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Test 2,

PhAn exam

QuestionAnswer
How do polygenic traits differ from Mendelian traits? They are considered complex instead of simple, with a complex inheritance.
How is height a barometer for human health? Height is not only determined by genus and environment but also physical and cultural. Height is a plastic trait.
What is plasticity? Explain how the environment shapes the phenotype for plastic traits. Plasticity is the ability to modify or change in relation to the environment (malleable genes).
What is Bergmann's Rule? Bergmann's Rule indicates body size, body mass. Temperature is an indicator for body size. If you live in a hot environment: smaller body. If you live in a cold environment: larger. Smaller bodies have larger surface area, relative to body size
What is Allen's Rule? Allen's Rule regards temperature and limbs. If you live in a hot environment, you have longer limbs. if you live in a cold environment, you have shorter limbs. Longer limbs increase surface are relative to body size.
What is Gloger's Rule? Gloger's Rule is a rule that predicts skin color based on latitude.
What is Wolff's Law? Wolff's Law states that bones grows where needed, absorbed when it's not.
What are the different ways humans adapt to a high altitude environment? Discuss the adaptations in individuals who: a) Change their residence from low to high altitude as an adult b) Grew up in a high altitude Humans adapt to a high altitude environment through long and short term adaptations. ST: mountain sickness. LT: barrel chest, shorter stature
Explain how skin color is an adaptation to sunlight. What factors account for the variation of skin pigmentation in human populations? (Selection FOR vs AGAINST pigmentation) Skin color adapts to sunlight-higher UV=darker skin, lower UV=lighter skin
Do races exist? Race exists as a cultural construct. Trace is socially defined, and NOT determined by Mendelian traits
Are races biologically or culturally determined? Races are culturally determined: there are no biological characteristics that determine one's 'race'.
What evidence was documented in the film, "Race: The Power of an Illusion"? Race was displayed as a social excuse for fates of "inferior" races. Genetically we are most similar
List (and understand) the feature to classify the Primate order
What are the common features of Prosimians? Elongated snout, larger olfactory bulbs (on brain), lack bony cups, toothcomb, many are nocturnal.
What are the similarities and differences found in Anthropoids (Platyrrhini vs Catarrhini)? Platyrrhini: only monkeys. wide nasal septum. forested areas=central and South america. arboreal quadrupeds. Catarrhini: (OW monkeys have hook noses, terrestrial/arboreal, Africa, India, SE Asia. both are have larger bodies, larger brains. eyes=forward
What features are used to distinguish the different superfamilies from each other? Ceboidea: NW Monkeys, some prehensile tail. Cerco: OW Monkeys,hook nosed. Homin: apes and humans.
Name a few examples of each type of Primate: Pros: lorises/galagos. Tars: tarsiers. Lemur: lemur. Cebo: marmosets, tamarins, spider monkey. cerco: colobus, langurs, baboons. homin: gibbons, chimps, orangs, humans.
Discuss the different aspects of primate behavior: diet, body size, locomotion, residency patterns, activity patterns
When did the Neolithic Revolution occur-was this simultaneous across the globe? 10,000y.a. late pleistocene/early holcene. foraging-->domestication. 10-11 different centers of diffusion (not simultaneous)
What were the major centers of domestication? Fertile Crescent-Jordan Valley.
What craniofacial changes accompanied the transition to agriculture? Malocculusion: over/under-bite overcrowding. not enough room in mouth due to smaller jaw. masticatory-functional hypothesis
How did the shift to agriculture affect human health? BADLY: food surplus, large population, alcohol, transportability, complex society, superfoods. zoonosis.
How does this affect on human health (agriculture) show up on the bones and teeth? Harris Lines: indicating periods of stress and then growth. Enamel Hypoplasia: same as harris lines, but on teeth. dental carries: cavities.
Why does Jared Diamond propose agriculture was our worst mistake? What evidence supports his claims? increases in enamel defects, shorter lifespan, iron anemia, bone lesions. there was increases in all of it, 2fold+
Additive Rule Multiple loci
Allen's Rule Temperature and limbs correlation. Hotter climates=longer limbs, Colder climates=shorter limbs. Longer limbs increase surface area relative to body size.
Anthropoid (Anthropoidea)
Arboreal quadruped
Bergmann's Rule Body size, body mass. Temperature is an indicator for body size. Hot climates=smaller, colder=larger. Smaller bodies have larger surface area relative to body size.
Biological Determinism All variations encoded in DNA (a wrong theory)
Bipedalism Walking on 2 legs.
Brachiation Swinging underneath the trees from branch to branch.
Catarrhini OW (OW Monkeys, apes and humans). Hook nose (narrow septum). terrestrial/arboreal (land/trees). Africa, SE Asia, India.
Ceboidea=Ceboids/Atelids Arboreal, suspensory locomotion, atelids have a prehensile tail, diverse diet (insects fruit leaves).
Cercopithecodiea=Colobines/Cercopithicines
Clinal variation
Cribra orbitalia In eyes, porus marrow cavaties, caused by iron deficencies
Dental Formula 2:1:2:3 Incisors, Canines, Premolar, Molar.
Diet (Omnivorers; frugivores; folivores; insectivores; gumnivores)
Diurnal/Nocturnal/Cathemeral
Domestication Looking at change in genetics (wild vs domestic), subconcious v concious. Food surplus, lg population, alcohol, trasnportability, complex society, superfoods
Dominance Hierarchy
Enamel Hypoplasias Same as Harris Lines, but on teeth-showed as lines when stressor is endured then relieved
Encephilization Quotient (EQ) Increase in brain size relative to body size, method of calculation. Brain size/body x 100
Fertile Crescent Jordan Valley, 50+ sites all showed wild--> domestic
Folate Vitamin
Foraging Semi nomadic gathering for food
Gloger's Rule Rule that predicts skin color based on latitude
Harris Lines Growth resumption lines on long bones-showed as lines when stressor is relieved
Hominoidea=Hylobatids/Pongids/Hominins
Iron Deficiency Heme v non heme iron, heme iron comes from meat, non heme comes from veggie
Jordan Valley 50+ centers of diffusion, in Fertile Crescent
K-selection
Knuckle walking
Madagascar
Malocclusions Overbite/underbite/overcrwoding not enough room in jaw, due to smaller jaws
Masticatory-functional hypothesis
Melanin Brown pigmentation produced in melanocytes, between dermis and epidermis. Can be stimulated by environment, affect by genes, determined by 6 genetic loci
Melanocytes Place where melanin is produced, situated between the dermis and epidermis.
Neolithic Revolution 10,000ya. 10-11 different centers of domestication. during the late pleistocene/early Holocene culture.
Orbital Orientation Where your eyes are situated (an adaptive advantage), in primates: front, stereoscopic; color
p53 tumor supressor gene Produces protein which protects against tumors. mutation occurs during mitosis
Olfactory bulb
Paleopathology Examines diseases in past population
Periosteal Reaction Generalized change, outer part of bone reacts by overproducing (due to infection) straiations
Plasticity Ability to modify or change in relation to environment
Platyrrhini NW. Only monkeys. broad nose. forested areas of central and south america. arboreal quadrupeds
Polygenic Traits Different from Mendelian traits, considered complex instead of simple, with a complex inheritance and multiple loci
Porotic Hyperstosis Porus marrow cavaties, caused by iron defecieny, in skull.
Post-orbital bar Bone around eye
Bony Cup (post-orbital plate) Only higher primates have, bone @ back of eye orbit, gives protection
Prehnsile tail Tails that acts as a kind of hand for support in trees, common in NW Monkeys
Prosiminas (Prosimii): Lorises/Lemurs/Tarsiers aka "lesser primates". greater reliance on sense of smell over vision. elongated snout, larger olfactory bulb. rhinarium. lack bony cups, less degree of color vision. toothcomb, 3 premolars. many are nocturnal
Race No biological variation; social construct. Not determined by Mendelian traits
Residence patterns (multi-male/female; polygynous; polyandrous/ monogamous; solitary)
Rhinarium wet nose (helps collect scent)
Rickets/Osteomalacia Rickets/Osteomalacia (child/adult). reproductive challenges, pelvic inlet. caused by a vitamin D deficency, leeching calcium from bones
Secular trend
Sexual dimorphism Some sort of difference b/w biological genders. ex: coloration, body size
Superfoods Cheap calories, deficient in amino acids, corn, wheat, rice
Toilet claw In prosiminans, a grooming tool
Treponematoses Classification of bacterial infection: shyphili, yaws, bejel, pinta affects bones in 2nd ste. pits bones, pocketing, lumpy appearance
Turbinate Bones Thin bones in nasal cavity, lined w/nerve endings
UV Radiation increased UV radiation=increased melanin. melanin acts as natural sunscreen, breaking down UV to prevent damage
VCL Vertical Clinger Leaper.
Vitamin D
Wolff's Law Bone grows where needed, absorbed when not
Y-5 and Bilophodont molars Y-5: lower jaw, 5 cusps, ridges make a "y"shape (humans and apes) Bilophodont: 2 "loafs" per molar, pattern cusps make, in monkeys
Zoonosis Transfer of disease from animal to human. caused by increase in animal contact.
Dental Caries Cavaties
Dickson Mounds 950AD gatherers, 1100-1200AD partial maize, 1200-1300 full maize, shows increases in health defects like enamel issues, bone lesions
Created by: meredithlangfitt