be seen grossly
haemonchus spp: repro product passed in feces segmented eggs
most important pathogen of small ruminants in temperate & tropical regions haemonchus contoruts
haemonchus spp: which spp occurs primarily in cattle H. placei
haemonchus contortus: hosts sheep, goats, cemeloids, deer, exotic ruminants
haemonchus contortus: what ages does it affect all ages; young may be more severely affected
haemonchus contortus: disease in what times of the year warm seasons or year-round in humid tropical climates
haemonchus contortus: what do they feed on L4 & adults suck blood
haemonchus contortus: lc d/i direct
haemonchus contortus: LC segmented eggs passed, L1 hatch, L3 ingested during grazing, exsheath in rumen, enter abomasum, penetrate gastric epith cells, molt to L4, emerge, mature
haemonchus contortus: infective stage L3
haemonchus contortus: ppp 15-21 days
haemonchus contortus: hypobiosis? to avoid desiccation or low temps; L4
haemonchus contortus: disease - anemia initially: normochromic, normocytic; later: hypochromic, macrocytic; becomes: hypochromic, microcytic w/iron loss
haemonchus contortus: disease - serum protein loss sings in order are: anemia, ascites, bottle jaw, anorexia, loss of body fat, wool break - lowered wool production
haemonchus contortus: disease syndromes per-acute (rapid onset, fluid accumulation, drowning); acute (anemia, bottle jaw, soft stool); chronic (iron deficiency anemia, lowered wool production)
haemonchus contortus: Tx/control resistant to all classes of anthelmintics; use tactical/targeted use of anthelmintics + pasture management + genetically resistant hosts
ostertagia, teladorsaiga: sf trichostrongyloidea
ostertagia, teladorsaiga: repro product passed in feces segmented eggs
ostertagia ostertagi: host cattle
most important pathogen of cattle in temperate zones of the world? ostertagia ostertagi
ostertagia ostertagi: ages affected all ages; young more susceptible
ostertagia ostertagi: disease assoc w/what? intensive pasture production
ostertagia ostertagi: lc d/i direct
ostertagia ostertagi: lc segmented eggs passed, devel to L1, hatch, L3ingested, exsheath in rumen, enter gastric glands (abomasum), molt, young adults mature in lumen of abomasum
ostertagia ostertagi: infective stage L3
ostertagia ostertagi: ppp 10-14 days
ostertagiosis: cause? abomasal damage caused by maturing worms emerging from abomasal glands
ostertagiosis: two disease types I: summer/autumn (N), aut/winter (S), emergence of parasite from gastric glands 10-14d after ingestion of L3; II: wi/sp (N), au(S), simultaneous emergence of previously arrested larvae
ostertagiosis: pathology structural/physiological changes in abomasum; specialized cells fo gastric glands degenerate/replaced by cuboidal mucus-secreting cells = lowered HCl & pepsinogen production = inc pH = diarrhea, sloughed mucosa, bacterial invasion
ostertagiosis: clinical manifestations of type I overstocking especially young cattle; failure to gain weight, anorexia; diarrhea - dark green feces; dehydration
ostertagiosis: clinical manifestations of pre-type II potential disease; increase in numbers of larvae as they accumulate w/in gastric glands; no changes in activity of stomach
ostertagiosis: clinical manifestations of type II severe emaciation; brown to green diarrhea; edema; death 1-2 weeks in most severe cases; abomasum becomes edematous w/hypertrophy of gastric mucosa
ostertagiosis: tx/control treat to remove hypobiotic larvae &/or the use of anthelmintics which have residual effect so that incoming larvae are destroyed before they can establish
ostertagiosis: immune response must be exposed over time to stimulate protective immune response; worms have capacity to reduce immune competence of host; if cattle are not exposed /min exposed, they remain susceptible
teladorsaiga (ostertagia) circumcincta: host sheep, goats
teladorsaiga (ostertagia) circumcincta: climate cool, moist climates
teladorsaiga (ostertagia) circumcincta: disease similar to that seen in cattle
teladorsaiga (ostertagia) circumcincta: importance in TX pales in comparison to Trichostrongylus colubriformis or Haemonchus contortus
ostertaginae of white tailed deer ostertagia, mazamastrongylus (apteragia)
ostertaginae of exotic deer spiculopteragia
ostertaginae of llamas, camels, antelop camelostrongylus mentulatus
ostertaginae of exotic antelop longistrongylus curvispiculum
ostertaginae of sheep marshallagia, teladorsaiga
trichostrongylus axei: sf trichostrongyloidea
trichostrongylus axei: common name hair worm
trichostrongylus axei: host ruminants, horses, swine
trichostrongylus axei: repro product passed in fecels segmented eggs
trichostrongylus axei: clinical signs gastroenteritis, weight loss, inappetence
trichostrongylus axei: ppp 2-3 wks
trichostrongylus axei: relation to other parasites seldom primary pathogen; contributes to parasitic gastroenteritis; often accompanies ostertagia, controlled when ostertagia is controlled
trichostrongylus axei: location in host abomasum
trichostrongylus colubriformis: location in host small intestine
trichostrongylus colubriformis: sf trichostrongyloidea
trichostrongylus colubriformis: common name black scour worm, bankrupt worm
trichostrongylus colubriformis: repro product passed in feces segmented eggs
most important species of trichostrongylus genus in TX T. colubriformis - causes black scours in goats
trichostrongylus colubriformis: hosts & clinical disease sheep, goats, llamas, exotic ruminants; anorexia, abdominal pain, progressive weakness, diarrhea, infected hosts req're twice the feed to gain comparable weights
trichostrongylus colubriformis: clinical symptom in lambs osteodystrophy - interfere w/calcium, phosphorous, vitamin A absorption
trichostrongylus colubriformis: when are they active in texas winter/spring; can survive summers in pastures
most ec important parasites of sm ruminants in northern US or winter rainfall areas trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. circumcincta complex
cooperia: sf trichostrongyloidea
cooperia: where is it found in host small intestine
cooperia: repro product passed in feces segmented eggs
most prevalent nematode of young texas cattle cooperia
warm season cooperia of cattle C. pectinata, C. punctata
cool season cooperia of cattle Cooperia onchophora
cooperia: sheep sp? C. curticei
cooperia: tx/control as calves mature, cooperia diappears; macrolides not effective against cooperia punctata so in light stockers/dairy calves other anthelmintics may be preferable
nematodirus: place in host small intestine
nematodirus: sf trichostrongyloidea
nematodirus: common name twisted wire worm
nematodirus: when does egg hatch? when L3 is present in egg
nematodirus: repro product passed football-shaped egg containing 8 cells
nematodirus helvetianus: host cattle
nematodirus helvetianus: prevalence increasing in prevalence as more ranchers use avermectins & milbemycins for tx; these drugs are effective against abomasal parasites but less effective for other genera, may not work on this parasite
measure of parasitism in ruminant hosts: what effects egg count? seasonal variance; grazing density/history; age group involved; worm burden; parasite sp (patency, fecundity); host sp (more valuable in sheep & goats - direct relationship btwn egg ct & important worms); test used
measure of parasitism in ruminant hosts: different egg count tests? mcmaster's egg/gram: less sensitive, use in sm ruminants; wisconsin dbl centrifugal sugar floatation: more sensitive, eval low egg cts, cattle; blood/serum constituents (serum protein/pepsinogen/gastrin, PCV, Hb)
measure of parasitism in ruminant hosts: postmortem gastric & intestinal contents; req's washing mucosa, microsopic eval
management practices: what strategies select for resistance? deworm ewes at or before lambing; after worming move to clean pastures; deworm strategically
management practices: what strategies don't select for resistance? deworm just sick indiv during grazing season; deworm tactically; annual rotation of class of dewormers; dewrom fewest times necessary; deworm young/stressed groups
importance of evaluating anthelmintics? essential for sm ruminants, not for cattle; little evidence of resistance in cow-calf populations, can occur in stocker or replacement dairy calves; in vitro tests (egg hatch/devel) may predict resistance before seen by other methods
small intestine: list genera not assoc w/parasitic gastroenteritis disease complex bunostomum, strongyloides, toxocara, moniezia, giardia, cryptosporidium
small intestine: list genera assoc w/parasitic gastroenteritis disease complex trichostrongyloylus, cooperia, nematodirus
bunostomum: location in host small intestine
bunostomum: sf ancyclostomatoidea
bunostomum: common name hookworm
bunostomum phelbotomum: host cattle
bunostomum trigonocephalum: host sheep
bunostomum: repro product passed in feces segmented eggs (strongyle-type)
bunostomum: lc d/i direct
bunostomum: lc seg eggs passed, hatch, L3 infect via skin penetration/ingestion; lymphatic-lung migration, return to SI
bunostomum: pathogenesis lung lesions; severe anemia; black tarry feces; onset of disease rapid
bunostomum: tx/control broad spectrum anthelmintics; sanitation, dry bed grounds; rapid immunity to reinfection established
strongyloides papillosus: location in host small intestine
strongyloides papillosus: sf rhabditoidea
strongyloides papillosus: common name hair worm
strongyloides papillosus: hsots young sheep, goats, cattle
strongyloides papillosus: parasitism alternate free-living & parasitic generations; only females parasitic
strongyloides papillosus: repro product passed in feces larvated eggs
strongyloides papillosus: lc d/i direct
strongyloides papillosus: lc larvated eggs hatch, devel to free-living OR L3 - transmamm, skin pen, oral inf
strongyloides papillosus: LC after transmammary infection direct to small intestine
strongyloides papillosus: lc after inf to naive host from env't skin/mucus membrane tracheal migration; coughed up, swallowed, est in SI
strongyloides papillosus: lc after inf to resistant host skin/mucus membrane-aortic migration; L3 remain in tissues until lactation - transmitted to offspring
strongyloides papillosus: where do free-living worms live moist env'ts w/high levels organic material
strongyloides papillosus: pathogenesis no disease usually assoc; occ loose feces; dermatitis; rapid death in a few calves housed on saw dust if millions of worms
strongyloides papillosus: what age is infected young; first parasite egg passed by young animal
toxocara vitulorum: location in host small intestine
toxocara vitulorum: SF ascaroidea
toxocara vitulorum: repro product passed in feces single-celled eggs
toxocara vitulorum: host cattle, buffalo, bison
toxocara vitulorum: LC d/i direct
toxocara vitulorum: lc single-celled egg passed, req're 3 wks to become infective L2, ing, hatch, somatic migration; transmamm trans, develop in gut of calf
toxocara vitulorum: ppp 1 mo
toxocara vitulorum: pathogenesis calves spontaneously lose infection by 6 months of age; diarrhea, emaciation, obstruction, death, usually no clinical signs
moniezia: location in host SI
moniezia: family anophlocephalidae (cestdode)
moniezia: common name broad/common tapeworm
moniezia expansa: host sheep, goat
moniezia benedeni: host cow
moniezia: lc d/i indirect
moniezia: IH oribatid mites
moniezia: stage in IH cysticercoid in mite; DH ingests mite during grazing
moniezia: ppp 6 wks
moniezia: repro product eggs containing hexacanth embryo
moniezia: pathogenicity ocmon in young; no disease; assoc w/diarrhea in kids/lambs; poss relationship with enterotoxemia in lambs; overeating disease, pulpy kidney; may enable clostridium perfringens to proliferate; has been blamed for many conditions w/o data to support
moniezia: tx none recommended, except for esthetic purposes; owner benefits more from Tx than livestock; keep young susceptible animals out of pastures
giardia intestinalis: phylum retortamonada
giardia intestinalis: location in host SI
giardia intestinalis: zoonotic? some strains may infect humans, others do not
cryptosporidium: phylum apicomplexa
cryptosporidium: repro product passed in feces sporulated oocysts
cryptosporidium parvum: what age is most susceptible very young animals (neonates)
cryptosporidium parvum: hosts dairy calves, lambs, kids, humans; zoonotic!!; assoc w/crowded conditions in first few wks of life
cryptosporidium parvum: where are they found in hsot brush border of epith cells of gut (primarily ileum) & resp tract
cryptosporidium parvum: lc d/i direct
cryptosporidium parvum: lc sporozoite attaches to microvillus surface of epith cell - meront - merozoites - micro/macrogametes - syngamy - zygote - sporulate, 4 sporozoites
cryptosporidium parvum: ppp 1-5 days
cryptosporidium parvum: autoinfection? some oocysts may release sporozoites w/in gut of host; lc continued w/o devel stage outside body
cryptosporidium parvum: disease microvilli mechanically distrupted; causes malabsorption, diarrhea; self-limiting infection
cryptosporidium parvum: tx fluids, rest
cryptosporidium andersoni: host cattle (older than with cryptosporidium parvum); has been assoc w/unthrify feedlot animals
cryptosporidium andersoni: location in host abomasum
large intestine: list genera found within oesophagostomum, chabertia, trichuris, trichomonas, ciliates, eimeria
oesophagostomum: locatino in host large intestine
oesophagostomum: sf strongyloidea
oesophagostomum: common name nodular worm
oesophagostomum radiatum: host cattle
oesophagostomum columbianum: host sheep, goats
oesophagostomum venulosum: host sheep, goats
oesophagostomum: repro product passed segmented eggs
oesophagostomum: commercial importance economic loss - sausage casings (loss o fintestine)
oesophagostomum: lc d/i direct
oesophagostomum: lc seg eggs passed, L1 develops/hatches; L3 - skin penetration, ingestion; penetrate intestinal wall into mucosa, molt to L4, nodules formed, emerge 7-10 days
oesophagostomum: ppp 4-5 mo's
oesophagostomum: pathogenesis diarrhea when larvae leave gut wall; nodules (may calcify; green pus)
oesophagostomum: control anthelmintics; sheep/cattle gain immunity, only a few adult worms are able to survive; disease req's large #s larvae
chabertia ovina: location in host large intestine
chabertia ovina: sf strongyloidea
chabertia ovina: common name large-mouthed bowel worm
chabertia ovina: repro product passed segmented eggs
chabertia ovina: lc d/i direct
chabertia ovina: migration mucosal
chabertia ovina: ppp 9 weeks
chabertia ovina: pathogenesis adults plug feeders, enteritis; larvae suck blood, resulting in anemia
trichuris: location in host large intestine
trichuris: sf trichuroidea
trichuris: common name whipworm
trichuris: repro product single-celled barel-shaped; bipolar plugs
trichuris ovis: host? location? sheep, goats, other ruminants (llama, camels, exotic antelope); cecum, upper colon
trichuris discolor: host? location? cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo; cecum
trichuris globulosa: host? location? cattle, sheep, camel, exotic antelope; cecum
trichuris: lc d/i direct
trichuris: lc pass single-celled egg, ing L1 egg
trichuris: infective stage L1 egg
trichuris: ppp 7-9 wks
trichuris: pathogenicity usually not pathogen
trichomonas: phylum excavata? (protozoa)
pentatrichomonas hominis: host cattle
pentatrichomonas hominis: location in host rumen, cecum, colon
pentatrichomonas hominis: pathogenicity nonpathogenic
buxtonella: phylum ciliophora (ciliates)
buxtonella: pathogenicity nonpathogenic
buxtonella: location in host large ingestine
eimeria: phylum apicomplexa (coccidia)
eimeria: host specificity? very host specific
eimeria: repro product passed in feces unsporulated oocysts
eimeria: disease in young animals <6 mo's, due to crowded conditions (feedlot), stress factors; immunity established early & maintained by repeated infection
eimeria: cattle spp E. zuernii, E. bovis, E. alabamensis, E. auburnensis, E. ellipsoidalis
eimeria: most important sp in bovine feed lot eimeria zuernii
eimeria zuernii: common what time of year winter
eimeria zuernii: clinical signs dystentery, tenesmus, weakness, anemia; CNS disturbance: cerebral or nervous coccidiosis; electrolyte imbalance though to cause swelling of brain
eimeria: which cattle sp is generally non-pathogenic? E. alabamensis, E. ellipsoidalis
eimeria: 8 spp of major interest in small ruminants E. ahsata, intricate, ovinoidalis, parva, gilruthi, ninakohlyakimovae, ariongi, macusaniensis
eimeria: 5 spp of interest for sheep ahsata, intricate, ovinoidalis, parva, gilruthi
eimeria: 4 spp of interest for goats gilruthi, ninakohlyakimovae, ariongi
eimeria: general clinical signs diarrhea, dysentery, weight loss
eimeria: which sp is most important in feedlots for sheep? E. ovinoidalis
eimeria: which small ruminant spp are non-pathogenic parva, gilruthi
eimeria: which sp causes death in sm ruminants e. ahsata
eimeria: which sp is important in feedlots for goats? e. arlongi; also asoc w/shearing/weaning of angora goats
most pathogenic of cameloid's coccidi? eimeria macusaniensis - hypoproteinemia w/o common clinical sign of infection
genera in liver & bile ducts? fasciola, fascioloides, dicrocoelium, thysanosoma
fasciola: DH cow, sheep, goat, pig, horse, rabbit, human, rodents, marsupials
fasciola gigantica: where is it foudn in host? bile ducts; tropical areas of the world
fasciola hepatica: where does it live in host bile ducts
fasciola hepatica: LC egg - miracidium - sporocyst - redia - cercaria - metacercaria - mature in bile ducts
fasciola hepatica: ppp 12-14 wks in cattle; 10-12 in sheep
acute fascioliosis sheep, llamas; immature flukes invade liver tissue; can cause death; hemorrhagic tracts w/cellular damage & formation of scar tissue; eggs won't be in feces yet - post mortem Dx
black disease sheep, cattle; assoc w/Clostridium novyi; sudden death; putrefaction of carcass, engorgement of SQ vessels; fluid in peritoneal cavity, damaged liver; disease due to migrating f. hepatica larvae
red water / bacillary hemaglobinuria cattle; Clostridium haemolyticum; acute death - hemaglobinuria, brisket edema, dyspnea, death; liver infarct w/local necrosis
chronic fascioliosis 3-4 mo's PI; biliary fibrosis; anemia, jaundice, bottle jaw, ill thrift, diarrhea; cattle - condemned liver, may delay puberty / decr spermatogenesis; sheep/goat/llama - death, ill thrift
fasciola hepatica: tx/control anthelmintics only effective against adult flukes; control snails/habitats; strategic use of anthelmintics - sept/nov remove adults from cattle; avoid contaminated pastures in winter/spring
fasciola hepatica: immunity increased fibrous CT in liver & early expulsion of adult flukes from adult cattle; acquired immunity in cattle, not sheep
fascioloides magna: common name giant deer fluke
fascioloides magna: where are they found in host capsules in liver parenchyma
fascioloides magna: ppp 5 months
fascioloides magna: infection in cattle/moose thick encapsulations, lack connecting channels to bile ducts; eggs trapped, non-patent infection; black pigment, large cavities in liver parenchyma; in cavities in lung, uterus; bacillary hemoglobinuria
fascioloides magna: infection in sheep/goat/llama wanders in liver, severe tissue damage; non-patent infection
fascioloides magna: infection in deer biliary cirrhosis
dicrocoelium dendriticum: family dicrocoeliidae
dicrocoelium dendriticum: class trematode
dicrocoelium dendriticum: location in host bile ducts
dicrocoelium dendriticum: IH land snail (cionella), ant (formica)
dicrocoelium dendriticum: LC d/i indirect
dicrocoelium dendriticum: LC egg contain miracidium, ing by land snail - sporocyst - cercaria - ejected in slime (pulmonary exudate) - ing by ant - metacercaria - ing by DH - metacercaria ascend bile ducts
dicrocoelium dendriticum: ppp 10 wks
dicrocoelium dendriticum: pathogenesis fibroblastic proliferation of small bile duct, portal veins, brr of hepatic a; usually no clinical sig
dicrocoelium dendriticum: immunity none
dicrocoelium dendriticum: importance ec loss - condemnation of livers; may be assoc w/black disease
dicrocoelium dendriticum: control chickens!! eat snails
thysanosoma actinoides: common name fringed tapeworm
thysanosoma actinoides: class/order/family cestoda / cyclophyllidea / thysanosomidae
thysanosoma actinoides: DH sheep, other ruminants; NOT cattle
thysanosoma actinoides: IH psocids (book lice)
thysanosoma actinoides: location in host liver (esp common bile duct)
thysanosoma actinoides: pathogenesis fibroblastic proliferation of bile dects, portal vv, brr of hepatic a; no clinical sig
thysanosoma actinoides: immunity none
thysanosoma actinoides: LC cysticercoid in IH, sheep ingest IH, adult tapeworm in duodenum near bile ducts / within bile dicts
thysanosoma actinoides: importance liver condemnation; no disease; indirectly assoc w/Kline grass toxicity
list genera in abdominal cavity setaria, taenia, echinococcus
setaria labiatopapillosa: st filarioidea
setaria labiatopapillosa: location in host abdominal cavity
setaria labiatopapillosa: IH mosquitoes
setaria labiatopapillosa: Dh cattle worldwide; sheep/goats in mid east
setaria labiatopapillosa: ppp 8-10 mo's
setaria labiatopapillosa: infective stage L3
setaria labiatopapillosa: pathogenicicy none unless aberrant (eye); assoc btwn dead adult worms in inguinal canal & bull infertility; mid east - commonly aberrant in spinal canal = lumbar paralysis
setaria labiatopapillosa: control mosquito control
taenia hydatigena: order/family cyclophyllidea / taeniidae
taenia hydatigena: larvae are called what? cysticercus tenuicollis
taenia hydatigena: where are they found in host attached to serosal surface of liver or other organs in abdominal cavity
taenia hydatigena: host DH - canids; IH - sheep, cattle, pig, goat
taenia hydatigena: lc eggs shed in dog feces, IH ingests eggs, onchospheres (hexacanth embryo) carried to liver via portal system, embryos break out of BV & wander in parenchyma, attach to peritoneum, omentum, mesentery; DH ingests IH
taenia hydatigena: pathogenesis liver damage hemorrhagic tracts; hepatosis cysticercosis may resemble acute fascioliosis; black disease
echinococcus granulosus: order / family cyclophyllidea / taeniidae
echinococcus granulosus: disease caused hydatid disease (in IH)
echinococcus granulosus: IH ruminants, swine, macropods, equids, humans; only become infected by ingesting eggs passed by canids
echinococcus granulosus: DH canids; become infected by ingesting hydatid cyst in raw offal of IH; only in SI
echinococcus granulosus: zoonotic? yes; espeically Artiodactyla strain
echinococcus granulosus: describe hydatid cyst fluid filled, thick walled, opaque cyst w/germinal membrane; brood capsules, & daughter cysts develop from germinal membrane each contains numerous scolices; hydatid sand = free scolices in cyst fluid; mostly in liver & lungs
echinococcus granulosus: LC proglottids passed in dog feces, eggs released; IH ingests embryophore,hexacanth embryo carried to tissues; dog ingests cyst
echinococcus granulosus: public health significance serious pathogen in man - man ingests eggs
list genera in respiratory system dictyocaulus, protostrongylus, muellerius, mammomonogamus, oestrus, cephenemyia
dictyocaulus: location in host respiratory system
echinococcus granulosus: zoonotic? yes; espeically Artiodactyla strain
dictyocaulus: common name lung worms
echinococcus granulosus: describe hydatid cyst fluid filled, thick walled, opaque cyst w/germinal membrane; brood capsules, & daughter cysts develop from germinal membrane each contains numerous scolices; hydatid sand = free scolices in cyst fluid; mostly in liver & lungs
dictyocaulus: repro product passed in feces L1 larvae
echinococcus granulosus: LC proglottids passed in dog feces, eggs released; IH ingests embryophore,hexacanth embryo carried to tissues; dog ingests cyst
dictyocaulus: repro product passed by female larvated eggs; hatch in respiratory or GIT
echinococcus granulosus: public health significance serious pathogen in man - man ingests eggs
dictyocaulus viviparous: host cattle, deer
list genera in respiratory system dictyocaulus, protostrongylus, muellerius, mammomonogamus, oestrus, cephenemyia
dictyocaulus viviparous: LC d/i direct
dictyocaulus: location in host respiratory system
dictyocaulus viviparous: LC larvated eggs passed in air passages, coughed up, swallowed; hatch in GIT, L1 passed in feces, L3 move onto fungus, spreads L3, ingested, lymphatic-tracheal migration -> lung
dictyocaulus: sf trichostrongyloidea
dictyocaulus viviparous: ppp 21 days
dictyocaulus: common name lung worms
dictyocaulus viviparous: pathogenesis
dictyocaulus: repro product passed in feces L1 larvae
dictyocaulus: repro product passed by female larvated eggs; hatch in respiratory or GIT
dictyocaulus viviparous: host cattle, deer
dictyocaulus viviparous: LC d/i direct
dictyocaulus viviparous: LC larvated eggs passed in air passages, coughed up, swallowed; hatch in GIT, L1 passed in feces, L3 move onto fungus, spreads L3, ingested, lymphatic-tracheal migration -> lung
dictyocaulus viviparous: ppp 21 days
dictyocaulus viviparous: pathogenesis little damage assoc w/penetration of gut; eosinophilic exudate blocks small bronchi, collapse alveoli; granuloma; secondary bacterial pneumonia; edema, emphysema; increased respiratory rates, coughing
dictyocaulus viviparous: clinical signs - acute verminous pneumonia, high temp, high HR/RR; coughing, cyanosis, nasal d/c; death
dictyocaulus viviparous: clinical signs - chronic weight loss; coughing; slow recovery, may have permanent damage; strong resistance for 3 months, then wanes; most return to normal respiratory function
dictyocaulus viviparous: contorl prb in groups of calves running together; single suckled calves usually develop immunity before they are challenged w/sufficient #s to cause disease; rotate pasture w/calves using pasture before cows; weekly rotation to parasite-free pasture
dictyocaulus filaria: host sheep
dictyocaulus filaria: location in host bronchi, bronchioles, trachea
protostrongylus rufescens: location in host respiratory system; small bronchioles & alveoli
protostrongylus rufescens: sf metastrongyloidea
protostrongylus rufescens: common name lungworm
protostrongylus rufescens: repro product passed by female larvated eggs
protostrongylus rufescens: repro product passed in feces L1 larvae w/kinked tail
protostrongylus rufescens: host DH: sheep/goat; IH: land snails, slugs
protostrongylus rufescens: lc d/i indirect
protostrongylus rufescens: LC hatcehd larvae coughed, swallowed, L1 passed -> snail -> L3 in IH -> sheep ingest IH -> lymphatic migration -> lungs, molt in mesenteric LNN & lungs
protostrongylus rufescens: ppp 5-6 wks
protostrongylus rufescens: pathogenicity usually nonpathogenic; cause of death of lambs, esp in areas where sheep & bighorns utilize same range
mullerius capillaris: location in host respiratory system: terminal bronchioles & alveoli
mullerius capillaris: sf metastrongyloidea
mullerius capillaris: common name lungworm
mullerius capillaris: repro product passed by female unsegmented eggs
mullerius capillaris: host DH: sheep, goats; IH: land snails, slugs
mullerius capillaris: lc d/i indirect; similar to protostongylus
mullerius capillaris: pathogenicity host reaction causes worms to be enclosed in fibrous nodules; common infection; diesase not diagnosed
mammomonogamus laryngeus: location in host respiratory tract (larynx)
mammomonogamus laryngeus: sf strongyloidea
mammomonogamus laryngeus: host cattle, buffalo
mammomonogamus laryngeus: geogrpahy africa, asia, tropical america
mammomonogamus laryngeus: pathogenesis blood suckers; apparently none even when present in large numbers
oestrus ovis: location in host nasal caity, sinuses
oestrus ovis: class/order/family insecta / diptera / oestridae
oestrus ovis: common name nasal bot; sheep bot fly
oestrus ovis: host sheep, goats
oestrus ovis: zoonosis? in humans - ocular myiases
oestrus ovis: lc adults don't feed; larviposit near nasal cavity, larva crawl to sinuses, develop, feed on mucous secretions; mature larvae expelled from nose, pupate on ground
oestrus ovis: times of year active srping through fall
oestrus ovis: pathogenicity irritate nasal & sinus mucosa causing mucopurulent d/c sometimes w/blood; osteomyelitis assoc w/dead bots can lead to memingoencephalitis -> death; hosts don't feed when flies larviposit, lie in shade w/noses on ground
oestrus ovis: control noxious substances have been used to repel flies / kill bots; most harder on host than the parasite
cephenemyia: location in host nostrils
cephenemyia: class/order/fmaily insecta / diptera / oestidae
cephenemyia: common name nasal, pharyngeal, head, throat bots
cephenemyia: host deer
cephenemyia: LC larviposit in nostrils; larvae develop in nasal cavity then move to pharyngeal pouches; sneezed out 3rd instar; pupate in soil
cephenemyia: pathology little evidence of physiological damage; frightens hunters that are certain the bots come from the meat
list genera in the cardiovascular system trypanosoma, babesia, theileria
trypanosoma: locatino in host cardiovasc system
trypanosoma: phylum euglenozoa
trypanosoma: d/i lc indirect
trypanosoma: which spp are salivarian trypanosomes?characteristics? vivax, congolense, brucei brucei; all are pathogenic
trypanosoma, salivarian types: biological vector tsetse fly (inoculative transmission)
trypanosoma, salivarian types: immune evasion mechanism varied specific antigenic surface coat production
trypanosoma vivax: biological vector? mechanical vector? bio - tsetse fly; mech - horse fly
trypanosoma vivax: hosts cattle, sheep, goats
trypanosoma vivax: clinical effect to host fever, anemia, emaciation, weakness; may be found in lymph nodes as well as cardiovasc system
trypanosoma congolense: vector? tsetse fly only vector
trypanosoma congolense: clinical disease rapid disease, febrile spike, anemia, wasting, most die
trypanosoma brucei brucei: vector? only vector tse tse fly
trypanosoma brucei brucei: host cattle sheep, goats, horses, camel, cats, dogs; other subspp infect man
trypanosoma brucei brucei: clinical effect remittent fever, anemia, edematous swelling of abdomen, legs, genitalia, emaciated, muscular atrophy, lumbar paralysis
trypanosoma: which spp are stercorarian? characteristics? trypanosoma theileri; non-pathogenic
trypanosoma, stercorarian types: where do they develop develop in hind gut of vector
trypanosoma, stercorarian types: how are they transmitted? fecal contamination of wounds, or mucous membranes or ingestion of infected vector
trypanosoma theileri: host? cattle
trypanosoma theileri: pathogenicity non-pathogenic
trypanosoma theileri: vector horsefly; accidental ingestion; biological vector
trypanosoma theileri: stage infective to cow metacyclic stage (in horsefly gut)
babesia: phylum apicomplexa
babesia: location in host cardiovascular system
babesia: stage in vertebrate host? piroplasms in RBC
babesia: clincal effects anemia, hemoglobinemia
babesia bigemina: large or small sp? large
babesia bigemina: vector rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (one host tick)
babesia bovis: clinical effects anemia, hemaglobinuria, CNS disease
babesia bovis: vector boophilus microplus
babesia in cattle: transovarial or transstadial trans transovarial
theileria: phylum apicomplexa
theileria: stages in vertebrate host merogony in lymphocytes; piroplasms in RBC (early gamonts) (no replication in RBC, piroplasms don't destroy RBC)``
theileria: vector tick: gamonts mature & undergo syngamy in tick intestines, sporogony occurs in salivary glands
theileria parva: disease? east coast fever - lymphoid hyperplasia; extremely pathogenic - mortality near 100% in cattle
theileria parva: hosts cattle, cape buffalo
theileria annulata: disease tropical theileriosis; extremely pathogenic
theileria annulata: hosts cattle, water buffalo
theileria cervi: pathogenesis non-virulent piroplasms of white tailed deer; anemia, ill thrift
theileria cervi: host white-tailed deer
theileria cervi: vector amblyomma americana
list genera in nervous system thelazia, parelaphostrongylus, taenia (coenurus)
thelazia: location in host nervous system; conjunctival sac behind nictating membrane
thelazia: sf spiruroidea
thelazia: IH diptera of genera fannia, musca
thelazia californiensis: host sheep, deer
thelazia gulosa: host cattle
thelazia skrjabini: host cattle
thelazia: LC L1 larva passed in lacrymal secretions/feces, flies ingest, devel to L3 in IH, escapes when IH feeds -> orbit of eye, develop to adult
thelazia: infective stage L3
thelazia: ppp 3-6 weeks
thelazia: pathogenesis keratitis
thelazia: control/tx surgical removal; fly control
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: location in host nervous system; venous sinuses of meninges of white-tailed deer
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: sf metastrongyloidea
thelazia: repro product produced by female L1
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: repro product passed by female eggs; hatch in host
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: repro product passed in feces L1
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: host DH: white tailed deer; IH: land snails, slugs
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: LC d/i indirect
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: lc eggs passed from sinuses to lungs, hatch, coughed up, swallow, passed in feces, penetrate snail; develop to L3, ing by deer; migrate to spinal canal - brain - meninges
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: ppp 3 months
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: pathology no clinical signs in deer; fatal in other spp (neurological damage)
taenia: location in host nervous system
taenia : taxonomy cestode / cyclophyllidea / taeniidae
taenia multiceps: what are larvae called? coneurus cerebralis; translucent fluid-filled cyst w/multiple protoscolices
taenia multiceps: host DH: canids; IH: sheep - coenurus in CNS
taenia multiceps: LC eggs shed in dog feces, ing by sheep, hatch in SI, onchosphere penetrates gut wall & enters portal system; those carried to CNS grow; dog ing coenurus
taenia multiceps: pathogenesis coenurus grows -> pressure on CNS
list genera in musculoskeletal system taenia (cysticercus), sarcocystis
taenia saginata: location in host muscles of cattle (IH)
taenia saginata: what are larvae called cysticercus bovis
taenia saginata: describe cysticercus small fluid-filled sac-like structure w/single protoscolex
taenia saginata: public health human DH; adult in human SI
taenia saginata: importance in IH reason for condemnation of carcasses -> economic loss
taenia saginata: IH cattle
taenia ovis: name of larva cysticercus ovis
taenia ovis: host DH dog; IH sheep (muscles)
taenia ovis: location in IH muscles
taenia ovis: importance condemnation of carcass for aesthetic reasons; no pathegenicity
sarcocystis: phylum apicomplexa
sarcocystis: location in host musculoskeletal
sarcocystis: lc d/i indirect; predator/prey
sarcocystis: host DH predator (man, carnivore); IH prey (cattle, sheep, goat)
sarcocystis: importance muscular cysts may cause condemnation of carcasses; cysts either macroscopic or have eosinophilic granuloma surrounding cyst producing greenish foci in muscle
sarcocystis: pathology abortion, hair loss, weight loss, lymphadenopathy
list genera in the repro system tritrichomonas, toxoplasma, sarcocystis, neospora
tritrichomonas foetus: location in host repro system
tritrichomonas foetus: phylum parabasalia
tritrichomonas foetus: disease it causes bovine venereal trichomoniases
tritrichomonas foetus: clinical symptoms early abortion in cows; infertility in bulls
tritrichomonas foetus: host bovine; esp important in range cattle
tritrichomonas foetus: transmission venereal (coitus OR AI)
tritrichomonas foetus: resistance female: self-limiting; male: chronically infected
tritrichomonas foetus: control test!; AI, separate herds until all cows originally infected are removed; use bulls 2 yrs; vaccination
toxoplasma gondii: location in host repro tract
toxoplasma gondii: phylum apicomplexa
toxoplasma gondii: host DH cat; IH many mammals
toxoplasma gondii: what age is affected? most serious pathogen in neonates; lses serious in older animals
toxoplasma gondii: disease in cattle resistant to disease but may become infected; disease uncertain but rare beef may be source of infection to humans
toxoplasma gondii: disease in sheep/goats abortion, neonatal death; biphasic disease, abortions during acute phase in dam; if fetuses become infected will have stillbirths, or early neonatal deaths
toxoplasma gondii: immunity only primary infection results in disease; initial infection establishes solid immunity against subsequent tissue forms in immunologically normal IH's
toxoplasma gondii: transmission by ingestion of sporulated oocysts sporozoites emerge & pass to parenteral tissues via blood & lymph; invade any cell by endodyogeny producing tachyzoites or bradyzoites
toxoplasma gondii: transmission by ingestion of tissue forms (contamination) tachyzoites found in macrophages in LNN, lung, liver, milk, saliva, semen; probably of minimal significance in horizontal tranmission, major sig in vertical trans; spread during breeding, some horizontal spread in sheep flocks
toxoplasma gondii: transmission by vertical transmission tachyzoites! transplacental &/or transmammary trans
toxoplasma gondii: trans by ingestion of tissue forms transmission to humans; unpasteurized sheep/goat milk (tachyzoites) or eating insufficiently cooked tissues of cattle, sheep, goats (bradyzoites)
sarcocystis: how are ruminants infected? ingesting sporulated oocysts
sarcocystis: effect to ruminants abortion (#1 cause of cattle abortions in CA, important in TX)
neospora caninum: phylum apicomplexa
neospora caninum: clinical effect abortion; myelitis in young calves; calves may be born alive, some are dummies/neuromusc defects
neospora caninum: host high prevalence of infection in beef herds
neospora caninum: location in host repro system; fetus has bradyzoites in brain, tachyzoites in brain/other tissues
neospora caninum: LC unspor oocyst passed in dog feces, spor oocyst infective; vert trans maintain infec (endemic), contaminated feed (placenta) (epidemic), tachyzoites reproduce & cross placenta to calf, reproduce, bradyzoites in brain, abort/CI, dog ingests, mer/gam/syngamy
neospora caninum: immunity some evidence of acquired immunity; however, some cattle abort on more than one gestation
list genera infecting integument elaeophora, stephanofilaria, onchocerca, dermatobia, hypoderma, various arthropods
elaeophora schneideri: where does it live in host integument (microfilaria); adult in carotid artery of DH
elaeophora schneideri: sf filarioidea
elaeophora schneideri: d/i lc indirect
elaeophora schneideri: host DH: mule deer; IH hybomitra (horse fly), family tabanidae
elaeophora schneideri: lc IH ingests microfilaria, develop to L3 in horse fly, trans to DH via fly bite, mature in carotid artery
elaeophora schneideri: pathogenesis in mule deer, WT deer none
elaeophora schneideri: pathogenesis in sheep dermatitis of head & feet
stephanofilaria stilesi: locatino in host cutaneous lymphatics on ventral abdomen of cattle
stephanofilaria stilesi: d/i lc indirect
stephanofilaria stilesi: sf filarioidea
stephanofilaria stilesi: host DH cattle, buffalo; IH haematobia irritans (horn fly)
stephanofilaria stilesi: LC microfilaria on ventrum of cow, ing by horn fly; develop to L3, fly feeds -> trans to DH, develop to maturity in skin
stephanofilaria stilesi: ppp 6-8 wks
stephanofilaria stilesi: pathogenesis early lesions moist, later lesions become dry & crusted; ventral midline, usually near umbilicus
stephanofilaria stilesi: control horn fly control
onchocerca: locaton on host epidermis (microfilaria)
onchocerca: sf filarioidea
onchocerca: lc d/i indirect
onchocerca: host DH cattle/buffalo; IH simulium (black fly)
onchocerca lienalis: location in host (adults) ligamentum nuchae, stifle joints, splenic ligament, splenic capsule
onchocerca gibsoni: location in host (adults) SQ brisket & lower limbs; occ muscle
onchocerca armillata: location in host (adults) aorta
onchocerca: lc simulium ingest microfilaria; develop to L3, reach labia, trans to cow by feeding flies
onchocerca: pathogenesis no important damage except O. gibsoni in brisket; ec loss
onchocerca: control black fly control
hypoderma: locatoin in host epidermis
hypoderma: common name cattle grub, heel fly, cattle warble
hypoderma: taxonomy order diptera / family oestridae
hypoderma: what stage is in cattle larvae
hypoderma: lc adults non-feeding; F attach eggs to lower legs, hatch, enter body via hair follicle, migrate to esophagus/spinal cord, develop, migrate to back, form cavities ("warble"), cut hole through skin for breathing, grub drops to ground & pupates, adult emerges
hypoderma: pathogenicity cattle gad, behavioral changes; affect weight gain; ec loss of leather, excessive trimming of carcass; if treated systemically when larval stages are in esoph/spinal canal, may be rxn to dead grubs in tissues -> bloat, ataxia
hypoderma: when to treat? after fly activity ceases to kill larvae after last eggs have hatched, before 1st larvae reach esophagus/spinal canal;late spring/early summer in TX
dermatobia hominis: location on host integument
dermatobia hominis: order/fmaily order diptera, family oestridae
dermatobia hominis: host cattle - primary host; larval stage found on man, dog, cat, sheep
dermatobia hominis: lc adult (non-feeding) attaches eggs on blood-sucking arthropod, hatch @ blood meal, enter vert host; warble in skin; larvae escape & pupate on ground
dermatobia hominis: pathology painful lesion; secondary myiasis or bacterial infection
most important ectoparasites of cattle biting flies, psoroptic mange mites, lice, ticks
diptera: lc complete metamorphosis (adult - egg - larvae - pupae)
cochliomyia hominivorax: hosts all livestock, petts, humans
cochliomyia hominivorax: where do they deposit eggs fresh wound, larvae feed on living tissue
cochliomyia hominivorax: importance reportable
blow flies: list 5 cochliomyia macellaria, phaenicia sericata, phormia regina, lucilia, calliphora
blow flies: where do they breed carrion, infest devitalized tissues, urine, fecal soiled wool/hair; under bandages
blow flies: importance sig losses in sheep w/diarrhea or wet humid conditions -> fleece ferments due to bacterial decomposition of dirt in wool -> infestation; odor of maggot infestation is diagnostic
fly strike fleece worm; pasture, feedlot or dry lot problem; prevent - heard health, sanitation, prevent diarrhea, reduce overcrowding; eliminate skin folds
musca domestica: mouth parts sponging
musca domestica: where do they breed horse manure, organic debris
musca domestica: where do they feed eyes, genitalia, wounds
musca domestica: importance ransmit fecal bacteria as fomites, salmonella; transmit moraxella bovis (keratoconjunctivitis)
musca domestica: where are they a large problem milking parlors, feedlots
musca domestica: control sanitation; sprays; compost feces/organic material; remove feces
musca autumnalis: common name face fly
musca autumnalis: mouth parts sponging
musca autumnalis: breeds in what? cattle poop
musca autumnalis: importance annoyance; transmit Thelazia lacrymalis, Moraxella bovis
stomoxys calcitrans: common name stable fly
stomoxys calcitrans: where is it a problem stall, shaded areas
stomoxys calcitrans: where do they breed organic material
stomoxys calcitrans: mouthparts piercing-sucking (biting)
stomoxys calcitrans: importance transmit anaplasma marginale
haematobia irritans: common name horn fly
haematobia irritans: where does it breed cattle dung on pasture
haematobia irritans: mouthparts piercing sucking
most ec important ectoparasite of cattle in texas haematobia irritans: interrupt grazing
haematobia irritans: where do adults spend their time on teh host; prefer bulls to cows to calves; dark to light colored hosts; not a big feedlot problem
haematobia irritans: importance vector of stephanofilaria stilesi; most ec important ectoparasite of cattle in texas
simulium: common name black flies; buffalo gnats
simulium: mouth parts blade-like cutting mouthparts
simulium: where do they feed ears; body
simulium: where do they breed flowing water -> impossible to control
simulium: importance salivary secretions may contain a toxin which increases capillary permeability; assoc w/death of livestock due to edema of nasal passages & suffocation
culicoides: common name biting midge
culicoides: mouthparts blade-like cutting / slashing mouthparts
culicoides: importance seasonal dermatitis in horses; bluetongue virus vector; epizootic hemorrhagic disease of WT deer
culicoides: when are they active warmer parts of year; crepuscular & nocturnal periods
culicoides: where do they breed low-lying areas that periodically fill with water
mosquitoes: what genera? aedes, anopheles, culex
mosquitoes: mouthparts piercing-sucking
mosquitoes: importance cause death due to worry, exsanguination/suffocation; vector of setaria labiatopapillosa, cache valley & WN Viruses
tabanids: genera tabanus (horse fly); chrysops (deer fly); hybomitra (green head)
tabanids: mouthparts slashing & sponging
tabanids: control epps biting fly trap
tabanids: importance mech: anaplasma marginale (cow); biological: trypanosoma theileri (cow), elaeophora schnedieri (deer, sheep)
melophagus ovinus: common name sheep ked
melophagus ovinus: family hippoboscidae
melophagus ovinus: host nomrally host, goat reported
melophagus ovinus: what stages live on host all stages
melophagus ovinus: feed on what? blood
melophagus ovinus: importance irritation, staining of wool -> lower wool quality; cockle = damage to hide caused by keds or lice
lipoptena: common name deer ked, louse flies
lipoptena: what stages on host adult; pupate on ground
lipoptena: feed on what? blood of WT deer
what lice genera infect ruminants? bovicola, haematopinus, linognathus, solenopotes
lice: lc incomplete metamorphosis
lice: what stages on host all stages
lice? host specificity very host specific
chewing or sucking lice more important sucking - blood loss; both can cause irritation, pruritus, loss of hair
lice: what time of year? winter / cool season
mallophaga: type of louse biting/chewing
bovicola: order? mallophaga (biting)
bovicola: importance only genus of biting lice commonly encountered in grazing domestic livestock
bovicola bovis: host? location on host? cattle; top of back, base of tail, shoulders
bovicola caprae: host? milk or cashmere goats
bovicola limbata: common name angora goat biting louse
bovicola crassipes: host angora goat; ec significant - cut hair shafts, lowers quality/quantity of mohair
bovicola ovis: host sheep; shearing removes most of the lice
anoplura: type of louse? sucking
anoplura: feed on what? blood, lymph
haematopinus eurysternus: common name short-nosed cattle louse
haematopinus eurysternus: host? location? mature cattle; neck, dewlap, back, base of horns
haematopinus quadirpertusus: common name cattle tail louse
haematopinus quadripertusus: host? location? calves; cattle tail switch, edges of ears, eyelashes; may be summertime parasite
linognathus vituli: common name long-nosed cattle louse
linognathus vituli: host? location? cattle; dewlap, shoulders, sides of neck, rump
linognathus pedalis: common name foot louse
linognathus pedalis: host? location? feet & legs of sheep
linognathus ovillus: common name face & body louse
linognathus ovillus: host & locatoin sheep; areas where wool & hair meet
linognathus stenopsis: common name goat sucking louse
linognathus stenopsis: host goat
linognathus africanus: common name blue louse
linognathus africanus: host? location? goats, sheep, deer; found on head & neck of goats
solenopotes capillatus: common name little blue louse
solenopotes capillatus: where is it found on host found on muzzle, neck, and dewlap of cattle
solenopotes capillatus: host cattle
fleas: order siphonaptera
fleas: what groups of animals have them yougn animals, stabled in areas frequented by dogs/cats; most likely ctenocephalides felis
ticks: what genera infect ruminants amblyomma, dermacentor, ixodes, rhipicephalus, otodius megnine, ornithodoros
ixodidae: which stages are on host larvae, nymph, adult on host; eggs laid in env't
amblyomma americanum: common name lone star tick
amblyomma americanum: time of year? warm-season
amblyomma americanum: one or three host three: large grazing animals are good hosts for adult ticks
amblyomma maculatum: common name gulf coast tick
amblyomma maculatum: one or three host three
amblyomma maculatum: importance vicious biter (ears); wounds often attract screwwroms; gotch ear
amblyomma canjennense: common name cayenne tick
amblyomma cajennense: host cattle, sheep, goats, deer
amblyomma cajennense: where do they feed on host dewlap, udder/scrotum, axilla, escutcheon
amblyomma cajennense: importance vector for heartwater (ehrlichia ruminantum)
amblyomma cajennense: when are they active march-may
dermacentor albipictus: common name winter tick
dermacentor albipictus: host cattle, deer
dermacentor albipictus: one or three host one
dermacentor albipictus: when are they active? november to spring
dermacentor albipictus: importance tick worry; ghost moose; vector of anaplasma marginale
dermacentor andersoni: common name rocky mountain wood tick
dermacentor andersoni: one or three host three
dermacentor andersoni: importance tick paralysis, tick worry; anaplasma marginale (in intermoutnain region)
dermacentor occidentalis: common name pacific coast tick
dermacentor occidentalis: one or three host three
dermacentor occidentalis: what stage(s) feed(s) on grazing animals adults
dermacetnor occidentalis: importance anaplasma marginale vector
ixodes: one or three host three: larvae & nymph on small animals; adults on large animals
ixodes scapularis: common name black-legged tick; deer tick
ixodes scapularis: when are they active winter, spring
ixodes scapularis: importance vector of borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme)
rhipicephalus: one or three host one
rhipicephalus annulatus: common name cattle fever tick
rhipicephalus annulatus: host? where do they attach? mostly cattle; axilla, udder/scrotum, tail, head, neck, escutcheon
rhipicephalus annulatus: importance vector of bovine babesiosis
rhipicephalus microplus: common name tropical cattle tick
rhipicephalus microplus: importance vector of babesia bovis & babesia bigemina
argasidae: common name soft tick
otobius megnini: common name spinose ear tick
otobius megnini: life stages on host larvae & nymphs - deep in ear canal; adults not parasitic
otobius megnini: importance in large numbers - otitis externa/media from secondary infection; mechanical obstruction of ear canal
otobius megnini: hosts ruminants, horses, pets, wild mammals (equal opportunity parasite)
ornithodoros coriaceus: common name pajaroello tick
ornithodoros coriaceus: host deer, cattle
ornithodoros coreaceus: when do they feed? night; remain on bedding grounds; only feed intermittently at ngiht
ornithodoros coreaceus: importance transmits borrelia-like organism assoc w/epizootic bovine abortion
mites: what genera are important to ruminants raillietia auris, demodex, chorioptes bovis, psoroptes, sarcoptes scabiei
raillietia auris: host? where? cattle; ear near tympanic membrane
raillietia auris: importance has been assoc w/rare middle ear infection in young calves
demodex caprae: host goat
demodex caprae: where on host? body, primarily neck, thorax
chorioptes bovis: host? where? cattle, sheep, goats; hind legs, scrotum, escutcheon
chorioptes bovis: importance confirm that mite is chorioptes bovis, not psoroptes ovis (which is reportable & quarantinable)
psoroptes ovis: common name cattle or sheep scab
psoroptes ovis: host? where? cattle, sheep; body, surface feeders
psorotptes ovis: importance scab formation; reportable & quarantinable; problem in cattle feedlots & populations of bighorn sheep
psoroptes cuniculi: host goats, rabbits (ears)
sarcoptes scabiei: wehre on host? deep burrowing mite
sarcoptes scabiei: host specificity host-specific; can infest other hosts & illicit pruritic response
sarcoptes scabiei: importance udder cleft dermatitis in dairy cattle; pruritus
general mite life cycle egg to egg 3 wks; all stages on host; adult - egg - larva - nymph; more prevalent in cooler areas, winter
Created by: shelbell8389



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