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Parasit: horses

T/F: young horses have innate immunity to parasites F. they develop immunity
flies & those parasites which are trasmitted by ingestion of eggs are more prevealent in stable or grazing? stable
gasterophilus: order diptera (flies)
gasterophilus: common name horse bots
gasterophilus: what stage is infective to horses larvae found in stomach of equids; adults are non-feeding, free-flying diptera
gasterophilus intestinalis: common name common horse bot
gasterophilus intestinalis: geographic distribution cosmopolitan
gasterophilus intestinalis: where are the lesions tongue & between cheek teeth; in nonglandular stomach
gasterophilus intestinalis: parasitism little evidence of real damage to horse although flies cause the horse great vexation
gasterophilus intestinalis: life cycle F deposits eggs on hair (usually inner surface of forelimbs prox to carpus) - incubate 5 days+, reqr moisture to hatch - enter mouth when licked, penetrate oral mucosa/tongue, migrate to stomach, attach in esoph region, mature larvae pass in feces, pupate
gasterophilus intestinalis: how do larvae breath dorsal portion in air bubble
gasterophilus intestinalis: how long do they spend in stomach may remain over winter
gasterophilus nasalis: common name chin/throat bot
gasterophilus nasalis: geographic distribution cosmopolitan
gasterophilus nasalis: how do horses act when flies are active stand with heads over water troughs
gasterophilus nasalis: LC eggs attached in submandibular region, hatch 4-5 days; direct migration into mouth, crawl btwn lips, attach in glandular portion of stomach, pyloric region/duodenum
gasterophilus nasalis, inteswtinalis: peak transmission autumn (sept-nov) until first frost; some activity in spring - adult flies seen in all months
gasterophilus: importance annoying activities of adult flies; damage to stomach lining by larvae is trivial
gasterophilus: treatment treat 30 days following first killing frost to remove most bots form stomach; adult sflies don't feed = pesticides have little impact on adults
gasterophilus nasalis: control Tx once or twice/year; keep horses stabled during the day, flies don't fly into barns/not active at night
draschia megastoma: phylum nematode
draschia megastoma: superfamily spiruroidea
draschia megastoma: direct/indirect LC indirect
draschia megastoma: host DH: equinds; IH: musca domestica, stomoxys calcitrans (house/stable fly)
draschia megastoma: best way to see eggs sedimentation
draschia megastoma: habitat adults w/in gastric 'tumors', nodules/absfcesses in fundus near margo picata; hundreds of worms may be found wihtin the nodule
habronema muscae: phylum nematode
habronema muscae: SF spiruroidea
habronema muscae: host DH: equid; IH: musca domestica
habronema majus (microstoma): host DH: horse; IH: stomoxys calcitrans
habronema majus (microstoma): phylum nematode
habronema majus (microstoma): sf spiruroidea
Draschia, habronema: LC larvated eggs passed in feces, fly larvae ingest parasite larvae/larvated eggs; L3 develops in fly & crawls out of adult fly mouthparts onto feed/H20 or fly eaten by horse, adult develops in stomach
habronema vs drashcia: where do they develop? mucosal nodules (drashia) or free (habronema) in equine stomach
habronema: ppp 2 months
drashcia: ppp 2 months
define xenodiagnosis` diagnosis by finding causative organism in vector infected form host; ex) place fly eggs & horse feces in jar, 10-12 day slater find nematode learvae in flies
diagnosis of draschia & habronema sedimentation of larvated eggs, xenodiagnosis, cutaneous habronemiasis
define cutaneous habronemiases collect deep skin scraping/biopsy & soak material in physiological saline in Baermann apparatus. larvae will crawl out of tissue & sink to bottom of the baermann collection tube, decant & examine sediment
draschia megastoma: pathology assoc with adults generall y no clinical signs; granulomatous parasitic nodules in fundic region of stomach may look neoplastic; Dx - see parasites on biopsy
habronema spp: pathology assoc with adults occastionally associated with mucoid gastritis
draschia & habronema: pathology assoc with larvae Cutaneous habronemiases (summer sores) - infective L3 larvae deposited by fly at aberrant locations=chronic draning cutaneous granulomatous lesion, proud flesh; pruritic, lesions - face/legs; larvae enter capillaries in skin, transmported to lung
draschia & habronema: what happens when larvae are transported to lung associated with rhodococcus equi abscesses
draschia & habronema: cutaneous form must be differentiated form what? phycomycosis Hyphomyces destruens or constant irritation
draschia & habronema: prevention/control fly contorl; cleaning/caring of genitalia & eyes; routine deworming to kill adult worms; compost feces to kill larval flies; lesions regress during winter
trichostrongylus axei: phylum nematode
trichostrongylus axei: sf trichostrongyloidea
trichostrongylus axei: typical host stomach of herbivores; more prevalent in horses grazed with ruminants
trichostrongylus axei: repro product passed oval thin-shelled segmented eggs
trichostrongylus axei: LC direct/indirect direct
trichostrongylus axei: infective stage L3, ingested during grazing
trichostrongylus axei: ppp 3 weeks
trichostrongylus axei: pathogenesis gastritis - hypersecretion of gastric mucus; chronic hyperplastic gastritis; wart-like thickening w/central depression & raised periphery; glandular portion of stomach, fundus
trichostrongylus axei: clinical signs mild or none; gastritis
trichostrongylus axei: control as for other pasture-borne parasites; antihelmintics are effective
parascaris equorum: common name large roundworm
parascaris equorum: phylum nematode
parascaris equorum: sf ascaroidea
parascaris equorum: location in host small intestine of equids
parascaris equorum: what age is affected most foals; older horses that aquire the infection for the first time are adversely affected
parascaris equorum: resistance? usually develops after 6 months if the foal has expreienced an infection; development of protetive response requires stimulation of migration
parascaris equorum: LC single-celled egg passed in feces; L2 ingested, hatches, hepatic-tracheal migration, molt in lung, couged up & swallowed, develop in SI
parascaris equorum: infective stage L2 egg; requires 10+ days to become infective
parascaris equorum: how does it do in env't? importance of this? L2 egg very env'tally resistant; foals of one season are source of eggs for foals of subsequent seasons
parascaris equorum: ppp 10-12 weeks; eggs may be passed by foals as early as 80 days of age
parascaris equorum: pathogenesis infection in foals/yearlings; migration in lung = coughing, nasal d/c; catarrhal enteritis, ill thrift, potbellied
parascaris equorum: msot improtant aspect to infection lung migration
parascaris equorum: treatment populations of parascaris are resistant to ivermectin/moxidectin
parascaris equorum: control routine deworming - 60-75 days of age, repeat at 45-60 day intervals; keep hay/grain off ground; pick up feces & compost
strongyloides westerni: phylum nematode
strongyloides westerni: sf rhabditoidea
strongyloides westerni: common name intestinal threadworm
strongyloides westerni: free-living or parasitic both
strongyloides westerni: what repro product is passed in feces thin-shelled larvated eggs (L1)
strongyloides westerni: age affected very young foals
strongyloides westerni: where do eggs hatch environment
strongyloides westerni: infective stage L3
strongyloides westerni: transmission skin penetration or ingesion; most important source of infetion is mare's milk!
strongyloides westerni: where do adult worms live both sexes - moist organic material; some f - parasitic
strongyloides westerni: LC in foals L3 infective, migrate to lungs, coughed up/swallowed
strongyloides westerni: LC in mare infective larvae have somatic migration, accumulate in tissues until parturition -> mammary gland; transmamm trans 4-47 days after foaling
strongyloides westerni: ppp per os (in milk) 8-12 days; cutaneous 10-14 days
strongyloides westerni: pathogenesis usually nonpathogenic; 2-3 wks of age most serious; dermatitis, pneumonia, enteritis; trans of Rhodococcus equi (if skin pen.)
strongyloides westerni: immunity become immune to intestinal stages, seldom seen in foals >8 months of age; tissue stages mobilized at parturition go to mammary tissue; a few may mature in mare
strongyloides westerni: tx anthelmintics effective against adult worms; prevent transmission to foal via milk if administered at foaling
strongyloides westerni: control sanitation (dung piles, wet/soiled bedding); deworm mares at foaling; during wet pds keep young foals out of area which have had older foals; free-living larvae are activated by wet weather (skin pen)
tapeworms: order cyclophyllidea
tapeworms: family anoplocephalidae
tapeworms: stage in equids adults
tapeworms: IH oribatid (forage) mites
tapeworms: larva type in IH cysticercoid
tapeworms: shape of mature segments wider than long, each w/single set of repro organs
tapeworms: eggs contain hexacanth; angular
anoplocephala magna: common name giant tapework
anoplocephala magna: where is it found in host ileum, rarely LI & stomach
anoplocephala perfoliata: common name lappetted tapeworm
anoplocephala perfoliata: where is it found in host ileum & cecum; eliocaecal valve
paranoplocephala mamillana: common name dwarf tapeworm
paranoplocephala mamillana: where is it foudn in host small intestine & stomach
paranoplocephala mamillana: phylum/class platyhelminthes/cestoda (tapeworm)
anoplocephala perfoliata: phylum/class platyhelminthes/cestoda (tapeworm)
anoplocephala magna: phylum/class platyhelminthes/cestoda (tapeworm)
tapeworms: LC gravid seg passed from host, degenerate & release eggs; hexacanth onchosphere ingested by IH, cysticercoid develops in IH in 2-4 months, IH eaten by horse while grazing
tapeworms: ppp 6 weeks
tapeworms: where does IH live oribatid mites; live in soil & humus, feed on organic material, may be millions/acre
tapeworms: clinical signs usually none; possible obstruction of ileocaecal valve, mild colic to intussusception w/A. perfoliata; colic; catarrhal enteritis, ill thrift
tapeworms: Dx segments, centrifugal sugar flotation
tapeworms: resistance? easily reinfected by returning to pastures already contaminated
tapeworms: which spp may be resistant to pyrantel A. perfoliata
eimeria leuckarti: phylum apicomplexa - coccidia
eimeria leuckarti: kingdom protozoa
eimeria leuckarti: hosts horse, ass
eimeria leuckarti: ppp 15-33 days
eimeria leuckarti: LC typical eimeria LC
eimeria leuckarti: disease rarely diagnosed; usually in foals (2/3 of foals on specific properties); diarrhea, dehydration, death
eimeria leuckarti: tx/control no specific tx; pnazural; sanitation
eimeria leuckarti: where does it live in host small intestine
cryptosporidium parvum: kingdom protozoa
cryptosporidium parvum: phylum apicomplexa - coccidia
cryptosporidium parvum: host? euryoxenous (wide host range, some strains adopted to specific hosts); normally self-limiting pathogen of man, claves, pigs, lambs, foals
cryptosporidium parvum: sporulation in or out of host inside
cryptosporidium parvum: what organisms are shed sporulated oocyst - infective when shed; env'tally resistant
cryptosporidium parvum: location in host intracell, extracytoplasmic; attaches to microvillus border of intestine, primarily ileum, & repsiratory epith cells
cryptosporidium parvum: what age most susceptible young animals (neonates); may lead to death in immunodeficient foals (diarrhea)
cryptosporidium parvum: LC sporozoite attaches to microvillus -> meront ->4-8 merozoites, produce further meronts or become micro/magrogametocytes; syngamy -> zygote - sporulate (4 sporozoites) - passed in feces
cryptosporidium parvum: ppp 1-5 days
cryptosporidium parvum: autoinfection? some oocysts may release sporozoites w/in gut of host & life cycle is continued w/o stage outside body
cryptosporidium parvum: env'tal resistance? oocysts; resistant to most disinfectants; persistant in env't if moist; dessication kills
cryptosporidium parvum: tx hydration/supportive
strongylus: phylum nematode
strongylus: sf strongyloidea
strongylus: direct/indirect LC direct
genus strongylus: migration? larvae migrate extensively
genus strongylus: common name migratory strongyles - blood worms
strongylus vulgaris: where do they live in host cecum
most important parasite of horses before ivermectin? strongylus vulgaris; now unusual & may not be diagnosed
stongylus edentatus: where is it found in host right ventral colon
strongylus equinus: where is it found in host cecum, right ventral colon
genus strongylus: what kinds of feeders are they? plug feeders
genus strongylus: repro product passed in feces segmented eggs, L1 larva
genus strongylus: how long do the eggs take to hatch? <1 wk in summer, 2-4 wks + in winter temps
genus strongylus: infective stage L3 ensheathed larva; temperature dependent < 1 week after being passed in summer, 5-10 wks in cold temps
genus strongylus: survival in env't up to 2 years in coolclimate, shorter in hot/dry climate
genus strongylus: LC segmented eggs/L1 larva passed, L3 infective move up grass when moist, ingested by horse; migrate through visceral tissues
strongylus vulgaris: larvae migration L4 ascend cr mesenteric a brr via ileocecocolic aa; molt to L5, juveniles carried down bloodstream to arterioles in subserosa of intestinal wall, become encased in nodules, return to lumen, complete maturation
strongylus vulgaris: ppp 6-7 months
strongylus edentatus: larvae migration L3 enters mucosa of intestine, gains liver via portal circulation, migrates in liver & grows; leave liver via hepatic lig to flank, wander in sub-peritoneal CT for 3 mo's, return to gut via mesentery; larvae develop in gut wall = hemorrhagic nodules
strongylus edentatus: ppp 11-12 months, may be shorter in non-immune hosts
strongylus equinus: larvae migration L3 penetrates LI mucosa, wander in liver 6-7 wks,leaves via hepatic ligg, migrate to pancreas/kidney, molt to L5; return to gut by direct penetration
strongylus equinus: ppp 9-9.5 mo's
genus strongylus: pathogenesis of adult worms plug feeders, suck blood, form hemorrhagic ulcers where attaches; 10 uL/day of blood utilized by each adult worm seldom a problem; normocytic, normochromic anemia
genus strongylus: pathogenesis of larval S. vulgaris arteritis -> thrombi & emboli of cranial mesenteric a & brr = ulceration of mucosa/colon/cecum when blood supply is limited; infarction; immune reaction = colic, posterior ataxia
genus strongylus: pathogenesis of larval S edentatus hemorrhagic tracts: liver, pancreas-pancreatitis, kidney
genus strongylus: pathogenesis of larval S equinus hemorrhagic tracts: liver, pancreas-pancreatitis, kidney
genus strongylus: tx/control most drugs effective against adults; control - as for non-migratory strongyles
small strongyles / cyathostomes: phylum nematode
small strongyles / cyathostomes: sf strongyloidea
small strongyles / cyathostomes: migration? non-migratory; mucosal migration
small strongyles / cyathostomes: repro products passed thin-shelled segmented eggs
oesophagondontus: classification? small strongyles
triodontophorus: classification? small strongyles
craterostomum: classification? small strongyles
cyathostomum: classification? cyathostomes
cylicodontophorus: classification? cyathostonmes
cylicocyclus: classification? cyathostomes
cylicostephanus: classification? cyathostomes
poteriostomum: classification? cyathostomes
gyalocephalus: classification? cyathostomes
small strongyles / cyathostomes: life cycle direct/indirect direct
small strongyles / cyathostomes: repro product passed in feces segemented eggs
small strongyles / cyathostomes: LC segmented eggs passed, L1 develop/hatch, develop to L3, picked up during grazing; enter mucosa as L3, molt to L4, return to lumen L5/L4
small strongyles / cyathostomes: ppp 2-3 months to several years
small strongyles / cyathostomes: hypobiosis some larvae arrestedin development in mucosa, L3 & L4 stages; seasonal L3, density-dependent L4
small strongyles / cyathostomes: pathogenesis nodules caused by larvae in wall of LI; adults feed on mucosa, some blood suckers, some genera which graze on mucosa in herds may cause deep ulceration; nodules rupture, release larvae, may cause reaction; diarrhea, colitis; perforate intestine
small strongyles / cyathostomes: cyathostomiosis younger horses, late winter/spring, after deworming; lose condition, non-febrile, diarrhea; weight loss when large #s larvae leave intestinal wall during short time interval, mechanical damage & release of vasoactive amines lead to malabsorption/wt loss
small strongyles / cyathostomes: control cyathostomes are the parasties which most often determine internal parasite control programs in 2012
small strongyles / cyathostomes: epidemiology seasonal; horses develop immunity (age/prior infection), resistant to damage by S. vulgaris, but don't develop as good a resistance to cyathostomes; still younger horses are usually more adversely affected; don't survive long hot dry summers
small strongyles / cyathostomes: how is immunity compromised malnutrition (protein), lactation, undeveloped immune system, continuous high challenge
pinworms: phylum nematode
pinworms: sf oxyuroidea
oxyuris equi: common name common pinworm
oxyuris equi: where is it found in host? colon, rectum
oxyuris equi: repro product passed larvated egg
oxyuris equi: lc direct/indirect direct
oxyuris equi: lc female lays eggs in perianal region, develop to L3 w/in eggs, horse scratches, L3 eggs ingested, released in SI, move to mucosal crypts, L4 emerges from mucosa & become adults
oxyuris equi: ppp 4 months
oxyuris equi: pathogenesis perianal pruritus, tail rubbing, L4 feed on mucosa of colon
oxyuris equi: control hygiene; treat/depopulate area several times during ppp
oxyuris equi: survival in env't eggs only survive for a month or so
oxyuris equi: immunity to reinfection? none
trichomonas equi: kingdom protozoa
trichomonas equi: phylum parabasialia
trichomonas equi: stages trophozoite only stage
trichomonas equi: where is it found in host cecum
trichomonas equi: motility corkscrew motility
trichomonas equi: clinical effects on host possible diarrhea
horse ciliates: kingdom protozoa
horse ciliates: phylum ciliophora
horse ciliates: parasitism commensal symbionts
horse ciliates: transmission per os
horse ciliates: stages trophozoites only, no cysts
horse ciliates: where are they found in host highest populations in left dorsal colon w/largest number of spp in dorsal & small colon
horse ciliates: purpose of cycloposthium stores polysaccharides
what does the presence of ciliates in wall of intestine indicate? sign of underlying disease process
fasciola hepatica: common name common liver fluke
fasciola hepatica: class trematoda
fasciola hepatica: life cycle direct/indirect indirect
fasciola hepatica: how common are they in horses rare
fasciola hepatica: IH amphibious snails
fasciola hepatica: clinical signs none
fasciola hepatica: LC refer to last exam! don't be lazy!
fasciola hepatica: diagnosis large golden operculate eggs recovered by sedimentation
echinococcus granulosus: common name tapeworm
echinococcus granulosus: class cestode
echinococcus granulosus: order cyclophyllidea
echinococcus granulosus: family taeniidae
echinococcus granulosus: what stage is in the horse hydatid cyst (larval stage)
echinococcus granulosus: IH horse
echinococcus granulosus: where is it found in host hydatid cyst found in liver, lungs, spleen of equids
echinococcus granulosus: geogrpahy primarily europe, also seen in US in horses originating form europe
echinococcus granulosus: DH dog, red fox
echinococcus granulosus: clinical signs not often seen
echinococcus granulosus: zoonosis? horse/dog hydatid is not zoonotic
heterobilharzia americana: class trematoda
heterobilharzia americana: family schistosomatidae
heterobilharzia americana: where is it normally found in host mesenteric vessels
heterobilharzia americana: host normal DH raccoons, nutria, occ dogs; IH lymnaeid snail
heterobilharzia americana: path of eggs eggs pass from mesenteric vv through intestinal wall into lumen or are trapped in liver; granuloma produced surrounding egg becomes fibrotic
heterobilharzia americana: how common is it in horses rare
Kossiella equi: kingdom protozoa
Kossiella equi: phylum apicomplexa
Kossiella equi: distribution worldwide
Kossiella equi: how many hosts? one
Kossiella equi: host horse, ass, zebra
Kossiella equi: pathogenicity? non-pathogenic
Kossiella equi: LC direct/indirect direct
Kossiella equi: infective stage sporulated sporocytst
Kossiella equi: tissue affected kidney
Kossiella equi: LC merogony (endoth cells bowmans capsule, later in epith cells prox convoluted tubules); gamogony/syngamy/sporogony: epith cells, thick limb of henle's loop; rupture host cell releases sporocysts into lumen of tubules; passed inurine
Kossiella equi: repro product passed sporocysts; passed in urine
setaria equina: phylum nematode
setaria equina: sf filarioidea
setaria equina: lc direct/indirect indirect
setaria equina: DH horse
setaria equina: where are they found in host normally - peritoneal cavity; occ migrate elsewhere, have been found in scrotum/anterior chamber of eye
setaria equina: IH stomoxys calcitrans, several genera of mosquitoes
setaria equina: pathogenicity non-pathogenic unless in eye
setaria equina: tx/control surgically remove from eye; otherwise none necessary
setaria equina: LC adults free in peritoneal cavity, produce microfilariae - in general circulation, ingested by IH, develop to L3, enter DH via bite wound, migrate to peritoneal cavity & develop
setaria equina: infective stage L3
setaria equina: repro product laid? microfilaria
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: common name lungworm
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: phylum nematode
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: sf trichostrongyloidea
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: hosts horse, donkey
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: location in host bronchioles, bronchi
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: lc direct/indirect direct
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: LC L1 passed in feces, develop to L3 in pasture, infect per os, migrate via lymphatics to lungs, patent infection in donkeys, non-patent infection in horses
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: repro product passed in feces L1 larvae
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: infective stage L3
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: clinical signs chronic bronchitis, chronic cough; eosinophilia; horse w/clinical signs will not have patent infection - check donkey & treat horse
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: control don't run donkeys w/horses or treat donkeys for Dictyocaulus
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi: repro product produced by female larvated eggs
thelazia lacrymalis: phylum nematode
thelazia lacrymalis: sf spiruroidea
thelazia lacrymalis: where does it live in host orbital region, conjunctiva under nictating membrane or lachrymal duct of equidae
thelazia lacrymalis: LC F produces larvae w/in thin membrane, larvae active & motile, L1 in lachrymal secretion, ingested by flies feeding on eye secretion; molt to L3 in fly, escapes while eating; develop to adult in conjunctival sac
thelazia lacrymalis: IH musca, fannia flies
thelazia lacrymalis: infective stage L3
thelazia lacrymalis: repro product produced by female larvae (in sac)
thelazia lacrymalis: clinical signs no evidence of worms causing disease; usually no treatment warranted
thelazia lacrymalis: control fly control
sarcocystitis neurona: kingdom protozoa
sarcocystitis neurona: phylum apicomplexa
sarcocystitis neurona: lc direct/indirect indirect (predator/prey)
sarcocystitis neurona: what disease does it transfer equine protozoal myelitis (EPM)
sarcocystitis neurona: where does it live in horse brain, spinal cord
sarcocystitis neurona: lc horse accidental IH, ingests sporulated sporocysts passed by opossums (DH)
sarcocystitis neurona: hosts DH opossums; IH armadillo, skunk, cat
halicephalobus (micronema) deletrix: phylum nematode
halicephalobus (micronema) deletrix: sf rhabditoidea
halicephalobus (micronema) deletrix: parasitism normally a free-living nematode; invasive stages are all female
halicephalobus (micronema) deletrix: pathology has been assoc w/tissue invasion; lesions involving granulomatous inflammation of nasal maxillary region, brain, kidney, limbs; reproduction within tissues
halicephalobus (micronema) deletrix: lc free-living worms enter lesion in mouth/inhales, direct migration to CNS -> blood -> tissues, destroy tissue by immunologic rxn, repro cycles (no exit from host)
strongylus vulgaris: phylum nematode
strongylus vulgaris: sf strongyloidea
strongylus vulgaris: where are L4 found migrating; found in mesenteric artery
strongylus vulgaris: pathogenesis assoc with arteritis, leading to formation of thrombi & emboli of cr mesenteric a & brr
trypanosoma: kingdom protozoa
trypanosoma: phylum euglenozoa (hemoflagellate)
trypanosoma: stage in IH epimastigote
trypanosoma: stage in mammalian host trypomastigote
trypanosoma brucei: vector tsetse flies
trypanosoma brucei: transmission biological
trypanosom abrucei: location tsetse belt, africa
trypanosoma evansi: vector biting flies, vampire bat
trypanosoma evansi: transmission mechanical (interrupted feeding of biting flies/vampire bat from infected animal to non-infected one), biological/mech (vampire bat - desmodus rotundus, found in saliva)
trypanosoma evansi: location N africa, southern asia; central & south america
trypanosoma equiperdum: vector none
trypanosoma equiperdum: transmission venereal
trypanosoma equiperdum: location africa, asia
trypanosoma evansi: hosts equids, camels, rodents, dogs, etc
trypanosoma evansi: where in host are trypomastigotes found blood, lymph
trypanosoma evansi: disease transmitted surra, el debab, murraina, mal de cadera
trypanosoma evansi: LC trypomastigote divide in blood/lymph/tissue; specific antigens help evade/exhaust immune system, replicate asexually, picked up by horse fly/vampire bat, biological/mech trans
trypanosoma evansi: clinical signs intermittent fever, watery d/c from eyes/nose, edematous swellings of abdomen, genitalia, legs; fatal in horses 2 wks - 6 months
babesia: kingdom protozoa
babesia: phylum apicomplexa
babesia: disease caused equine piroplasmosis or babesiosis
babesia: geogrpahy south texas, florida
babesia caballi: large or small species large
babesia caballi: geogrpahy worldwide; prb not in US
babesia caballi: vectors in n america dermacentor nitens, D. albipictus, D. variabilis
babesia caballi: clinical signs fever, anemia, icterus, posterior paralysis
babesia caballi: LC sporozoites inoculated by larval ticks during feeding, invade RBC, piroplasms divide in RBC, burst, repeat; adult tick ingest RBC - gamogony, syngamy, transovarian trans in tick, sporozoites in salivary glands of larval tick
babesia equi: large or small species small
babesia equi: hosts horses, donkeys, mules
babesia equi: geogrpahy europe, asia, africa, s america; rarely imported to US
babesia equi: extensive outbreak in US in 2009, 2010? transmission of organisms from horse to horse thorugh contaminated needles & ticks
babesia equi: where are meronts found lymphocytes
babesia equi: clinical signs fever, conjunctivitis, swelling of eyelids, icterus, hemoglobinuria, emaciation; mortality 10-15%
babesia equi: vectors amblyomma cajennense, dermacentor variabilis, boophilus microplus in lab; natural vector a. cajennense
babesia equi: control tick vector control
sarcocystis spp: kingdom protozoa
sarcocystis spp: phylum apicomplexa
sarcocystis spp: host IH: horse (muscle cysts); DH: dog (sporulated sporocysts)
sarcocystis spp: indirect/direct lc indirect (predator/prey)
sarcocystis spp: host is horse infected ingesting sporulated oocysts
sarcocystis spp: spp in horse? S bertrami, S fayeri, S equicanis
sarcocystis spp: prevalence common infection in horses in some env'ts
sarcocystis spp: disease not known to cause disease
sarcocystis spp: prevention keep horses away from canine feces
Onchocerca: phylum nematode
onchocera: sf filarioidea
onchocera: two spp O cervicalis, O reticulata
onchocera: where is O cervicalis found in host adult in ligamentum nuchae
onchocera: where is O reticulata foudn in horse adult in suspensory ligaments
onchocera: where are microfilaria found skin, cornea
onchocera: LC direct/indirect indirect
onchocera: vector culicoides
onchocera: ppp 4-5 months
onchocera: pathogenesis disease assoc w/infecitno given local names (summer mange, equine dhobi itch, allergic dermatitis, etc)- all assoc w/insect bites & nematode hypersensitivity; fistulous withers & poll evil assoc w/infection; skin lesions; pruritus due to dead microfilaria
habronema, draschia: transmission (summer sores) IH: house/stable flies infected with L3, L3 leave fly while it is feeding; enter cutaneous areas such as wound/mucus membranes, lesions develop form host response to aberrant larvae migration
habronema, drascia: lesions seen in warm seasons; common locations - medial canthus of eye, genitalia, wounds; chronic skin granulomas with yellow colored (granular) material in lesion
diptera: class insecta
diptera: LC complete metamorphosis: adult - egg - larvae - pupae
musca domestica: common name house fly
musca domestica: mouthparts sponging
musca domestica: where do they breed horse manure & organic debris
musca domestica: where do they feed on host eyes, genitalia, wounds
musca domestica: what do they transmit salmonella; drashia megastoma, habronema muscae
musca domestica: control sanitation; remove feces/moist organic material from stable area; sprays on breeding places
stomoxys calcitrans: common name stable fly
stomoxys calcitrans: where is this the primary biting fly? stall or in shaded areas
stomoxys calcitrans: where do they breed organic material (moist hay, spilled grain, decaying shavings/manure)
stomoxys calcitrans: mouthparts piercing-sucking
stomoxys calcitrans: where do they feed on host lower limbs usually
stomoxys calcitrans: what do they transmit draschia megastoma, habronema majus, trypanosoma evansi, equine infectious anemia virus
haemotobia irritans: common name horn fly
haemotobia irritans: where do they breed in cattle dung on pasture
haemotobia irritans: mouthparts piercing-scuking
haemotobia irritans: what do they feed on blood; both sexes
haemotobia irritans: iportance irritation causing interruption in grazing
haemotobia irritans: where do they spend their time? on the host
haemotobia irritans: do they often enter buildings? no = horses in barns are not bothered
cochliomyia hominivorax: common name new world screwworm
cochliomyia hominivorax: host all livestock, horses, pets, humans
cochliomyia hominivorax: where are eggs deposited fresh wound; larvae feed on living tissue
cochliomyia hominivorax: importance eradicated from N america; reportable
cochliomyia hominivorax: control local treatment & application of fly repellents & accurate identificatino of larvae is a legal obligation of veterinarians
blow flies: list them cochliomyia macellaria, phaenicia sericata, phormia regina, lucilia, calliphora
cochliomyia macellaria: common name secondary screwworm
phaenicia sericata: common name green bottle fly
phormia regina: common name black blow fly
blow flies: where do they breed in carrion or infest devitalized tissues, urine or fecal soiled hair
blow flies: where are they a problem pasture, or stable
tabanids: list 3 genuses tabanus, chrysops, hybomitra
tabanus spp: common name horse flies
chrysops spp: common name deer flies
hybomitra spp: common name green heads
tabanids: mouthparts slashing & sponging
tabanids: hosts feed on horses, cattle, deer, etc
tabanids: transmits what? trypanosoma evansi, equine infectious anemia virus
simulium sp: common name? blackflies, buffalo gnats
simulium sp: mouthparts blade-like cutting mouth parts
simulium sp: where do they feed on host prefer host's ears, but will feed on body also
simulium sp: where do they breed flowing water
simulium sp: do they enter barns/stables? rarely
simulium sp: pathogenesis salivary secretions contain toxin which increases capillary permeability; causing death of livestock due to edema of nasal passages & suffocation
simulium sp: most activity is when in the year early spring to summer
simulium sp: what do they transmit venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis
culicoides spp: common name biting midges
culicoides spp: mouthparts blade-like cutting (slashing)
culicoides spp: clinical effect on host assoc w/seasonal dermatitis in horses; some become hypersensitive to culicoides salivary secretions
culicoides spp: where do they feed on host ventral midline; where coarse hairs of mane/tail attach
culicoides spp: when in the year are they active? when during the day? warmer parts of the year; crepuscular & nocturnal periods
culicoides spp: what do they transmit onchocerca
mosquitoes: list the genuses aedes, anopheles, culex
mosquitoes: mouthparts long piercing-sucking
mosquitoes: what do they transmit EEE, WEE, VEE, WNV, Setaria equi
lice: class? insecta
lice: host specificity? host specific - yeach host has its own species of lice
lice: when in the year are they more active winter or cool season problem, when hair coats are longer
lice: life cycle incomplete metamorphosis
lice :what life stages occur on host? all
lice: how are they transmitted? direct contact
bovicola equi: common name horse chewing louse
bovicola equi: what is notable? only species of biting lice encountered on horses
bovicola equi: life cycle incomplete metamorphosis
bovicola equi: clinical effect to host pruritus with rubbing of hair onto fences, feeders, trees
haematopinus asini: common name horse & donkey sucking louse
haematopinus asini: effect on host unthriftiness, rough hair coat, irritation
haematopinus asini: what do htey feed on blood, lymph
ticks, order ixodidae: common name hard ticks
ticks, order argasidae: common name soft ticks
order ixodidae: where are eggs laid in env't
order ixodidae: what life stages are on the host larvae, nymph, adults
order ixodidae: where do molts occur 1 (molts occur on host) or 3 (molts in env't)
amblyomma: 1 or 3 host 3
amblyomma americanum: common name lone star tick
amblyomma americanum: host large grazin ganimals
amblyomma maculatum: common name gulf coast tick
amblyomma maculatum: where does it feed on host on pinmna of ear of large mammalian hosts
amblyomma maculatum: effect to host vicious biter; extreme pain assoc with bite; one tick will cause a horse to become head shy
amblyomma maculatum: ec threshhold 1 tick
amblyomma maculatum: control ear tags
amblyomma cajennense: common name cayenne tick
amblyomma cajennense: geography s texas to s america
amblyomma cajennense: host horses, cattle, sheep, goats, deer
amblyomma cajennense: where are they found on host dewlap, axilla, udder/scrotum, escutchon
amblyomma cajennense: vector of what Babesia (theileria) equi
amblyomma cajennense: whne are they active march - may
dermacentor: 1 or 3 host ? 1 or 3
dermacentor albipictus: common name winter tick
dermacentor albipictus: host horses, cattle, deer
dermacentor albipictus: one or 3 host one
dermacentor albipictus: when are they active november to spring
dermacentor albipictus: geography western US
dermacentor albipictus: vector of what equine babesiosis (Babesia caballi)
dermacentor (anocentor) nitens: common name tropical horse tick
dermacentor (anocentor) nitens: one or 3 host one
dermacentor (anocentor) nitens: geography lower rio grande valley of TX, will survive in other parts of the state during the summer
dermacentor (anocentor) nitens: host horse
dermacentor (anocentor) nitens: where is it found on host ear canal, feeds on pinna; when large numbers present may be seen on eye lids, under mane/tail, around anus
dermacentor (anocentor) nitens: vector of what babesia caballi
dermacentor andersoni: common name rocky mountain wood tick
dermacentor andersoni: one or three host three
dermacentor occidentalis: common name pacific coast tick
dermacentor occidentalis: 1 or 3 host 3
dermacentor occidentalis: what stages on host adults only
dermacentor variablis: common name american dog tick
dermacentor variablis: 1 or 3 host 3
dermacentor variablis: host nymphs/adults usually feed on small wildlife, dogs, cats, humans; occ horses
dermacentor variablis: transmits what Babesia equi, Babesia caballi (transstadial transmission)
ixodes: one or three host three
ixodes: hosts larvae/nymph feed on small animals; adults feed on large animals
ixodes scapularis: common name black-legged tick or deer tick
ixodes scapularis: when are they active wintr, spring
ixodes scapularis: vector of what Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
otobius megnini: common name spinose ear tick
otobius megnini: hosts livestock, pets, wild mammals
otobius megnini: what stages live on host larvae/nymphs parasitic, adults live off host
otobius megnini: where are they found on host larvae/nymphs found deep in ear canal
otobius megnini: effect to host otitis media/externa; muscle fasciculation & colic
mites: list 4 that affect horses demodex equi, chorioptes equi, psoroptes cuniculi, sarcoptes scabiei
general mite life cycle egg to egg 3 wks; all stages on host: adult - egg - larva - nymph
mite: what stages on host all stage
mites: survival off host? 15-20 days in cool moist conditions
otobius megnini: when are they active? where? cool areas & during winter
demodex equi: host horse
demodex equi: clinical signs develop in pustules
chorioptes equi: clinical signs leg mange; foot stamping, greasy heel
chorioptes equi: where are they found feathered area of fetlock on draft hroses
psoroptes cuniculi: where are they found ears of horses, goats, rabbits
psoroptes cuniculi: clinical signs head sensitivity, swelling at base of ear, brownish exudate, white specks moving on surface of ear
sarcoptes scabiei: type of mite? burroiwng
sarcoptes scabiei: host specificity? strains are host-specific & will not reproduce on other hosts, but can infest other hosts & illicit pruritic response (cavalryman's itch)
what age of horse is more likely to have more parasites young - less experience in developing a protective response
parasites most likley found in foals parascaris, strongyloides, eimeria
what are horses on pasture exposed to that horses in stall aren't free-living stages of parasites acquired by grazing
stalled horses have greater exposure to what? intermediate host flies w/Habronema infecitons & eggs such as oxyuris
what does composting feces do kill worms, eggs, fly larvae
what do dung beetles & birds do shred feces, destroying large #s of developing larvae
strategies for anthelmintic use periodic deworming at set interval (selects for resistance), strategic deworming when majority of parasite population is in horse, not on pasture; only Tx those w/high egg counts
list some management practices to lessen parasite exposure sanitation, collect feces 2x/wk; stack manure; scatter manure; rotate pastures; prevent overcrowding; better nutrition; mixed grazing w/ruminants; improve husbandry; separate age groups; use anthelmintics until they don't work, then change
Created by: shelbell8389



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