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Biocultural Anthro

1st half of biocultural anthro notes

QuestionAnsweranswer cont
biological anthropology also called physical anthropology, study of humans as biological organisms chromosomes: double strands od DNA, carries genes in them genes: shortened pieces of DNA carry genetic code, decides who you are/will be
archaeology study of humans in the past. prehistoric archaeology: study of human materials and culture before written records historic archaeology: study of human material and cultures with written records contract archaeology: people who recover archaeological info right before a site is about to be distrubed/destroyed
cultural anthropology study of the cultures of living people ethnography: study of all behaviors at a single time, Marco polo is earliest example of ethnographer ethnology: study of one behavior across many cultures social anthropology: study of human social structures, studies how people are related, social relations Psychological anthropology: study of intelligence across many cultures
linguistics study of languages historical linguistics: study of evolution and development of languages social linguistics: study of daily use of languages in society psycholinguistics: cross cultural study of language acquisition
Karyotyping part of physical anthro, science of counting and sorting chromosomes
chromosomal abnormalities to have viable offspring, you need to have the same number of chromosomes, if you don't then successful reproduction is not possible ie. mules, have 31.5 pairs of chromosomes downs syndrome: extra chromosome 21
Duplication of life asecual reproduction: simple cell division, mitosis, need only one parent, resulting offspring is a clone of the parent. this works well in a stable, unvarying environment and requires very little energy sexual reproduction: meiosis, need two parents, unique combination of dna, better in variable environment, very costly
evolutionary change evolution is a change in gene frequency of a breeding population from one generation to the next evolution is affected by random genetic drift, random gene flow, random mutations, random natural selection or artificial selection
genetic drift change in gene frequency bc a group becomes isolated from the rest of the herd by chance ie. founders affect, huttites, native americans
gene flow change in gene frequency due to interbreeding between several populations
mutations change in gene frequency due to an alteration in DNA, completely random, one of the sources of variation changes in chromosome number or shape are a result of drug, radiation, or aging of sex cells, the result is generally lethal for the offspring
natural selection change in gene frequency due to the different survival rates of one gene over another
artificial selection change in gene frequency because of purposely controlled breeding to keep certain traits in and others out ie. domestication, not always good for the organism, like seedless oranges
speciation formation of a new species 2 rates of speciation: gradualism: slow, gradual accumulation of genetic differences punctuated equlibrium: rapid genetic change followed by stasis
taxonomy study of classifying organisms Linneaus: father of modern classification system: binomial nomenclature discussed evolution in taxonomy, believed that if there was a lot of physical resemblance between two groups, they might have had a common ancestor
qualities of the order primates physical characteristics: prehensile hands and feet, opposable thumbs, nails not claws, increased brain size, foramen magnum under scull, reduced snout, eyes in front for depth preception reproductive characteristics: generally single births, long relationships between sexes, no rut season, long gestation period, and long postnatal care and dependency
pre-cambian 1. origin of earth, some of the first organisms
paleozoic and mesozoic 2. Age of fish, proliferation of fish, amphibians and reptiles 3. mesozoic age of dinosaurs
cenozoic 4. age of mammals, mammals are the primary animals, primates initially, homonids towards the end
paleocene Cenozoic part a. mammals, birds, pollinating insects spreading
eocene cenozoic part b. insectivore mammals to prosimians
oligocene cenozoic part c. prosimians --> monkeys
miocene cenozoic part d. monkeys --> apes --> hominoids
pliocene cenzoic part e. earliest true hominids, ie. austrolopithecus
pleistocene humans appear, ice ages
Hominoids vs Homonids hominoids: humans and their close relatives dryopithicus: gave way to apes Ramapithecus: gave way to homonids homonids : humans and their immediate ancestors, genus austrolopithicus and homo
Fossils preserved remains of plants or animals, typically only hard tissue, ie bones fossilize, tissue covered in sand/mud or lava/tar, fossilize
fossil dating techniques Relative dating technique: can tell if the fossil is older or younger than another fossil absolute dating techniques: can give a fossil's real age, based on radioactive decay
relative dating techniques: types of stratigraphy stratigraphy: rocks are formed in layers, fossils in deeper layers are older than fossils in shallower layers biostratigraphy: unique to animal bones, bones found from one site can be used to date bones from another site, even w/o good stratigraphic layers
Relative dating techniques:Fluorine analysis fluorine analysis: used for bones exposed to ground water w fluorine, longer bone is exposed to area, more fluorine it contains. PROBLEMS only gives relative dates, assumes consistent global stratigraphy and F levels, may be good only for regional fossils
Absolute dating techniques: carbon 14 living plants and animals have carbon in them, when they die, they stop taking carbon 14, which breaks down into carbon 12 at a constant rate. the c14:c12 ratio will help calculate age, only reliable 70,000ya ~present can only date organic things, assumes c14 breaks down into c12 at a constant rate, ignores possibility of c14 contamination (excess co2, warm vs cold climate), can't date material older than 70,000
Absolute dating techniques: potassium argon datin potassium, found in volcanic ash, breaks down into argon at a constant rate, measuring the ratio can calculate age, only reliable from 2mya-100,000ya problems: can only date fossils buried in volcanic areas, assumes k breaks down into argon at a constant rate, only reliable form 2mya-100,000ya
Absolute dating technique: paleomagnetic dating magnetic poles of earth switch every 100,000 years, metals in volcanic rocks will line up toward current magnetic pole, by mearsuring orientation of metals, you could calculate age problems: assumes constant shift in magnetic poles, can only date fossils w magnetic metals, only reliable at 100,000 year intervals
Absolute dating technique: dendrochronologic dating dating fossils using tree rings, provides good chronologies for american southwest and northern europe problems: can only date fossils in context w tree rings, very regional, not good for global dating
Anthropoid 1) aegyptopithicus: more monkeylike, eocene and oligocene
hominoids oligocene and miocene. 2) dryopithicus: gave way to apes (3)Ramapithicus: gave way to hominids
hominids 4) austrolopithicus afarensis: lucy, pleiocene, small size and cranial capacity (5) austrolopithicus robustus: pleiocene and pleistocene, very strong, slightly larger cc than lucy (6)Austrolopithicus africanus: pleiocen and pleistocene, very gracile, larger cc than lucy but smaller in size and cc than robustus
hominids cont. (7)Homo habilis: handy man, oldawan tools, first tools (8) homo erectus: java man, found in java, first evidence of use of fire (9) homo neanderthal: complex material culture, art, tools, taller and more cc than us (10) homo sapiens: complex material culture and society, domestication, less cc than neanderthal
primates characterized by general skeleton, mobilized digits, lack of snout, fewer teeth, sense of smell deemphasized, upright position, complex cortex, prolongated infant dependency, increased vision
Tree shrews (1) transitional form between insectavore and mammals. clawed, small, better vision and worse smell, no close mother-young bond
prosimians (2) true primates, most primitive, only found in madagascar and far east, arboreal, great sense of smell, single births examples are: lemur, bush baby, tarsier
old and new world monkeys (3)OWM: color and stereoscopic vision, depth preception (3)NWM: more primitive than OWM, not related, restricted to trees, no ground walking, diurnal, located in south america
lesser apes (4) no tails, far easter jungles, walk bipedally and swing on trees, aversion to water, take long time to mature
great apes (5) chimps, orangutans, gorillas, live long time, advanced learned behavior/rate of learning, quadrepedal usually, can be bipedal for sometime, good vision, very evolved, manual dexterity gorillas: don't use tools, prefer ground. Chimpanzees: use tools, fine in ground or trees orangutan: prefers trees, uses tools
continuous (facultative) traits and discontinuous (obligate) traits continuous: traits that fall under a range, ie. height, skin color, height/weight ratio obligate: you have it or you don't, ie. teeth, lactose intolerance,etc.
Berman's rule and Allens rule Bergman: body mass, temperature and distance to the equator are related, the colder things get, more body mass the organism gets allen: appendage length, temperature and distance to equator are related, as the temperature gets higher, appendages get longer
body and cranial shape body: endomorphic- short and stocky, colder areas. ectomorphic- tall and lean, warmer areas. mesomorphic- inbetween the two cranial shape: brachycephaly- short and wide. dolichocephal- tall and narrow. mesocephaly- in between
types of human adaptations cultura, biological and physiological (acclimatory)
cultural adaptations much more significant than biological adaptations in humans, behavioral adjustments resulting from technological innovations, almost all adaptations are cultural
biological adaptations genetic adjustments made by the population, usually by natural selection, very few adaptations are biological
physiological adaptations physiological and developmental adjustments made by individuals to environmental change, most growth and developmental adaptations occur this way
types of physiological adaptations short term: rapid physiological responses. Long term: prolonged physiological response developmental acclimitization: liefspan physiological response from being born and raised in an extreme environment
extreme environments UV, Heat, cold, high altitude, high population density, disease look at slides for details about short term, long term and developmental acclimatizations and cultural changes
Netsilik general location: norther canada, islands near arctic circle subsistence strategy: seasonal subsistence cycle, harpooning seal in winter and fishing and hunting caribou in summer
anthropology study of humanity, study of being human
Created by: hsinha93